Separatist movements of India
There are minor incidents which occurred in Tripura, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Manipur and, Nagaland. The more important issue with these states however is territorial dispute with neighbours such as Pakistan and the PRC, rather than independence from the India. The most high profile separatist actions have been in Kashmir.
India introduced AFSPA in 1958 to put down separatist movements in certain parts of the country. The law was first enforced in Manipur and later enforced in other insurgency-ridden north-eastern states. It was extended to most parts of Indian-administered Kashmir soon after the outbreak of armed insurgency in 1989. The law gives soldiers immunity against prosecution unless the Indian government gives prior sanction for such prosecution. The government maintains that the AFSPA is necessary to restore normalcy in regions like Kashmir and Manipur.
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The insurgency in Kashmir, the most notable one, has existed in various forms. Thousands of lives have been lost since 1989 due to the intensification of both the insurgency and the fight against it.
A widespread armed insurgency started in Kashmir with the disputed 1987 election with some elements from the State's assembly forming militant wings which acted as a catalyst for the emergence of armed insurgency in the region.
The Inter-Services Intelligence of Pakistan has been accused by India of supporting and training mujahideen. to fight in Jammu and Kashmir. According to official figures released in Jammu and Kashmir assembly, there were 3,400 disappearance cases and the conflict has left more than 47,000 people dead as of July 2009. However, the number of insurgency-related deaths in the state have fallen sharply since the start of a slow-moving peace process between India and Pakistan.
North East India
Geographically and culturally, the region now called north-east India is situated between the two traditions of Indic Asia and Mongoloid Asia and is regarded as part of Southeast Asia. This geographical-cultural condition of "in-betweenness" is an important factor in the area’s crisis of identity. The leaders of the present-day "underground outfits" continue to struggle for independence, as they claim the political integration of the northeast to India was brought about without the approval of its people.
Since the mid-20th century, people from present-day Bangladesh (then known as East Pakistan) have been migrating to Assam. In 1961, the Government of Assam passed a legislation making use of Assamese language compulsory; It had to be withdrawn later under pressure from Bengali speaking people in Cachar. In the 1980s the Brahmaputra valley saw a six-year Assam agitation  triggered by the discovery of a sudden rise in registered voters on electoral rolls.
The post 1970s experienced the growth of armed separatist groups like the United Liberation Front of Asom (ULFA)  and the National Democratic Front of Bodoland (NDFB). Regional autonomy has been guaranteed for Bodos in Bodoland Territorial Council Areas (BTCA) and for the Karbis in Karbi Anglong after agitation of the communities due to sluggish rate of development and aspirations for self-government. As the situation in Assam has turned very serious as communal clashes continue in two central districts of the state, namely Udalguri and Darrang.
The United Liberation Front of Asom is a separatist group from Assam, among many other such groups in North-East India. It seeks to establish Assam as a separate independent nation state through an armed movement in the Assam Conflict. The Government of India had banned the it in 1990 and has officially labelled it as a terrorist group, whereas the US State Department lists it under "Other groups of concern".
ULFA claims to have been founded at the site of Rang Ghar on April 7, 1979, a historic structure from the Ahom kingdom. Military operations against it by the Indian Army that began in 1990 continues until present. In the past two decades some 10,000 people have died in the clash between the rebels and the government.
The major leaders of the organisation are:
- Paresh Baruah (Commander-in-Chief)
- Arabinda Rajkhowa (Chairman) (in Government of Assam custody)
- Anup Chetia (General Secretary) (in Government of Bangladesh custody)
- Pradip Gogoi (Vice-Chairman)
Muslim United Liberation Tigers of Assam (MULTA) is a Separatist group established in about 1996 in the eastern Indian state of Assam. The South Asia Terrorism Portal (satp.org) describes it as part of the All Muslim United Liberation Forum of Assam (AMULFA), and that Muslim United Liberation Front of Assam (MULFA) is an affiliate under the AMULFA umbrella. It is alleged that MULTA is supported by the Pakistani Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) agency.
United People's Democratic Solidarity was formed in March 1999 with the merger of two terrorist outfits in Assam's Karbi Anglong district, the Karbi National Volunteers (KNV) and Karbi People’s Front (KPF). The United People's Democratic Solidarity signed a cease-fire agreement for one year with the Union Government on May 23, 2002. However, this led to a split in the UPDS with one faction deciding to continue with its subversive activities while the other commenced negotiations with the Government.
Bodoland is an area located in the north bank of Brahmaputra river in the state of Assam in north east region of India, by the foothills of Bhutan and Arunachal Pradesh; inhabited predominantly by Bodo language speaking ethnic groups. Currently the hypothetical map of Bodoland includes the Bodoland Territorial Areas District (BTAD) administered by the non-autonomous Bodoland Territorial Council (BTC). The map of Bodoland overlaps with the districts of Kokrajhar, Baksa, Chirang and Udalguri in the state of Assam. The Bodo people seek an independent state.
The National Liberation Front of Tripura (or NLFT) is a Tripuri nationalist militant organization based in Tripura, India. The NLFT seeks to secede from India and establish an independent Tripuri state, and has actively participated in the Tripura Rebellion. The NLFT manifesto says that they want to expand what they describe as the kingdom of God and Christ in Tripura.
The NLFT is currently proscribed as a terrorist organization in India.
The Government of the state of Tripura has uncovered evidence to support the assertion that the Baptist Church of Tripura has been funding the terrorists. The Church has been forcing local tribals to convert to Christianity at gunpoint and turning them against the Hindus in the region.
The Government of the state of Tripura has uncovered evidence to support the assertion that the Baptist Church of Tripura has been funding the terrorists. The Church has been forcing local tribals to convert to Christianity at gunpoint and turning them against the Hindus in the region. The Baptist Church of Tripura was initially set up by missionaries from New Zealand in the 1940s. Despite their efforts, even until the 1980s, only a few thousand people in Tripura had converted to Christianity. In the aftermath of one of the worst ethnic riots, the NLFT was born in 1989—allegedly with the help of the Baptist Church. Since then, the NLFT has been advancing its cause through armed rebellion. Indian Government officials have accused the Baptist Church of Tripura of supporting this violent campaign by providing funding and arms for the group. In April 2000, Nagmanlal Halam, secretary of the Noapara Baptist Church in Tripura, was caught providing 50 gelatine sticks, 5 kilograms of potassium and 2 kilograms of sulphur and other ingredients for making explosives to the group. Halam later confessed to buying and supplying explosives to the NLFT for the past two years. In October 2000, the NLFT ordered all Hindus to cease celebration of Durga Puja  In 2001, there were 826 reported terrorist attacks in Tripura, in which 405 people lost their lives and 481 kidnappings were made by the NLFT and related organizations such as the Christian All Tripura Tiger Force (ATTP). Nagmanlal Halam, secretary of the Noapara Baptist Church in Tripura, was arrested for and confessed, under torture from police, to providing munitions and financial aid to the NLFT from 1998 until 2000. In another incident in August 2003, police arrested the secretary of a Baptist Christian Missionary church in North Tripura District who was in possession of 5 kilograms (11 lb) of potassium, 1 kilogram (2.2 lb) sulphur, few gelatin sticks and 45 grams (1.6 oz) of high explosive materials. Recent investigations, as well as confessions from surrendered members, have revealed that the NLFT have been making and selling pornography to finance their activities. This includes DVDs of pornographic films made by the group with tribal men and women kidnapped and forced to participate in sex acts while being filmed. The movies are dubbed into various languages and sold illegally throughout the region for a profit. The women have also been sexually abused by NLFT members. NLFT produced pornographic films of kidnapped tribal men and women at gunpoint in order to finance its activities (claimed by Left front government and Bengalis). NLFT leaders were also accused of sexually abusing female prisoners. According to the Institute for Conflict Management, approximately 90% of the NLFT's administration are Christians. Since 2000, several hundred militants have surrendered to the Indian Security Forces.
Khalistan Khālistān (Punjabi: ਖ਼ਾਲਿਸਤਾਨ) is on actually proposed Sikh homeland. The Khalistan movement was a separatist movement to create "The Land of the Pure" as an independent Sikh state in Punjabi-speaking areas.
This movement started in the early 1980s and greatly escalated in 1984 following Operation Blue Star. It has however pretty much died down in India and separatists operate from other countries like Canada, the U.K..
- Aspirant states of India
- Assamese Separatist Movement
- Insurgent groups in Northeast India
- Gorkha National Liberation Front
- Naxalite-Maoist insurgency
- Red corridor
- Compact Revolutionary Zone
- List of terrorist organizations in India
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