Seoul Metropolitan Subway
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|Native name||수도권 전철
|Owner||Government of South Korea, Seoul City, Incheon City, Bucheon City, Uijeongbu City, Yongin City and private companies|
|Locale||Seoul, South Korea
Incheon, Gyeonggi-do, Chungcheongnam-do, Gangwon-do
|Transit type||Rapid transit|
|Number of lines||18|
|Number of stations||622 total
509 if transfer stations are counted as one
|Daily ridership||9.8 million (2012)|
|Annual ridership||2,619 million (2013, Lines 1-9)|
|Began operation||15 August 1974|
|Operator(s)||Seoul Metro, Seoul Metropolitan Rapid Transit Corporation, Korail, Incheon Transit Corporation, and private rapid transit operators|
|System length||983 km (611 mi)
327.0 km (203.2 mi)
(Seoul Metro/SMRT/Line 9 only)
|Track gauge||1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) standard gauge|
The Seoul Metropolitan Subway has been described as the world's longest multi-operator metro system by route length. It consists of 18 lines that serve the Seoul Metropolitan Area.[Note 1][Note 2][Note 3]
The system was rated the world's best subway system by CNN, Jalopnik, and nicknamed "super highway" by the BBC. It is notable for its cleanliness and ease of use along with advanced technology such as 4G LTE, WiFi, DMB, and WiBro accessible in all stations and moving subway cars. Most trains have digital TV screens, and all of them have air conditioning and climate controlled seats installed that are automatically heated in the winter. All stations have screen doors installed,[Note 4] although those operated by Korail have it installed on major stations only. Since 2010, all Seoul Metro stations feature the world's largest digital signage service, which are smartphone-like 46" touchscreen kiosk stands called Digital View provided by Daum that have many apps, such as maps with Google Street View-like features, tourist guides, and free phone calls. The world's first virtual mart for smartphone users opened at Seolleung Station in 2011.
All lines use the T-money smart payment system using RFID and NFC technology for automatic payment by T-money smart cards, smartphones, or credit cards and one can transfer to any of the other line within the system for free.[Note 5]
Real-time subway arrival times, displayed on LCD screens at all stations, are available for all lines, along with apps for smartphones. All directional signs in the system are written in Korean, English and Hanja. In trains there are in addition many LCD screens giving service announcements, upcoming stop names, YTN news, stock prices and animated shorts. There are also prerecorded voice announcements that give the upcoming station, any possible line transfer, and the exiting side in Korean, followed by English. At major stations, this is followed by Japanese, then Mandarin Chinese, as well.
Lines & Channels
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- August 15, 1974: Opening of Seoul Subway Line 1, operating from Seongbuk Station to Incheon Station and Suwon Station.
- December 9, 1978: Yongsan - Cheongnyangni line was added to Line 1. Now part of Jungang Line.
- October 10, 1980: Opening of Seoul Subway Line 2.
- 1985: Fare system changed from charging by distance to zone, Edmondson railway ticket changed to magnetic paper ticket.
- April 20, 1985: Opening of Seoul Subway Line 4.
- July 12, 1985: Opening of Seoul Subway Line 3.
- April 1, 1994: Opening of Indeogwon - Namtaeryeong extension of Seoul Subway Line 4.
- September 1, 1994: Opening of Bundang Line, operating from Suseo Station to Ori Station.
- November 15, 1995: Opening of Seoul Subway Line 5.
- January 30, 1996: Opening of Jichuk - Daehwa extension of Seoul Subway Line 3.
- March 20, 1996: Opening of Kkachisan - Sindorim extension of Seoul Subway Line 2.
- October 11, 1996: Opening of Seoul Subway Line 7.
- November 23, 1996: Opening of Seoul Subway Line 8.
- October 6, 1999: Opening of Incheon Subway Line 1.
- August 7, 2000: Opening of Seoul Subway Line 6.
- 2004: Fare system changed back to charging by distance. Free transfers with buses introduced.
- January 20, 2005: Opening of Byeongjeom - Cheonan extension of Seoul Subway Line 1.
- December 16, 2005: Opening of Jungang Line, operating from Yongsan Station to Deokso Station.
- December 15, 2006: Opening of Uijeongbu - Soyosan extension of Seoul Subway Line 1. Subway cars from Yongsan Station to Gwangmyeong Station begin operating. Now reduced to Yeongdeungpo - Gwangmyeong.
- March 23, 2007: Opening of AREX.
- December 27, 2007: Opening of Deokso - Paldang extension of Jungang Line.
- December 15, 2008: Opening of Cheonan - Sinchang extension of Seoul Subway Line 1.
- May 1, 2009: Magnetic paper ticket changed to RFID based public transportation card.
- July 1, 2009: Opening of Gyeongui Line, operating from Seoul Station to Munsan Station.
- July 24, 2009: Opening of Seoul Subway Line 9, operating from Gaehwa Station to Sinnonhyeon Station.
- February 26, 2010: Opening of Byeongjeom - Seodongtan extension of Seoul Subway Line 1.
- December 21, 2010: Opening of Gyeongchun Line.
- October 28, 2011: Opening of Shinbundang Line, operating from Gangnam Station to Jeongja Station.
- June 30, 2012: Opening of Suin Line, operating from Oido Station to Songdo Station.
- July 1, 2012: Opening of U Line.
- December 15, 2012: Opening of Gongdeok - Gajwa extension of Gyeongui Line.
- April 26, 2013: Opening of EverLine.
- December 27, 2014: Opening of Gyeongui·Jungang Line.
Fares and ticketing
The current single-use ticket is a credit card-sized plastic card with RFID technology, which can be obtained from automated machines in every subway station. A 500 won deposit fee is included in the price, and is refunded when the ticket is returned at any station. Multiple use cards are sold in convenience stores or can be integrated with certain debit cards.
Fares (except for single-use tickets) are currently 1,050 won for a trip up to 10 km, with 100 won added for each subsequent 5 km. Single-use ticket users must pay 100 won extra. Shinbundang Line, EverLine and U Line add flat extra charges, which amount to 900, 200 and 300 won respectively. All lines allow free transfers to each other and buses. Half-priced children's tickets are available. Riders may also enter the system using a transportation card such as T-money, Upass, and KB Free Pass. The city government also uses Seoul Citypass as a transportation card. Senior citizens and disabled people qualify for free transit and can get a free ticket or enter and exit using side gates rather than turnstiles.
- Line 9 will be extended from Sinnonhyeon to Sports Complex by March 2015.
- The Incheon Airport Maglev will run from Incheon International Airport Station to Yongyu Station in June 2015.
- Gyeongui·Jungang Line will open Hyochang Park Station in June 2015 with a transfer to Line 6.
- Gyeongui·Jungang Line will open Yadang Station between Unjeong and Tanhyeon in October 2015.
- AREX is scheduled to open Yeongjeong Station in 2015.
- The Suin Line will open Phase 2 in December 2015, which is an extension from Songdo Station to Incheon Station.
- Underground transfer tunnel between Line 1 and Line 9 at Noryangjin Station will open in 2015.
- Shinbundang Line's Phase 2 (2016) will extend the southern end of the line by five stops with four additional proposed stops.
- The Yeoju Line will be an 11-station line in Gyeonggi-do that will intersect both the Shinbundang Line and Bundang Line as it heads east.
- Incheon Subway Line 2 is planned to open in July 2016 with 27 stations over 29.3 km from Oryu dong in Seo-gu to Incheon Grand Park. It will intersect Line 1 at Incheon City Hall Station, Korail Line 1 at Juan Station, and AREX at Geomam Station.
- A fully underground line with exclusive right of way named Ui LRT will open in November 2016. IT will be a 11.4 km (7.1 mi) line from Ui-dong to Sinseol Dong in northern Seoul. The line is expected to carry 110,000 passengers per day, and will have 12 stations. It will connect to Line 4 at Sungshin Women's University, Line 6 at Bomun, and Line 1 & Line 2 at Sinseol Dong.
- The Sosa–Wonsi Line is a 12-station line in southwestern Seoul with transfers to Line 1 and Line 4. Opening is set for April 2016.
- Line 9 is being extended eastward to Korea Veteran's Hospital Station by 2016.
- The Suin Line will open Phase 3 in 2017, which is an extension from Suwon Station to Hanyang University at Ansan Station, where it will connect with the Bundang Line as a single line.
- Line 5 will be extended east from Sangil-dong Station with three stations to serve Gangil-dong, Misa New City and the Pungsan development area.
- Line 7 will be extended west from Bupyeong-gu Office Station to Seoknam Station, offering a transfer to Incheon Subway Line 2 in 2018.
- Gimpo subway (김포도시철도) will open in 2018, stretching 23.61 km over 9 stations, terminating at Gimpo Airport Station with transfers to Line 5, 9 and AREX.
- Line 1 will be extended north from Dongducheon Station with five stations to Yeoncheon Station. The existing line is being double-tracked with the introduction of metro trains and services. Construction will complete in 2019.
- Line 4 will be extended east from Danggogae Station with three stations to serve the Jinjeop development area, Namyangju. Construction will complete in 2020.
- The general provisions of Seoul Metro's Terms of Passenger Transport, SMRT's Terms of Passenger Transport and Shinbundang Line's Terms of Passenger Transport all define Seoul Metropolitan Subway as follows:
제3조(정의) Article 3 (Definition) 5. "도시철도"라 함은 도시철도법에 따라 서울메트로구간과 연락운송하는 노선(이하 "도시철도구간"이라 합니다) 및 그 부대설비, 열차 등을 통틀어 말합니다..
Translation: The metro, as constituted by the metro law, refers to the jointly operated lines with Seoul Metro (called "sections of metro" from now) and its supplementary equipments, trains and etc. collectively.
4. "연락운송"이라 함은 도시철도법 제17조에 따라 서울메트로구간과 한국철도광역전철구간, 서울도시철도구간, 인천교통공사구간, 서울시메트로9호선구간, 코레일공항철도 검암~서울역, 신분당선구간을 서로 연속하여 여객을 운송하는 것을 말합니다..
Translation: "Joint operation", as defined by metro law Article 17, refers to the continuous transport of passengers by the sections of Seoul Metro, Korail Metropolitan Subway, Seoul Metropolitan Rapid Transit Corporation, Incheon Transit, Seoul Metro Line 9, Korail Airport Railroad Geomam~Seoul Station and Shinbundang Line
- Terms of Passenger Transport, Incheon Transit 제3조(정의) 이 약관에서 사용하는 용어의 정의는 다음 각 호와 같습니다.
Translation: Article 3 (Definition) The definition of the term used in this clause is as follows.
1. “수도권 도시철도”란 인천교통공사, 서울메트로, 서울특별시도시철도공사, 서울시메트로9호선(주), 코레일공항철도(주), 신분당선(주)가 운영하는 구간 및 한국철도공사가 운영하는 광역전철 구간을 말합니다.
Translation: "Seoul Metropolitan Rapid Transit" refers to the sections of metropolitan subways operated by Incheon Transit, Seoul Metro, Seoul Metropolitan Rapid Transit Corporation, Seoul Metro Line 9, Korail Airport Railroad, Shinbundang Line and Korail.
〈 개정 (Amended) 2009. 8. 20, 2009. 10. 5, 2011. 7. 15, 2011. 12. 23, 2012. 2. 21 〉
- Terms of Passenger Transport, Korail Airport Railroad 제2조(정의) 이 약관에서 사용하는 용어의 정의는 다음과 같습니다.
Translation: The definition of the terms used in this provision is as follows.
“수도권도시철도”라 함은 서울메트로, 서울특별시도시철도공사, 인천교통공사, 서울시메트로9호선(주), 신분당선(주)가 운영하는 도시철도구간 및 한국철도공사가 운영하는 광역전철구간을 말합니다. <개정 ‘13.12.13>.
Translation: "Seoul Metropolitan Rapid Transit" refers to the sections of metro operated by Seoul Metro, Seoul Metropolitan Rapid Transit Corporation, Incheon Transit, Seoul Metro Line 9 and Shinbundang Line and metropolitan subways operated by Korail. <Amended ‘13.12.13>
- With the exception of Gaehwa Station.
- With the exception of AREX on Yeongjong Island (extra charge applied depending on distance) and Shinbundang Line (extra flat charge of 700KRW). EverLine and U Line will allow free transfers from 2014.
- "Subway Passenger Transportation". City of Seoul. Retrieved 2014-07-14. (You can select English from the language dropdown that reads "한국어")
- 지하철건설현황 [Status of Subway Construction] (in Korean). Seoul City Government. Retrieved 2014-02-22.
- "The world's longest metro and subway systems". Railway-technology.com. Retrieved 2014-02-20.
- 2012 Korail Statistics See p.400 for Seoul Metropolitan Subway (수도권 전철).
- "What are the world's best metro systems?". CNN. 9 January 2013. Retrieved 2014-07-29.
- The Best Subway Systems In The World
- "Underground world: Seoul's 'super highway' v London's 'rude tube'". BBC News. 3 April 2013. Retrieved 2013-07-12.
- Screen doors installed in the Seoul Metropolitan Subway. Koreatimes.co.kr (5 May 2009). Retrieved on 2013-07-12.
- 이웃집블로거 빌시 : 네이버 블로그. Tunpark.blog.me Retrieved on 2013-07-12.
- "9호선/수도권 전철 읍데이트들 - Misc Subway Updates" (Blog). Rick&Nyo. 19 April 2012. Retrieved 2012-04-19.
|last1=in Authors list (help)
- 전철 개통…부동산 시세 들썩일까 (in Korean). Segye. Retrieved 2014-09-05.
- "DX Line 홈페이지에 오신것을 환영합니다" (in Korean). Shin Bundang. Retrieved 2011-04-29.
- 박원순 "경전철 신림·동북선 올해 착공 가능" (in Korean). Yonhap News. 2014-01-08. Retrieved 2014-09-05.
- 소사-원시 복선전철 어디까지 왔나 (in Korean). Jugan Siheung. 2013-05-19. Retrieved 2014-09-05.
- 9호선 역세권 미래가치가 높은 이유 (in Korean). Hankyung. 2014-09-04. Retrieved 2014-09-05.
- 김포도시철도사업 (in koreai). Gimpo City. Retrieved 2014-09-05.
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- Official Homepages
- City Government
- The Seoul Underground Subway: Official Seoul Tourism
- English-language WMV video describing Seoul Subway history, current construction and future projects