Sentence spacing in language and style guides

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Main article: Sentence spacing

Sentence spacing guidance is provided in many language and style guides. The majority of style guides that use a Latin-derived alphabet as a language base now prescribe or recommend the use of a single space after the concluding punctuation of a sentence in final written works and publications.[1] Some style guides permit the use of a double space in certain circumstances if preferred by the writer. No known U.S. or international style guide (for languages using a Latin-derived alphabet) currently prescribes the use of a double space after terminal punctuation in final or published work.

Due to widespread controversy regarding proper sentence spacing, notably in languages with Latin-based alphabets, many writers query Internet search engines to determine how many spaces to place between sentences.[2] Although sentence spacing is a matter of typography,[3] many style and language guides offer guidance on proper sentence spacing, providing a standard for adherents to follow.[4]

Historical style guides before the 20th century typically indicated that wider spaces were to be used between sentences.[5] Standard word spaces were about one-third of an em space, but sentences were to be divided by a full em-space. With the arrival of the typewriter in the late 19th century, style guides for writers began diverging from printer's manuals, indicating that writers should double-space between sentences. This held for most of the 20th century until the computer began replacing the typewriter as the primary means of creating text. In the 1990s, style guides reverted to recommending a single-space between sentences. However, instead of a slightly larger sentence space, style guides simply indicated a standard word space. This is now the convention for publishers.

Style guides are important to writers since "virtually all professional editors work closely with one of them in editing a manuscript for publication."[6] Comprehensive style guides, such as the Oxford Style Manual in the United Kingdom and style guides developed by the American Psychological Association, and the Modern Language Association in the United States, provide standards for a wide variety of writing, design, and English language topics—such as grammar, punctuation, and typographic conventions—and are widely used regardless of profession.

Many style guides do not provide guidance on sentence spacing. In some cases, the spacing of the volume or work itself provides an indication on the recommendation for usage of sentence spacing.[7] A lack of guidance on sentence spacing is also notable for style guides in languages which did not adopt double sentence spacing to accommodate the mechanical limitations of the typewriter, and which conform to the current convention for published work, single sentence spacing.[8] Most language guides for languages with prescriptive guidance provided by an academy also do not provide advice on sentence spacing.

Language guides[edit]

Some languages have academies that set language rules. Their publications typically address orthography and grammar as opposed to matters of typography. Style guides are less relevant for these languages since their academies set prescriptive rules. For example, the Académie française publishes the Dictionnaire de l'Académie française for French speakers worldwide[9] Although the 1992 edition does not provide guidance on sentence spacing, its text is single sentence spaced throughout—consistent with historical French spacing. The German language manual Empfehlungen des Rats für Deutsche Rechtschreibung, or "Recommendations of the Council for German Orthography" (2006), does not address sentence spacing.[10] However, the manual itself uses one space after terminal punctuation. This is likely because the double-space convention was not prescribed in historical German language guides. Additionally, the Duden, the German language dictionary most commonly used in Germany,[11] indicates that double sentence spacing is an error.[12] The Duden was the primary orthography and style guide dictionary in Germany until the German orthography reform of 1996 created a multinational council for German orthography for German-speaking countries—composed of experts from Germany, Austria, Liechtenstein and Switzerland. The current version of the Duden reflects the most recent opinions of this council. The Spanish language is similar. The most important body within the Association of Spanish Language Academies, the Real Academia Española, publishes the Diccionario de la Lengua Española, which is viewed as prescriptive for the Spanish language worldwide.[13] The 1999 edition does not provide sentence spacing guidance, but is itself single sentence-spaced.

International style guides[edit]

The European Union's Interinstitutional Style Guide indicates that single sentence spacing is to be used in all European Union publications, encompassing 23 languages.[14] For the English language, the European Commission's English Style Guide states that sentences are always single-spaced.[15] The Style Manual: For Authors, Editors and Printers (2007), first published in 1966 by the Commonwealth Government Printing Office of Australia, stipulates that only one space is used after "sentence-closing punctuation", and that "Programs for word processing and desktop publishing offer more sophisticated, variable spacing, so this practice of double spacing is now avoided because it can create distracting gaps on a page."[16]

National languages not covered by an authoritative language academy typically have multiple style guides—which may not all discuss sentence spacing. This is the case in the United Kingdom. However, the Oxford Style Manual (2003) and the Modern Humanities Research Association's MHRA Style Guide (2002), state that only single spacing should be used.[17] In Canada, both the English and French language sections of the Canadian Style, A Guide to Writing and Editing (1997), prescribe single sentence spacing.[18] In the United States, many style guides—such as The Chicago Manual of Style (2003)—allow only single sentence spacing.[19] A comprehensive style guide for general and academic use in Italy, Il Nuovo Manuale di Stile (2009),[20] does not address sentence spacing, but the Guida di Stile Italiano (2010), the official guide for Microsoft translation, tells users to use single sentence spacing "instead of the double spacing used in the United States".[21]

U.S. government style guides[edit]

The U.S. Government Printing Office (GPO) was authorized by an act of Congress to "determine the form and style of Government Printing".[22] By 1984, the United States Government Printing Office Style Manual had transitioned to directing single sentence spacing.[23] The 2000 and 2008 editions of the Government Printing Office's (GPO) Style Manual are unequivocal in their guidance regarding this convention: "A single justified word space will be used between sentences. This applies to all types of composition." The last known official United States government document to specifically prescribe double spaces after concluding punctuation was a 1959 government style guide. It indicated that sentences should use the em space evenly when typeset, defining a double-space as a synonym for an em space.[24]

General and academic style guides[edit]

The 2003 edition of the Oxford Style Manual combined the Oxford Guide to Style (first published as Hart's Rules in 1893) and the Oxford Dictionary for Writers and Editors ("defines the language of the entire English-speaking world, from North America to South Africa, from Australia and New Zealand to the Caribbean"). It states, "In text, use only a single word space after all sentence punctuation."[25]

The Chicago Manual of Style is a comprehensive and widely used style manual for American English writing, and has been called the "standard of the book publishing industry".[26] The 16th edition, published in 2010, states, "Like most publishers, Chicago advises leaving a single character space, not two spaces, between sentences ... and this recommendation applies to both the manuscript and the published work."[27] Chicago provides further guidance as follows:

Punctuation and space—one space or two? In typeset matter, one space, not two should be used between two sentences—whether the first ends in a period, a question mark, an exclamation point, or a closing quotation mark or parenthesis.[28]

The Turabian Style, published as the Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations, is widely used in academic writing. The 7th Edition, published in 2007, stipulates that the use of periods, question marks, and exclamation points as "terminal punctuation" to end a sentence should be followed by a single space.[29]

Until the early 2000s, the Modern Language Association (MLA) left room for its adherents to single or double sentence space. In 2008, it modified its position on sentence spacing to the following:

In an earlier era, writers using a typewriter commonly left two spaces after a period, a question mark, or an exclamation point. Publications in the United States today usually have the same spacing after concluding punctuation marks as between words on the same line. Since word processors make available the same fonts used by typesetters for printed works, many writers, influenced by the look of typeset publications, now leave only one space after a concluding punctuation mark. In addition, some publishers' guidelines for preparing a manuscript's electronic files ask professional authors to type only the spaces that are to appear in print. Because it is increasingly common for manuscripts to be prepared with a single space after all concluding punctuation marks, this spacing is recommended and shown in the examples in this manual.[30]

Scientific style guides[edit]

APA style[edit]

The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, also known as APA style, is a widely used style guide that is favored by the social sciences in the United States. Although 2009 saw a number of changes and reversals for certain aspects of its style recommendations,[31] the current guidance from the American Psychological Association (APA) as of July 2009 is a recommendation to use two spaces for draft manuscripts and work.[32] This recommendation does not apply "to the published, or final version, of a work", where the spacing convention is determined by the publication designer.[33] Since U.S. publishers of print media typically use the single space convention, this means that drafts prepared with the double-space convention would be converted to the single space convention for final publication.[34] The APA also notes that "the usual convention for published works remains one space after each period",[35] and that the practice of publishers removing extra spaces from a manuscript prior to publication "is a routine part of the manuscript preparation process here at the APA".[36]

Other scientific style guides[edit]

The 2006 edition of the Style Manual for Political Science, published by the American Political Science Association, states that "One space, not two, should follow all punctuation that ends a sentence."[37] The 2nd edition of the American Sociological Association Style Guide, published by the American Sociological Association (ASA), provides guidance to use "only one space after all punctuation–periods and colons should not be followed by two spaces."[38]

Legal style guides[edit]

In the United States, there are a variety of legal writing style guides available. According to The Chicago Manual of Style, The Bluebook is the "most widely used [legal] citation guide" in the United States.[39] The 2006 version of this guide to legal citations does not directly address spacing after the terminal punctuation of a sentence, although it does provide actual citation examples from court documents—some of which are single-spaced and some of which are double sentence spaced. A key statement in this guide, which addresses possible preferential differences between courts that require document submissions, notes that "Many state and federal courts promulgate local citation rules, which take precedence over Bluebook rules in documents submitted to those courts."[40] Various other legal style guides provide non-committal positions on this topic, such as the 2006 version of the ALWD Citation Manual, which has been "widely adopted by law-school writing courses".[41] This guide provides limited coverage on punctuation, referring readers to other style manuals that prescribe single sentence spacing.[42] The Guide to Legal Writing Style (2007) also does not directly address this topic.[43]

Some legal style guides do provide guidance on sentence spacing, such as the 2009 edition of the AP Stylebook and Briefing on Media Law, and the 2006 edition of The Redbook: A Manual on Legal Style—both of which state that a single space follows terminal punctuation.[44] The Redbook provides further details on the use of this convention: "The custom during the reign of the typewriter was to insert two spaces between sentences" due to the use by typewriters of monospaced fonts that are not effective at creating readable text. It indicates that users could continue the use of two spaces if using a typewriter "or the Courier font", and espouses the advantages of widely available proportional fonts which are degraded by the use of two spaces after terminal punctuation.[45] Of the legal style guides listed in this section, all use proportional fonts with a single space between sentences in their text.[46]

Professional style guides[edit]

A number of style guides exist to provide writing standards for various professions. For example, the 2009 edition of the Associated Press Stylebook calls for a single space following the terminal punctuation of a sentence.[47] The Associated Press represents over 300 locations worldwide.[48] For copyeditors, the 2nd edition of the Copyeditor's Handbook: A Guide for Book Publishing and Corporate Communications, published in 2006, states that users should "delete any extra word spacing before or after punctuation marks" and that "The conventions are: One space follows a sentence-ending punctuation mark."[49]

Multiple style guides exist within the United States health care industry. The 2007 edition of the AMA Manual of Style is a comprehensive work which includes a separate section on typography. Although the manual does not provide specific guidance regarding sentence spacing, it provides examples of single-spaced journal pages used for American Medical Association (AMA) publications to show standard AMA elements of design.[50] The 2007 edition of the Health Professional's Style Manual also does not directly address this topic—referring users to specific style manuals such as The Chicago Manual of Style, the APA style manual, and the Elements of Style.[51]

The Gregg Reference Manual is a style manual intended for business professionals. The 1985 edition simply indicated that two spaces were to be used following terminal punctuation.[52] The most recent edition, published in 2005, provides detailed guidance for sentence spacing. Its general guidance indicates that, "The standard for proportional fonts has always been the same: use only one space between the period and the start of the next sentence" and "now that the standards of desktop publishing predominate, the use of only one space after the period is quite acceptable with monospace fonts."[53] However, although the author states that one space is correct in draft manuscripts for typesetting and most other instances, certain specific cases might benefit from additional space between sentences.[54] For example, "As a general rule, use one space at the end of a sentence, but switch to two spaces whenever you feel a stronger visual break between sentences is needed." The manual identifies specific instances when only one space is to be used between sentences such as "If you are preparing manuscript on a computer and the file will be used for typesetting, use only one space and ignore the issue of visual appearance." The manual indicates that writers should also "Use only one space if the text will have justified margins," and "If the manuscript has already been typed with two spaces at the end of every sentence, use the Replace function to change two spaces to one space throughout." The author adds the caveat that in certain instances a writer may want to use two spaces between sentences. The examples given are: when one space "may not provide a clear visual break between sentences," if an abbreviation is used at the end of a sentence, or when some very small proportional fonts (such as 10-point Times New Roman) are used. The manual clearly places an emphasis on the use of white space to create a pleasing document by noting spacing rules that differ from current norms such as the use of two spaces before opening a parenthesis, after closing quotation marks, and after opening single quotation marks inside of sentences.[55]

There are a variety of guides used by screenwriters. Some of these works identify the Courier 12-point font as the industry "standard" for manuscripts, such as the Screenwriter's Bible: A Complete Guide to Writing, Formatting, and Selling Your Script.[56] Other works on screenwriting—such as Screenplay: Writing the Picture—indicate that proportional fonts may be used.[57] Moira Anderson Allen suggests that publishers are more interested in readable fonts as opposed to maintaining a monospaced font standard.[58] All of these works illustrate single sentence spacing in their manuscript examples, regardless of font type.

Other style guides[edit]

There are various works that provide design guidance for websites. The 2008 edition of the Web Style Guide does not discuss spacing after the terminal punctuation of a sentence, although it provides a chapter on typography. In this section, the authors assert that "the basic rules of typography are much the same for both web pages and conventional print documents."[59] Although the guide does not specifically recommend against the use of monospaced fonts, only proportional fonts are presented as "common screen fonts" and those "designed for the screen".[60] Finally, although HTML ignores additional spacing after the terminal punctuation of a sentence, the authors caution against custom fonts and typefaces because most users' browsers will default to a font defined by their operating system.[61]

A number of style guides do not provide guidance on this convention, especially those that are smaller in scope and rely on other, more comprehensive style guides to provide a framework. However, some of these style guides are well-known, including the 4th edition of Strunk and White's The Elements of Style, a widely used general style guide, which is silent in reference to typography and spacing between sentences.[62] Other U.S. style guides that do not address sentence spacing include, Scientific Style And Format: The CSE Manual for Authors, Editors, And Publishers,[63] the AMA Manual of Style,[64] the Wall Street Journal Essential Guide to Business Style and Usage (2002),[65] the New York Times Manual of Style and Usage,[66] REA's Handbook of English Grammar, Style, and Writing (2009),[67] and the American Sociological Society Style Guide (2007).[68] In the United Kingdom, the Economist Style Guide (2005), Guardian Style Guide, and the Times Style Guide also provide no guidance on this topic.[69] All of these guides themselves use single sentence spacing in their text.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Fogarty, Mignon (2008). Grammar Girl's Quick and Dirty Tips for Better Writing. New York: Holt Paperbacks. 85. ISBN 978-0-8050-8831-1. ; Kristi Leonard et al. (1 February 2003). "The Effects of Computer-based Text Spacing on Reading Comprehension and Reading Rate". IVLA. Retrieved 1 February 2010. 
  2. ^ Theodore Rosendorf (2010). "The Double Space Debate". Type Desk. Retrieved 23 March 2010. 
  3. ^ University of Chicago Press (2003). The Chicago Manual of Style: The Essential Guide for Writers, Editors, and Publishers (15th ed.). Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press. p. 243. ISBN 978-0-226-10403-4. ; Einsohn, Amy (2006). The Copyeditor's Handbook: A Guide for Book Publishing and Corporate Communications (2nd ed.). Berkeley, Los Angeles, London: University of California Press. p. 113. ISBN 978-0-520-24688-1. ; Shushan, Ronnie; Wright, Don (1989). Desktop Publishing by Design. Redmond, WA: Microsoft Press. p. 34. ISBN 1556151349. 
  4. ^ Fogarty, Mignon (2008). Grammar Girl's Quick and Dirty Tips for Better Writing (Quick and Dirty Tips). New York: Holt Paperbacks. p. 85. ISBN 978-0-8050-8831-1. 
  5. ^ University of Chicago Press 1911 The Chicago Manual of Style. p. 101.
  6. ^ Stevenson 2005. p. viii.
  7. ^ *Modern Language Association (15 January 2009). "How many spaces should I leave after a period or other concluding mark of punctuation?". Modern Language Association. Retrieved 31 January 2010. 
  8. ^ Felici 2003. p. 81; Strizver 2010; Weiderkehr, Sarah (30 July 2009). "On Two Spaces Following a Period". American Psychological Association. Retrieved 29 January 2010. ; Williams, Robin (July–August 1995). "Thirteen Telltale Signs". Adobe Magazine. Adobe. Retrieved 10 February 2010. ; Williams 2003. p. 14.
  9. ^ Dictionnaire de l'Académie française: Tome 1, A-Enz (Neuvieme Edition ed.). Paris: Artheme Fayard. 1992. ISBN 2-7433-0407-3.  French is spoken in 57 countries and territories throughout the world, including Europe, North America, and Francophone Africa. Qu'est-ce que la Francophonie?
  10. ^ "Deutsche Rechtschreibung" [German Orthography] (in German). Retrieved 19 January 2010. 
  11. ^ Bibliographisches Institut AG. "Über Duden". Retrieved 19 January 2010. 
  12. ^ Bibliographisches Institut AG. "Duden – Deutsche Sprache". Retrieved 19 January 2010.  The Duden was the primary orthography and language guide in Germany until the German orthography reform of 1996 created a multinational council for German orthography for German-speaking countries—composed of experts from Germany, Austria, Liechtenstein and Switzerland. The current version of the Duden reflects the most recent opinions of this council.
  13. ^ Real Academia Española (1999). Ortografía de la Lengua Española, Edición Revisasa por las Academias de la Lengua Española. Real Academia Española. p. 2. ISBN 84-239-9250-0. Retrieved 6 May 2010. 
  14. ^ Publications Office of the European Union (24 July 2008). "Interinstitutional Style Guide". Europa. European Union. Retrieved 12 May 2010.  This manual is "obligatory" for all those in the EU who are involved in preparing EU documents and works [1]. It is intended to encompass 23 languages within the European Union [2].
  15. ^ European Commission Directorate-General for Translation (April 2010). "English Style Guide: A Handbook for Authors and Translators in the European Commission". European Commission. p. 22. Retrieved 12 May 2010. "Note in particular that ... stops (. ? ! : ;) are always followed by only a single (not a double) space." 
  16. ^ John Wiley & Sons Australia (2007). Style Manual: For Authors, Editors and Printers (6th ed.). John Wiley & Sons Australia. p. 153. ISBN 978-0-7016-3648-7.  The Commonwealth is an organization of 54 English-speaking states worldwide.
  17. ^ Ritter, R. M., ed. (2003). Oxford Style Manual. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 51. ISBN 0-19-860564-1. "In text, use only a single word space after all sentence punctuation." ; Modern Humanities Research Association (2002). MHRA Style Guide: A Handbook for Authors, Editors, and Writers of Theses. Leeds, UK: Maney Publishing. p. 6. ISBN 0-947623-62-0. 
  18. ^ Dundurn Press in co-operation with Public Works and the Government Services Canada Translation Bureau (1997). The Canadian Style: A Guide to Writing and Editing. Toronto and Oxford: J. Kirk Howard. p. 113. ISBN 1-55002-276-8. ; "The Canadian Style Online". Public Works and Government Services of Canada, The Translation Bureau, The Government of Canada's terminology and linguistic data bank TERMIUM-Plus. 2010. p. 293. Retrieved 2010-04-26. "17.07 French Typographical Rules—Punctuation: Adopt the following rules for spacing with punctuation marks. [table] Mark: Period, before: none, after: 1 space." 
  19. ^ "2.12: Line spacing and word spacing". The Chicago Manual of Style (15 ed.). University of Chicago Press. 2003. p. 61. ISBN 978-0-226-10403-4. Retrieved 2010-04-25. "A single character space, not two spaces, should be left after periods at the ends of sentences (both in manuscript and in final, published form)" ; "6.11: Space between sentences". The Chicago Manual of Style (15 ed.). University of Chicago Press. 2003. p. 243. ISBN 978-0-226-10403-4. Retrieved 2010-04-25. "In typeset matter, one space, not two (in other words, a regular word space), follows any mark of punctuation that ends a sentence, whether a period, a colon, a question mark, an exclamation point, or closing quotation marks." ; "6.13: Use of the period". The Chicago Manual of Style (15 ed.). University of Chicago Press. 2003. p. 984. ISBN 978-0-226-10403-4. Retrieved 2010-04-25. "A period marks the end of a declarative or an imperative sentence. It is followed by a single space" 
  20. ^ Lesina, Roberto (2009). Il Nuovo Manuale di Stile: Guida alla Redazione di Documenti, Relazioni, Articoli, Manuali, Tesi di Laurea (2.0 ed.). Zanichelli. Retrieved 15 May 2010. "Preface: [S]tyle manual for academic papers, monographs, professional correspondence, theses, articles, etc. (Prefazione: il manuala intende fornire una serie di indicazioni utili per la stesura di testi di carattere non inventive, quali per esempio manuali, saggi, monografie, relazioni professionali, tesi di laurea, articoli per riviste, ecc.)"  The style guide itself is single sentence spaced.
  21. ^ Microsoft (2010). "Italian Style Guide: Microsoft Language Excellence". Microsoft Language Portal – Style Guide Download (1.0 ed.). Microsoft. p. 4.1.8 Punteggiatura. Retrieved 11 May 2010. "Assicurarsi ad esempio che tra la fine e l'inizio di due periodi separati da un punto venga usato un unico spazio prima della frase successiva, invece dei due spazi del testo americano ... A differenza di altre lingue, non va inserito nessuno spazio prima dei segni di punteggiatura (Trans. "Make sure that between two sentences separated by a period a single space is used before the second sentence, instead of the double spacing used in the United States ... Contrary to other languages, no space is to be added before punctuation marks." [dead link]
  22. ^ "U.S. Government Printing Office Style Manual". 23 April 2009. Retrieved 4 February 2010. 
  23. ^ United States Government Printing Office Style Board. p. 13.
  24. ^ United States Government Printing Office Style Manual (1959), paragraph 2.36.1.
  25. ^ Ritter, R. M., ed. (2003). Oxford Style Manual. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 51, Inside cover, preface. ISBN 0-19-860564-1. 
  26. ^ "Manuscripts: Saving Time and Money 1". The Copyeditor's Desk: Editing, Proofreading, Indexing, Publication Consulting. Retrieved 3 February 2010. 
  27. ^ University of Chicago Press, The Chicago Manual of Style 2003. p. 61.
  28. ^ University of Chicago Press, The Chicago Manual of Style 2010. p. 308.
  29. ^ Turabian, Kate L. (2007). Booth, Wayne C.; Colomb, Gregory G.; Williams, Joseph M., eds. A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations (7th ed.). Chicago: University of Chicago Press. pp. 296, 302–303. ISBN 978-0-226-82337-9. 
  30. ^ Modern Language Association 2008. p. 99.
  31. ^ Although earlier editions of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association provide for the use of a single space following the terminal punctuation of a sentence, the widely criticized 6th Edition, published in 2009, changed the convention to two spaces. (American Psychological Association, Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association 6th Edition. American Psychological Association ISBN 978-1-4338-0561-5. p. 88.) For the controversy surrounding the First Printing of the 6th edition of the APA's Publication Manual, see, for example, Tara D. Hudson, "The APA's Reputation Management in the Wake of the Error-Laden 6th Edition of its Ubiquitous Publication Manual", [3] in Crisis! Communication: Theories and Practice. 25 October 2009. Accessed 31 January 2010., and Customer Reviews: Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association Sixth Edition, [4] Amazon.com. Accessed 31 January 2010. Soon after the publication of the 6th Edition, the American Psychological Association published nineteen pages of corrections for academic papers online, (see American Psychological Association, Corrected Sample Papers, [5] Accessed 31 January 2010.) as well as eight pages of online corrections called "Errors in APA Style Rules" prior to issuing a corrected second printing of the 6th Edition of the Publication Manual in late 2009.
  32. ^ American Psychological Association. "Corrections to the First Printing of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, Sixth Edition (July 2009)". American Psychological Association. p. 6. Retrieved 1 February 2010. 
  33. ^ American Psychological Association (29 June 2009). "APA Style:Who We Are". Retrieved 16 January 2010. 
  34. ^ Fogarty 2008. p. 85.
  35. ^ Sarah Weiderkehr (30 July 2009). "On Two Spaces Following a Period". American Psychological Association. Retrieved 31 January 2010. 
  36. ^ American Psychological Association (8 October 2009). "APA Style Blog: Style experts from the American Psychological Association share tips and background about writing in APA style". American Psychological Association. Retrieved 31 January 2009. ; The vacillations by the American Psychological Association have been criticized. See for example, Lloyd and Hallahan 2009. "The sixth edition (American Psychological Association, 2009) features many changes from the one issued in 2001 (let alone those issued earlier). Each time that the Manual changes, some of these academics wonder, "Why the heck was that done?" [...] The 2009 edition brings some sensible changes, and some that make folks scratch their aging heads. Principal among the head-scratching items is this one: Why, after requiring those of us who (because we learned to type on typewriters using fixed-width fonts such as courier) mastered hitting the space bar twice at the end of sentences and then learning to drop the extra space after the end-of-sentence punctuation (see American Psychological Association, 1994, 2001), are we now directed to reintroduce the additional space"? (Video follows after the text)
  37. ^ American Political Science Association (August 2006). "Style Manual for Political Science". Retrieved 16 January 2010. 
  38. ^ American Sociological Association Style Guide (2nd ed.). Washington D.C.: American Sociological Association. 1997. p. 11. ISBN 0-912764-29-5.  The ASA style guide encompasses all ASA publications including "eight journals", "various directories" and other "substantive, academic, teaching, and career publications" (i).
  39. ^ University of Chicago Press, Chicago Manual of Style 2003. p. 728.
  40. ^ Columbia Law Review; Harvard Law Review; University of Pennsylvania Law Review; Yale Law review, eds. (2005). The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation. Massachusetts: The Harvard Law Review Association. p. v. 
  41. ^ ALWD & Darby Dickerson (2006). ALWD Citation Manual (3d ed.). New York: Aspen Publishers. pp. 7, 9. ISBN 0-7355-5571-0. ; University of Chicago Press, The Chicago Manual of Style 2003. p. 728.
  42. ^ ALWD 2006. pps. 7,9. The AWLD Citation Manual refers users to the United States Government Office Style Manual, The Chicago Manual of Style ... or The Redbook: A Manual on Legal Style for "additional guidance on matters of style, punctuation and other writing conventions". These three style guides all indicate that a single space is proper between sentences.
  43. ^ LeClerq, Terri (2007). Guide to Legal Writing Style (4th ed.). New York: Aspen Publishers. ISBN 978-0-7355-6837-2. 
  44. ^ Christian, Darrell; Jacobsen, Sally; Minthorn, David, eds. (2009). The AP Stylebook and Briefing on Media Law (44th ed.). Philadelphia: Basic Books. p. 361. ISBN 978-0-465-01262-6.  The AP Stylebook indicates that adherents should "Use a single space after a period at the end of a sentence." Garner 2006. p. 83. The Redbook directs users to use "one space between words and one space after punctuation marks (including colons and periods)".
  45. ^ Garner 2006. p. 83.
  46. ^ The only exceptions, as noted, are the actual citation examples in the Bluebook, some of which are double-spaced.
  47. ^ Associated Press 2009. p. 361.
  48. ^ Associated Press (1 March 2010). "Associated Press: Facts & Figures". Retrieved 25 April 2010. 
  49. ^ Einsohn 2006. pps. 113.
  50. ^ American Medical Association (2007). AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (10th ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 919–920. ISBN 978-0-19-517633-9. 
  51. ^ Fondiller 2007. p. 135.
  52. ^ Sabin, William A. (1985). The Gregg Reference Manual (6th ed.). United States: McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-054399-2. 
  53. ^ Sabin 2005. p. 5.
  54. ^ Sabin 2005. p. 5–6, 10, 12–13, 91.
  55. ^ Sabin 2005. p.5-6,10,12-13,91.
  56. ^ Trotter 1998. p. 112. "Here's what is wanted: A good old fashioned PICA (for typewriters) or Courier 12-point, 10-pitch font with a ragged right margins. ... All of the examples in this format guidebook are in Courier so that they appear exactly the way they would appear in a script ... Why all the fuss over a font? Because the 10-pitch font is easier on the eyes of industry people who read dozens of scripts every week. It also retains the "one page equals one minute screen time" industry standard"; Trottier 2005. p. 125.
  57. ^ Russin 2003. p. 17. The authors also state that "Courier 12-point is preferred, although New York, Bookman, and Times will do".
  58. ^ Allen 2001. "Amazingly, people get into heated discussions over what types of fonts editors prefer. Some folks claim that all editors want manuscripts in Courier (the font that looks like your typewriter font). Lately, some editors and writers have come to prefer Arial. So what do editors really want? The truth is, most editors really don't care, as long as the font is readable. (I can state this with confidence, having done a survey of about 500 editors; 90% expressed "no preference" with regard to font.) Very few editors will reject your manuscript because it happens to be in New Century Schoolbook, Palatino, or Times Roman. Generally, it's best to use a 12-point font size, and to choose a font that doesn't "squinch" letters together too closely. The rationale for Courier dates back to the days when editors did an eyeball "guesstimate" of line lengths to determine exactly how much space a piece would fill in on the printed page. Courier is a "fixed-space" font, meaning that each letter takes up exactly the same amount of space. This made it easier to estimate how an article would appear when typeset. Today, however, very few editors need to do this (or even remember that it was done)."
  59. ^ Lynch, Patrick J.; Horton, Sarah (2008). Web Style Guide. New Haven & London: Yale University Press. p. 205. ISBN 978-0-300-13737-8. 
  60. ^ Lynch and Horton 2008. p. 219.
  61. ^ Lynch and Horton 2008. pps. 217–218. Users can force HTML to recognize the extra space by inputting a formula—in the case of a double word space, by using the characters: " &nbsp"; Character entity references in HTML 4
  62. ^ Strunk, William; White, E. B. (1999). The Elements of Style (4th ed.). Longman. ISBN 978-0-205-31342-6. 
  63. ^ Council of Science Editors, Style Manual Committee (2006). Scientific Style And Format: The CSE Manual for Authors, Editors, and Publishers (7th ed.). Reston, VA: Council of Science Editors. ISBN 978-0-9779665-0-9. 
  64. ^ American Medical Association (2007). AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (10th ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-517633-9. 
  65. ^ Martin, Paul R., ed. (2002). The Wall Street Journal Essential Guide to Business Style and Usage. New York: Free Press. ISBN 0-7432-1295-9. 
  66. ^ Siegal, Allan M.; Connoly, William G. (1999). The New York Times Manual of Style and Usage (Revised and Expanded ed.). New York: The New York Times. ISBN 0-8129-6388-1. 
  67. ^ Staff of REA (2009). REA's Handbook of English Grammar, Style, and Writing (Revised ed.). Research and Education Association. ISBN 978-0-87891-552-1. 
  68. ^ American Sociological Association (2007). American Sociological Society Style Guide (3rd ed.). American Sociological Association. ISBN 978-0-912764-30-6. 
  69. ^ The Economist Style Guide. London: Profile Books. 2005. ISBN 1-86197-916-9. ; David Marsh and Amelia Hodsdon (eds.). "The Guardian Style Guide". Guardian Newspapers Limited. Retrieved 12 July 2010. ; The Times (2010). "The Times Style and Usage Guide". Times Newspapers Ltd. Retrieved 12 July 2010. 

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External links[edit]