Senior Wrangler (University of Cambridge)

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The Senior Wrangler, achiever of "academic supremacy", is admitted to his degree, 1842
In accordance with tradition, results of the Mathematical Tripos are thrown from the Senate House balcony, 2005

The Senior Wrangler is the top mathematics undergraduate at Cambridge University in England, a position once regarded as "the greatest intellectual achievement attainable in Britain."[1]

Specifically, it is the person who achieves the highest overall mark among the Wranglers – the students at Cambridge who gain first-class degrees in mathematics. The Cambridge undergraduate mathematics course, or Mathematical Tripos, is famously difficult.

Many Senior Wranglers have become world-leading figures in mathematics, physics, and other fields. They include George Airy, John Herschel, Arthur Cayley, James Inman, George Stokes, Isaac Todhunter, Morris Pell, Lord Rayleigh, Arthur Eddington, J. E. Littlewood, Frank Ramsey, Donald Coxeter, Jacob Bronowski, Kevin Buzzard and Ben Green.

Senior Wranglers were once fêted with torchlit processions and took pride of place in the University's graduation ceremony.[2] Years in Cambridge were often remembered by who had been Senior Wrangler that year.[1]

The annual ceremony in which the Senior Wrangler becomes known was first held in the 18th century. Standing on the balcony of the University's Senate House, the examiner reads out the class results for mathematics,[3] and printed copies of the results are then thrown to the audience below. He no longer announces the students' exact rankings, but he still identifies the Senior Wrangler, nowadays by tipping his academic hat when he reads out the person's name.

Others who finished in the top 12[edit]

The difficulty of the examinations is illustrated by the identities of some of those who have performed well, but less well than the Senior Wrangler.

Those who have achieved second place, known as Second Wranglers, include Alfred Marshall (1865), James Clerk Maxwell, J. J. Thomson, and Lord Kelvin.

Those who have finished between third and 12th include Karl Pearson and William Henry Bragg (third), George Green and G. H. Hardy (fourth), Adam Sedgwick (fifth), John Venn (sixth), Bertrand Russell and Nevil Maskelyne (seventh), Thomas Malthus (ninth), and John Maynard Keynes (12th).

History[edit]

Between 1748 and 1909, the University publicly announced the ranking,[4] which was then reported in newspapers such as The Times. The examination was considered to be by far the most important in Britain and the Empire. The prestige of being a high Wrangler was great; the respect accorded to the Senior Wrangler was immense. Andrew Warwick, author of Masters of Theory, describes the term 'Senior Wrangler' as "synonymous with academic supremacy".[5]

Since 1910, successful students in the examinations have been told their rankings privately, and not all Senior Wranglers have become publicly known as such.

The youngest person to be Senior Wrangler is probably Arran Fernandez, who came top in 2013, aged 18 years and 0 months.[6] The previous youngest was probably James Wilkinson in 1939, aged 19 years and 9 months.[7] The youngest up to 1909 were Alfred Flux in 1887, aged 20 years and 2 months[8] and Peter Tait in 1852, aged 20 years and 8 months.[9]

Two individuals have placed first without becoming known as Senior Wrangler. One was the student Philippa Fawcett in 1890. At that time, although the University allowed women to take the examinations, it did not allow them to be members of the University, nor to receive degrees. Therefore they could not be known as 'Wranglers', and were merely told how they had performed compared to the male candidates, for example, "equal to the Third Wrangler", or "between the Seventh and Eighth Wranglers". Having gained the highest mark, Fawcett was declared to have finished "above the Senior Wrangler".

The other was the mathematics professor George Pólya. Having contributed to reforming the Tripos with the aim that an excellent performance would be less dependent on solving hard problems and more so on showing a broad mathematical understanding and knowledge, G H Hardy asked Pólya to sit the examinations himself, unofficially, during his stay in England in 1924–5. Pólya did so, and to Hardy's surprise, received the highest mark, an achievement which, had he been a student, would have made him the Senior Wrangler.[10]

Derived uses of the term[edit]

Senior Wrangler's Walk is a path in Cambridge, the walk to and along which was considered to be sufficient constitutional exercise for a student aspiring to become the Senior Wrangler. The route was shorter than other walks, such as Wranglers' Walk and the Grantchester Grind, undertaken by undergraduates whose aspirations were lower.[11]

Senior Wrangler sauce is a Cambridge term for brandy butter, a type of hard sauce made from brandy, butter, and sugar, traditionally served in Britain with Christmas pudding and warm mince pies.[12]

Senior Wrangler is also the name of a solitaire card game, alternatively known as Mathematics and Double Calculation, played with two decks of cards and involving elementary modular arithmetic.[13][14]

Literary references[edit]

Fictional Senior Wranglers appearing in novels include Roger Hamley, a character in Elizabeth Gaskell's Wives and Daughters, and Tom Jericho, the cryptanalyst in Robert Harris's novel Enigma, who is described as having been Senior Wrangler in 1938.

In George Bernard Shaw's play Mrs. Warren's Profession, the title character's daughter Vivie is praised for "tieing with the third wrangler," and she comments that "the mathematical tripos" means "grind, grind, grind for six to eight hours a day at mathematics, and nothing but mathematics."

In Ford Madox Ford's Parade's End, the character Christopher Tietjens is described as having settled deliberately for only being Second Wrangler, in order to avoid the weight of expectation that the title would create.

In his Discworld series of novels, Terry Pratchett has a character called the Senior Wrangler, a faculty member at the Unseen University, whose first name is Horace.

The compiler of crosswords for The Leader in the 1930s used 'Senior Wrangler' as a pseudonym.[15]

Coaches[edit]

The two most successful 19th-century coaches of Senior Wranglers were William Hopkins and Edward Routh. Hopkins, the 'Senior Wrangler Maker', who himself was the 7th Wrangler, coached 17 Senior Wranglers. Routh, who had himself been the Senior Wrangler, coached 27.[16]

Senior Wranglers and runners up, 1748–1909[edit]

During 1748–1909, the top two colleges in terms of number of Senior Wranglers were Trinity and St John's with 56 and 54 respectively. Gonville and Caius was third with 13.

William Paley, Senior Wrangler, 1763.
Sir Frederick Pollock, 1st Baronet, Senior Wrangler, 1806.
John Herschel, Senior Wrangler, 1813.
George Biddell Airy, Senior Wrangler, 1823.
George Gabriel Stokes, Senior Wrangler, 1841.
Arthur Cayley, Senior Wrangler, 1842.
John Couch Adams, Senior Wrangler, 1843.
Isaac Todhunter, Senior Wrangler, 1848.
Peter Guthrie Tait, who at 20 years 8 months in 1852 was younger than all previous Senior Wranglers.
Edward Routh, Senior Wrangler in 1854 and coach to many subsequent Senior Wranglers.
John Strutt, 3rd Baron Rayleigh, Senior Wrangler, 1865.
Donald MacAlister, Senior Wrangler, 1877. The postcard portrait is a sign of the fame associated with the position of Senior Wrangler.
Philippa Fawcett, ranked "above the Senior Wrangler" in 1890.
Thomas John I'Anson Bromwich, Senior Wrangler, 1895.
Arthur Eddington, Senior Wrangler, 1904
Peter Swinnerton-Dyer, Senior Wrangler in the 1940s
Jayant Narlikar, Senior Wrangler, 1959
Lee Hsien Loong, Senior Wrangler, 1973
Kevin Buzzard, Senior Wrangler, 1990
Ben Joseph Green, Senior Wrangler, 1998
Year Senior Wrangler(s)[17][note 1] College Proxime Accessit College
1748 Bates, JohnJohn Bates Gonville and Caius John Cranwell Sidney Sussex
1749 Greene, JohnJohn Greene Corpus Christi Francis Coventry Magdalene
1750 William Hazeland St John's John Gooch Gonville and Caius
1751 John Hewthwaite Christ's William Cardale Pembroke
1752 Henry Best Magdalene John Cay Clare
1753 William Disney Trinity William Preston Trinity
1754 William Abbot St John's Samuel Hallifax Jesus
1755 Thomas Castley Jesus John Hatsell Queens'
1756 John Webster Corpus Christi William Bearcroft Peterhouse
1757 Waring, EdwardEdward Waring Magdalene Jebb, JohnJohn Jebb Peterhouse
1758 Thorp, RobertRobert Thorp Peterhouse Wollaston, GeorgeGeorge Wollaston Sidney Sussex
1759 Joshua Massey St John's Watson, RichardRichard Watson Trinity
1760 George Cross Clare Anthony Hamilton Corpus Christi
1761 Wilson, JohnJohn Wilson Peterhouse Timothy Lowten St John's
1762 Richard Haighton Christ's Jeremiah Pemberton Pembroke
1763 Paley, WilliamWilliam Paley Christ's Frere, JohnJohn Frere Gonville and Caius
1764 Luke Heslop Corpus Christi John Fairfax Francklin Emmanuel
1765 John White Gonville and Caius John Clement Ives Gonville and Caius
1766 William Arnald St John's John Law Christ's
1767 Turner, JosephJoseph Turner Pembroke George Dutens Queens'
1768 Kipling, ThomasThomas Kipling St John's George Fielding Trinity
1769 Parkinson, ThomasThomas Parkinson Christ's William Burslem St John's
1770 Lewis Hughes St John's William Smith St John's
1771 Thomas Starkie St John's Roger Kedington Gonville and Caius
1772 Tomline, George PretymanGeorge Pretyman Tomline Pembroke Mark Anthony Stephenson Clare
1773 John Jelland Brundish Gonville and Caius George Whitmore St John's
1774 Milner, IsaacIsaac Milner Queens' George Mounsey Peterhouse
1775 Vince, SamuelSamuel Vince Gonville and Caius William Henry (or Henry William) Coulthurst St John's
1776 Oldershaw, JohnJohn Oldershaw Emmanuel Wakefield, GilbertGilbert Wakefield Jesus
1777 Owen, DavidDavid Owen Trinity Thomas Cautley Trinity
1778 Farish, WilliamWilliam Farish Magdalene William Taylor Emmanuel
1779 Jones, ThomasThomas Jones Trinity Marsh, HerbertHerbert Marsh[note 2] St John's
1780 St John Priest Pembroke Frend, WilliamWilliam Frend Christ's
1781 Ainslie, HenryHenry Ainslie Pembroke Montague Farrer Ainslie & George Henry Law Trinity & Queens'
1782 Wood, JamesJames Wood St John's Hailstone, JohnJohn Hailstone Trinity
1783 Wollaston, Francis John HydeFrancis John Hyde Wollaston Sidney Sussex Richard Buck Magdalene
1784 Ingram, Robert AcklomRobert Acklom Ingram Queens' John Holden Sidney Sussex
1785 Lax, WilliamWilliam Lax Trinity John Dudley Clare
1786 Bell, JohnJohn Bell Trinity Edward Otter Jesus
1787 Littledale, JosephJoseph Littledale St John's Algernon Frampton St John's
1788 Brinkley, JohnJohn Brinkley Gonville and Caius Edmund Outram St John's
1789 William Millers St John's Joseph Bewsher Trinity
1790 Bridge, BewickBewick Bridge Peterhouse Fletcher Raincock Pembroke
1791 Daniel Mitford Peacock Trinity Gooch, WilliamWilliam Gooch Gonville and Caius
1792 John Palmer St John's George Frederick Tavel Trinity
1793 Thomas Harrison Queens' Thomas Strickland Trinity
1794 Butler, GeorgeGeorge Butler Sidney Sussex Copley, John SingletonJohn Singleton Copley Trinity
1795 Woodhouse, RobertRobert Woodhouse Gonville and Caius William Atthill Gonville and Caius
1796 Kempthorne, JohnJohn Kempthorne St John's William Dealtry Trinity
1797 Hudson, JohnJohn Hudson Trinity John Lowthian Trinity
1798 Thomas Sowerby Trinity Robert Martin Trinity
1799 Boteler, William FullerWilliam Fuller Boteler St John's John Brown Trinity
1800 Inman, JamesJames Inman St John's George D'Oyly Corpus Christi
1801 Martyn, HenryHenry Martyn St John's William Woodall Pembroke
1802 White, Thomas PennyThomas Penny White Queens' John Grisdale Christ's
1803 Starkie, ThomasThomas Starkie St John's Hoare, Charles JamesCharles James Hoare St John's
1804 Kaye, JohnJohn Kaye Christ's William Albin Garratt[18] Trinity
1805 Turton, ThomasThomas Turton St Catharine's Christie, Samuel HunterSamuel Hunter Christie Trinity
1806 Pollock, FrederickFrederick Pollock Trinity Henry Walter St John's
1807 Henry Gipps St John's John Carr Trinity
1808 Henry Bickersteth, 1st Baron Langdale, Henry, Bickersteth[[Henry, Bickersteth Henry Bickersteth, 1st Baron Langdale|Henry, Bickersteth Henry Bickersteth, 1st Baron Langdale]] Gonville and Caius Miles Bland St John's
1809 Alderson, Edward HallEdward Hall Alderson Gonville and Caius John Standly Gonville and Caius
1810 Maule, William HenryWilliam Henry Maule Trinity Brandreth, Thomas ShawThomas Shaw Brandreth Trinity
1811 Dicey, Thomas EdwardThomas Edward Dicey Trinity William French Caius
1812 Neale, CorneliusCornelius Neale St John's Joseph William Jordan Trinity
1813 Herschel, JohnJohn Herschel St John's Peacock, GeorgeGeorge Peacock Trinity
1814 Richard Gwatkin St John's Henry Wilkinson St John's
1815 Charles George Frederick Leicester Trinity Frederick Calvert Jesus
1816 Jacob, EdwardEdward Jacob Gonville and Caius Whewell, WilliamWilliam Whewell Trinity
1817 John Thomas Austen St John's Chevallier, TempleTemple Chevallier Pembroke
1818 Shaw-Lefevre, John GeorgeJohn George Shaw-Lefevre Trinity John Hind St John's
1819 King, JoshuaJoshua King Queens' George Miles Cooper St John's
1820 Coddington, HenryHenry Coddington Trinity Watkin Maddy St John's
1821 Solomon Atkinson Trinity Melvill, HenryHenry Melvill St John's
1822 Hamnett Holditch Gonville and Caius Mitford Peacock Corpus Christi
1823 Airy, George BiddellGeorge Biddell Airy Trinity Charles Jeffreys St John's
1824[19] John Cowling St John's James Bowstead Corpus Christi
1825 Challis, JamesJames Challis Trinity William Williamson Clare
1826 William Law Trinity Hymers, JohnJohn Hymers[20] St John's
1827 Gordon, Henry PercyHenry Percy Gordon Peterhouse Thomas Turner Trinity
1828 Perry, CharlesCharles Perry Trinity John Baily St John's
1829 Philpott, HenryHenry Philpott St Catharine's Cavendish, WilliamWilliam Cavendish Trinity
1830 Charles Thomas Whitley St John's James William Lucas Heaviside Sidney Sussex
1831 Earnshaw, SamuelSamuel Earnshaw St John's Thomas Gaskin St John's
1832 Douglas Denon Heath Trinity Laing, SamuelSamuel Laing St John's
1833 Alexander Ellice Gonville and Caius Joseph Bowstead Pembroke
1834 Kelland, PhilipPhilip Kelland Queens' Birks, Thomas RawsonThomas Rawson Birks Trinity
1835 Cotterill, HenryHenry Cotterill St John's Goulburn, HenryHenry Goulburn[note 3] Trinity
1836 Smith, ArchibaldArchibald Smith Trinity Colenso, John WilliamJohn William Colenso St John's
1837 William Nathaniel Griffin St John's Sylvester, James JosephJames Joseph Sylvester St John's
1838 Thomas John Main St John's James George Mould Corpus Christi
1839 Cowie, Benjamin MorganBenjamin Morgan Cowie St John's Frost, PercivalPercival Frost St John's
1840 Ellis, Robert LeslieRobert Leslie Ellis Trinity Harvey Goodwin Caius
1841 Stokes, George GabrielGeorge Gabriel Stokes Pembroke Henry Cadman Jones Trinity
1842 Cayley, ArthurArthur Cayley Trinity Charles Turner Simpson St John's
1843 Adams, John CouchJohn Couch Adams St John's Francis Bashforth St John's
1844 George Wirgman Hemming St John's William Bonner Hopkins Gonville and Caius
1845 Parkinson, StephenStephen Parkinson St John's Thomson, WilliamWilliam Thomson[note 4] Peterhouse
1846 Lewis Hensley Trinity John Alfred Airey (or Lumb) Pembroke
1847 William Parkinson Wilson St John's Robert Walker Trinity
1848 Todhunter, IsaacIsaac Todhunter St John's Charles Mackenzie Gonville and Caius
1849 Morris Birkbeck Pell St John's Henry Carlyon Phear Gonville and Caius
1850 William Henry Besant Corpus Christi Watson, Henry WilliamHenry William Watson Trinity
1851 Ferrers, Norman MacleodNorman Macleod Ferrers Gonville and Caius William Charles Evans St John's
1852 Tait, Peter GuthriePeter Guthrie Tait Peterhouse William John Steele Peterhouse
1853 Thomas Bond Sprague St John's Robert Braithwaite Batty Emmanuel
1854 Routh, EdwardEdward Routh[note 5] Peterhouse Maxwell, James ClerkJames Clerk Maxwell Peterhouse & Trinity
1855 James Savage St John's Courtney, LeonardLeonard Courtney St John's
1856 Hadley, Augustus VaughtonAugustus Vaughton Hadley St John's Rigby, JohnJohn Rigby Trinity
1857 Gerard Brown Finch Queens' Thomas Savage Pembroke
1858 George Middleton Slesser Queens' Charles Abercrombie Smith Peterhouse
1859 Wilson, James MauriceJames Maurice Wilson St John's Frederick Brown & Anthony William Wilson Steel Trinity & Gonville and Caius
1860 Stirling, JamesJames Stirling Trinity Walter Baily St John's
1861 William Steadman Aldis Trinity John Bond Magdalene
1862 Thomas Barker Trinity John George Laing St John's
1863 Romer, RobertRobert Romer Trinity Hall Leeke, Edward TuckerEdward Tucker Leeke Trinity
1864 Henry John Purkiss Trinity William Peverill Turnbull Trinity
1865 Strutt, JohnJohn Strutt Trinity Marshall, AlfredAlfred Marshall St John's
1866 Robert Morton Peterhouse Thomas Steadman Aldis Trinity
1867 Charles Niven Trinity Clifford, William KingdonWilliam Kingdon Clifford Trinity
1868 Moulton, John FletcherJohn Fletcher Moulton St John's Darwin, GeorgeGeorge Darwin Trinity
1869 Hartog, Numa EdwardNuma Edward Hartog[note 6] Trinity John Eliot St John's
1870 Pendlebury, RichardRichard Pendlebury St John's Greenhill, Alfred GeorgeAlfred George Greenhill St John's
1871 Hopkinson, JohnJohn Hopkinson Trinity Glaisher, James Whitbread LeeJames Whitbread Lee Glaisher Trinity
1872 Robert Rumsey Webb St John's Lamb, HoraceHorace Lamb Trinity
1873 Thomas Oliver Harding Trinity Edward John Nanson Trinity
1874 George Constantine Calliphronas Gonville and Caius Ball, W. W. RouseW. W. Rouse Ball Trinity
1875 John William Lord Trinity Burnside, WilliamWilliam Burnside & George Chrystal Pembroke & Peterhouse
1876 Joseph Timmis Ward St John's William Loudon Mollison Clare
1877 MacAlister, DonaldDonald MacAlister St John's Frederic Brian De Malbisse Gibbons Gonville and Caius
1878 Hobson, E. W.E. W. Hobson Christ's John Edward Aloysius Steggall Trinity
1879 Andrew James Campbell Allen Peterhouse George Francis Walker Queens'
1880 Larmor, JosephJoseph Larmor St John's Thomson, J. J.J. J. Thomson Trinity
1881 Forsyth, AndrewAndrew Forsyth[note 7] Trinity Robert Samuel Heath Trinity
1882[22] Robert Alfred Herman Trinity John Shapland Yeo St John's
1882[note 8] William Welsh Jesus Turner, Herbert HallHerbert Hall Turner Trinity
1883 Mathews, George BallardGeorge Ballard Mathews St John's Edward Gurner Gallop Trinity
1884 Sheppard, William FleetwoodWilliam Fleetwood Sheppard Trinity Walter Percy Workman Trinity
1885 Arthur Berry King's Love, Augustus Edward HoughAugustus Edward Hough Love St John's
1886 Dixon, Alfred CardewAlfred Cardew Dixon Trinity William Charles Fletcher St John's
1887 Baker, H. F.H. F. Baker, Sir Alfred William Flux, John Henry Michell & John Cyril Iles St John's, St John's, Trinity & Trinity James Bennet Peace Emmanuel
1888 Orr, William McFaddenWilliam McFadden Orr St John's William Edwin Brunyate Trinity
1889 Walker, GilbertGilbert Walker Trinity Dyson, Frank WatsonFrank Watson Dyson Trinity
1890 "Above the Senior Wrangler" Philippa Fawcett; Geoffrey Thomas Bennett[note 9] Newnham; St John's Hugh William Segar Trinity
1891 James Goodwillie Corpus Christi David Beveridge Mair & Robert Hume Davison Mayall Christ's & Sidney Sussex
1892 Cowell, Philip HerbertPhilip Herbert Cowell Trinity Francis Robert Sharpe Christ's
1893 George Thomas Manley Christ's Gilbert Harrison John Hurst & Charles Percy Sanger King's & Trinity
1894 Walter Sibbald Adie & William Fellows Sedgwick Trinity & Trinity William Edward Philip Clare
1895 Bromwich, Thomas John I'AnsonThomas John I'Anson Bromwich St John's John Hilton Grace & E. T. Whittaker Peterhouse & Trinity
1896 William Garden Fraser Queens' Barnes, Ernest WilliamErnest William Barnes, George Edward St Lawrence Carson & Algernon Charles Legge Wilkinson Trinity, Trinity & Trinity
1897 William Henry Austin Trinity Whipple, Francis John WelshFrancis John Welsh Whipple Trinity
1898 Ronald William Henry Turnbull Hudson St John's John Forbes Cameron & James Hopwood Jeans Gonville and Caius & Trinity
1899 George Birtwhistle & R. P. Paranjpye[note 10] Pembroke & St John's Samuel Bruce McLaren Trinity
1900 Joseph Edmund Wright Trinity Arthur Cyril Webb Aldis Trinity Hall
1901 Alexander Brown Gonville and Caius Herbert Knapman Emmanuel
1902 Cunningham, EbenezerEbenezer Cunningham St John's Frank Slator St John's
1903 Bateman, HarryHarry Bateman & Philip Edward Marrack Trinity & Trinity James Sidney Barnes, Ernest Gold, George Frederic Sowden Hills and Sidney Hill Phillips Trinity, St John's, Trinity and St John's
1904 Eddington, Arthur StanleyArthur Stanley Eddington[note 11] Trinity G. R. Blanco-White Trinity
1905 Littlewood, John EdensorJohn Edensor Littlewood & James Mercer Trinity & Trinity H. Smith Trinity Hall
1906 Arunachala Tyaga Rajan & Clarence John Threlkeld Sewell Trinity & Trinity W. J. Harrison Clare
1907 Watson, G. N.G. N. Watson Trinity Herbert Westren Turnbull Trinity
1908 Brodetsky, SeligSelig Brodetsky & A. W. Ibbotson Trinity & Pembroke H. Minson Christ's
1909 Daniell, Percy JohnPercy John Daniell Trinity E. H. Neville Trinity

Senior Wranglers since 1910[edit]

Year Senior Wrangler College
1914 Brian Charles Molony[24] Trinity
1928 Donald Coxeter[25] Trinity
1930 Bronowski, JacobJacob Bronowski[26] Jesus
1939 James Wilkinson[27] Trinity
1940 Bondi, HermannHermann Bondi[28] Trinity
1952 Polkinghorne, JohnJohn Polkinghorne[citation needed] Trinity
1953 Nash-Williams, CrispinCrispin Nash-Williams[29] Trinity Hall
1959 Jayant Narlikar[30] non-collegiate
1970 Derek Wanless[31] King's
1973 Lee Hsien Loong[32][33] Trinity
1985 Nick Mee[34] Trinity
1990 Buzzard, KevinKevin Buzzard[35] Trinity
1998 Green, Ben JosephBen Joseph Green[36] Trinity
2000 Toby Gee[37][38] Trinity
2001 Ganesalingam, MohanMohan Ganesalingam[39] Trinity
2007 Paul Jefferys[40] Trinity
2008 Le Hung Viet Bao[41] Trinity
2009 Thomas Beck[42] Trinity Hall
2011 Sean Eberhard[43][44] Gonville and Caius
2012 Sean Moss[45] Trinity
2013 Arran Fernandez[6][46] Fitzwilliam
2014 Yang Li[47] Downing

Senior Wranglers since 1910 also include:

  • David Hobson[48] (Christ's College) (1940s)
  • Peter Swinnerton-Dyer[49] (Trinity College) (1940s)
  • Michael Hall[50] (Trinity College) (1950s)
  • Colin Myerscough[51] (Churchill College) (1960s)

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ In years where there was a tie, individuals tied have been shown as Senior Wrangler, with the next placed candidate(s) as Proxime Accessit; strictly speaking, if n individuals are tied as Senior Wrangler, any runner up is (n+1)-st Wrangler .
  2. ^ Thomas Jones, the Senior Wrangler that year, acted as his tutor.
  3. ^ Also senior classic.
  4. ^ According to legend, Kelvin was so confident he had come top that he asked his servant to run to the Senate House and check who the Second Wrangler was. The servant returned and told him, "You, sir"! Kelvin was reportedly beaten largely on the basis of Parkinson's superior exam technique. The result was reversed in the Smith Prize.
  5. ^ Routh found more fame subsequently as a coach of other Senior Wranglers. Indeed for twenty-two consecutive years from 1862, one of his pupils was Senior Wrangler, and he coached twenty-seven in all. His first pupil in 1856 was Third Wrangler, and in 1858 both the Senior and Second Wrangler were coached by him.[21]
  6. ^ First Jewish Senior Wrangler. A special grace was passed to allow him to be graduated using a special form of the wording in order to not offend his religious beliefs.
  7. ^ Forsyth was one of the men who were principally responsible for the reform of the Tripos system that led to the end of the Tripos ranking.
  8. ^ Regulations were changed to split the class list into Parts I & II, and Part III. The examinations for the former were held in June and retained the ordered class list (in contrast to Part III), so two sets of results exist for this year.
  9. ^ Actually placed second to Philippa Fawcett.
  10. ^ First Indian Senior Wrangler.
  11. ^ Eddington was the first person to be Senior Wrangler after only two years of study.[23]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Forfar, David (1996). "What became of the Senior Wranglers?". Mathematical Spectrum 29 (1). 
  2. ^ Moore, Gregory (2005). "Masters of Theory and its Relevance to the History of Economic Thought". History of Economics Review 42 (2): 77–99. 
  3. ^ "Peter Guthrie Tait". 
  4. ^ Craik, A.D.D. (2007). Mr Hopkins' Men. Springer London. doi:10.1007/978-1-84628-791-6. ISBN 978-1-84628-790-9. 
  5. ^ Warwick, Andrew (2003). Masters of Theory: Cambridge and the Rise of Mathematical Physics. University Of Chicago Press. p. 205. ISBN 0-226-87375-7. 
  6. ^ a b "Student, 18, youngest ever to come top in Cambridge maths finals". Daily Telegraph. 21 June 2013. 
  7. ^ Wilkinson, James H. Hammarling, Sven (2003). Encyclopedia of Computer Science. Springer London. ISBN 0-470-86412-5. 
  8. ^ "To the Editor of the Spectator". The Spectator. 24 June 1899. Retrieved 6 December 2013. 
  9. ^ Crilly, Tony (2006). Arthur Cayley: mathematician laureate of the Victorian age. Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 160. ISBN 0-8018-8011-4. 
  10. ^ Alexanderson, Gerald L. (2000). The random walks of George Pólya. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 68. 
  11. ^ Shapin, Stephen; Lawrence, Christopher, eds. (1998). Science incarnate: historical embodiments of natural knowledge. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. p. 303. ISBN 0-226-47014-8. 
  12. ^ "Brandy butter". Retrieved 2011-12-09. 
  13. ^ Coops, Helen L (1939). 100 Games of Solitaire (Complete with layouts for playing). Whitman Publishing Company. p. 205. 
  14. ^ Goren, Charles Henry (1961). Goren's Hoyle Encyclopedia of Games: With Official Rules and Pointers on Play, Including the Latest Laws of Contract Bridge. Greystone Press. p. 643. 
  15. ^ "Senior Wrangler" of the Leader (1932). The Handy Crossword Companion. Odhams Press. 
  16. ^ Davis, Ted; Stuerwer, Roger; Aris, Rutherford (ed.) (1983–2005). Springs of Scientific Creativity: Essays on Founders of Modern Science. University of Minnesota Press. p. 164. 
  17. ^ Neale, Charles Montague (1907). The senior wranglers of the University of Cambridge, from 1748 to 1907. With biographical, & c., notes. Bury St. Edmunds: Groom and Son. 
  18. ^ It appears that '22nd wrangler' in the entry for William Albin Garratt in Venn. "Garratt, William Albin (GRT800WA)". A Cambridge Alumni Database. University of Cambridge.  is a misprint for '2nd wrangler'; cf Neale, Charles Montague (1907), The Senior Wranglers of the University of Cambridge, from 1748 to 1907: With Biographical, etc., Notes (Bury St. Edmunds: F.T. Groom and Son; 61pp), p. 26; at all events, Garratt took the First Smith's Prize in 1804, with the Senior Wrangler, Kaye, placing Second, although Kaye also took the Senior Classical Medal (for reference without prejudice, at the time, other things being equal, undergraduates at Trinity were given preference for the Smith's Prizes)
  19. ^ Classical Tripos established.
  20. ^ Founded Hymers College.
  21. ^ O'Connor, J. J.; Robertson, E. F. (October 2003). "Routh biography". Retrieved 6 July 2013. 
  22. ^ An account exists of the 1882 graduation ceremony. "University Intelligence". The Times. 30 January 1882. Retrieved 2008-09-25. 
  23. ^ Hutchinson, Ian H. (December 2002). "Astrophysics and Mysticism: the life of Arthur Stanley Eddington". Retrieved 2008-09-25. 
  24. ^ "Brian Charles Molony (1892-1963)". Retrieved 6 July 2013. 
  25. ^ "Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society". Royal Society. Retrieved 6 July 2013. 
  26. ^ Bronowski's biography at the MacTutor History of Mathematics Archive: "Jacob Bronowski". University of St Andrews. Retrieved 6 July 2013. 
  27. ^ Wilkinson's biography at the MacTutor History of Mathematics Archive: "James Hardy Wilkinson". University of St Andrews. Retrieved 6 July 2013. 
  28. ^ "Oral History Transcript — Dr. Hermann Bondi". American Institute of Physics. Retrieved 6 July 2013. 
  29. ^ "Crispin St John Alvah Nash-Williams". University of St Andrews. Retrieved 6 July 2013. 
  30. ^ Mitton, Simon (2005). Fred Hoyle: A Life in Science. Aurum. p. 275. ISBN 978-1-85410-961-3. 
  31. ^ "Profile: Banking's boy wonder: Derek Wanless - NatWest's chief has a personal touch but a pragmatic vision, says William Kay". Independent. 27 March 1994. 
  32. ^ Kuan Yew, Lee (2000). From Third World to First: The Singapore Story: 1965-2000. Harper. pp. 750–751. ISBN 978-0-06019-776-6. 
  33. ^ Neo Hui Min (12 August 2004). "Dennis Marrian, University Tutor". Straits Times. Retrieved 2 June 2013. 
  34. ^ "Whirlpool numbers". Plus Magazine. Retrieved 6 July 2013. 
  35. ^ "CV of Kevin Buzzard". Retrieved 16 September 2014. 
  36. ^ "Mathematical biography of Ben Green". Clay Mathematics Institute. Retrieved 2011-01-06. 
  37. ^ "Toby Gee". Retrieved 2011-01-06. 
  38. ^ Timothy Gowers. "Answers, results of polls, and a brief description of the program". Retrieved 2013-05-11. 
  39. ^ "The Next Generation of Proof Assistants". Computing Science Department - Radboud University Nijmegen. Retrieved 6 July 2013. 
  40. ^ "Varsity 100". Mercer Management Consulting. Retrieved 2012-08-10. 
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