September 1946

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Future Indian Premier Nehru
September 2, 1946: Viceroy of India Wavell swears in transitional government
Future Pakistani Premier Khan
September 10, 1946: Sister Agnes Bojaxhiu inspired to become Mother Teresa

The following events occurred in September 1946:

September 1, 1946 (Sunday)[edit]

  • By a margin of 1,136,289 in favor and 524,771 against, voters in Greece approved the keeping of the monarchy. King George II returned from exile on September 27.[1]
  • Cambodia held its first elections in history. The Democrat party won a majority of seats in the legislature.[2]
  • Hawaiian sugar workers went on strike, with 21,000 workers walking off of the job on 33 plantations. The strike, which was aided by an unseasonable lack of rain, ended after 79 days, and put an end to the perquisite system that had paid the laborers with company vouchers rather than cash.[3]
  • Julia McWilliams married Paul Child, and later became famous as Julia Child.[4]
  • Born: Roh Moo-hyun, 16th President of South Korea (2003-2008), in Gimhae; d. 2009, and Barry Gibb, vocalist and guitarist for The Bee Gees, in Douglas, Isle of Man, U.K.

September 2, 1946 (Monday)[edit]

September 3, 1946 (Tuesday)[edit]

  • U.S. President Harry S. Truman approved the go-ahead for "Project Paperclip", ostensibly a campaign to bring German scientists to the U.S., and to keep them from being taken to the U.S.S.R. Many of the scientists had been former Nazis, and assisted in experimentation on human subjects with radiation, oxygen deprivation and flash blindness.[7]

September 4, 1946 (Wednesday)[edit]

  • An Air France plane bound for London crashed moments after takeoff, when it failed to clear the roof of a factory at Le Bourget, killing 20 persons. The evening before, another Air France plane crashed as it approached Copenhagen from Paris, killing all 22 persons on board.[8]
  • Died: Nobu Shirase, 85, leader of the Japanese Antarctic Expedition of 1911-1912

September 5, 1946 (Thursday)[edit]

  • Trans-Luxury Airlines Flight 850, on its way (with several stops) from New York to San Francisco, crashed into a hillside as it attempted to land in Elko, Nevada, killing 21 of the 22 people on board. A 2-year old boy survived the accident with only minor injuries.[9]
  • The Tuskegee Airmen unit was disbanded and the base at Tuskegee, Alabama, was closed.[10]
  • Born: Freddie Mercury, singer and songwriter for the rock group (Queen), as Farrokh Bulsara, in Stone Town, Zanzibar (d. 1991); and Buddy Miles, American drummer

September 6, 1946 (Friday)[edit]

September 7, 1946 (Saturday)[edit]

  • Royal Air Force Captain Teddy Donaldson set a new official speed record, flying a Gloster Meteor at 615.78 miles per hour in level flight, or Mach 0.81 at 1,100 feet.[13]
  • In the fourth major airline accident in five days, a British South American Airways airliner crashed shortly after takeoff from Bathurst (modern day Banjul, capital of the Gambia). Only one of the 24 persons on board survived.[14]

September 8, 1946 (Sunday)[edit]

September 9, 1946 (Monday)[edit]

September 10, 1946 (Tuesday)[edit]

  • In what is now celebrated among the Missionaries of Charity as "Inspiration Day", 36 year old Sister Agnes Teresa Bojaxhiu of the Loreto Sisters' Convent experienced what she would describe as the "call within a call". She was traveling on a train from Siliguri to Darjeeling when she heard the call of God: "I was to leave the convent and help the poor while living among them.".[19] As one author later noted, "Though no one knew it at the time, Sister Teresa had just become Mother Teresa".[20]
  • Fred Morrison, an American fighter pilot during World War II, first sketched his idea for a toy plastic disc could fly through the air after it was thrown. He called his invention the "Whirlo-Way". By 1955, he sold a lighter version, the "Pluto Platter", to the Wham-O toy company, which manufactured millions of the discs under the brand name Frisbee.[21]
  • With workers at Pittsburgh's electric utility threatening a walkout, and management standing firm against their demands, citizens of the 10th largest city in the U.S. braced for a 12:01 a.m. shutdown of all electric power. To their surprise, the blackout never came, as a judge issued an injunction at midnight.[22]
  • Born: Jim Hines, American track athlete and 100 meter dash record holder 1968-83, in Dumas, Arkansas, and Don Powell, English rock drummer (Slade), in Bilston, Staffordshire

September 11, 1946 (Wednesday)[edit]

  • The Brooklyn Dodgers and the visiting Cincinnati Reds played the longest scoreless tie in Major League Baseball history, going for 19 innings and 4 hours, 40 minutes, before the game was called because of darkness.[23]
  • The United States turned over $1,121,400,000 worth of surplus U.S. Army property to the Philippines, including vehicles, construction equipment, prefab structures, clothing, medicine, food and other items. The material had been stockpiled in the Philippines after its recapture by the Allies, for the planned invasion of Japan.[24]
  • Died: Ida Stover Eisenhower, 84, mother of General Dwight D. Eisenhower

September 12, 1946 (Thursday)[edit]

Wallace
Clifford
  • U.S. Secretary of Commerce Henry A. Wallace delivered a speech at a rally at Madison Square Garden, contradicting the statement of foreign policy that had been made six days earlier by Secretary of State Byrnes, embarrassing President Harry S. Truman, and bringing an end to Wallace's career in government. Truman, who had glanced at the speech two days earlier, was asked at a press conference about the speech and whether it "represented the policy of his administration", and replied that it was. That evening, Wallace declared that "We have no more business in the political affairs of Eastern Europe than Russia has in the political affairs of Latin America, Western Europe and the United States... and just two days ago, when President Truman read these words, he said they represented the policy of his Administration.".[25] Truman compounded the error by making the excuse that "It was my intention to express the thought that I approved the right of the Secretary of Commerce to deliver that speech. I did not intend to indicate that I approved the speech" which TIME magazine described as a "clumsy lie".[26]

September 13, 1946 (Friday)[edit]

  • Captain Amon Göth, 37, Nazi SS officer who had carried out the mass executions of more than 13,000 Jews in Kraków and Tarnow, and the Szebnia concentration camp, was hanged, along with Dr. Leon Gross, a Jew who had collaborated with him at the Plaszow concentration camp. Captain Göth was portrayed by Ralph Fiennes in the film Schindler's List.[27]
  • Ten days after the United States launched Project Paperclip, the Soviet Union issued decree No. 2163-880s, launching Operation Osoaviakhim, to transfer German rocket production potential to the USSR.[28]
  • The Boston Red Sox clinched the American League pennant, after Ted Williams hit an inside the park home run for a 1-0 win over the Cleveland Indians.[29]
  • Dr. Willis J. Potts performed the first aorta-to-pulmonary artery anastomosis to correct a congenital heart defect, a surgery later called the Potts shunt. The first patient was a 21 month old girl at Children's Memorial Hospital in Chicago. The surgery was performed on 658 more patients until being discontinued in 1967 because of complications that often arose.[30]
  • Died: George Washington Hill, 61, President of American Tobacco Company, who increased cigarette sales worldwide over a 21 year period.[31]

September 14, 1946 (Saturday)[edit]

Hank Williams

September 15, 1946 (Sunday)[edit]

September 16, 1946 (Monday)[edit]

  • After drought and a poor harvest added to a famine in the Soviet Union, a governmental decree went into effect, doubling the price for rations of meat and dairy products, and tripling the price of bread. On September 27, another decree reduced the number of people entitled to bread rations. The famine lasted into 1947, costing more than a million lives.[39]
  • At his factory in Maranello, Italian auto manufacturer Enzo Ferrari produced his first V12 engine, the component that would set the Ferrari as a leader in the production of sports cars.[40]
  • Owners of baseball's National League and American League teams met in New York City and, according to Dodgers' owner Branch Rickey and baseball commissioner Happy Chandler, secretly voted 15-1 to approve an August 27 recommendation against allowing African American players into the major leagues. Although other owners disputed the story, Chandler's copy of the committee report was discovered after Chandler's death, when his papers had been donated to the University of Kentucky.[41]

September 17, 1946 (Tuesday)[edit]

  • Mass production of television sets began, with RCA producing the first new TV since World War II, a 10-inch set made at its plant in Camden, New Jersey.[42] Only 5,000 sets had been produced in the years before the U.S. entered the war. By the end of 1947, 150,000 had been sold, rising to 4 million in 1949 and 10 million in 1950.[43]

September 18, 1946 (Wednesday)[edit]

  • Hidden in the Warsaw Ghetto by the Oneg Shabbat group during the Second World War, the archive of materials that had been written during the siege was unearthed. Dr. Emmanuel Ringelblum supervised the writing, collection, storage (in watertight milk cans) and burial for future generations to read.[44]
  • Mound Metalcraft, Inc., was founded in Mound, Minnesota, by Lynn E. Baker, Avery F. Crounse and Alvin F. Tesch. In 1947, the company introduced the first Tonka toys, a line of durable metal toy trucks and other equipment.[45]

September 19, 1946 (Thursday)[edit]

  • In a speech at Zurich, former British Prime Minister Winston Churchill proposed what would eventually become the European Community. Churchill suggested "a remedy, which, if generously and spontaneously adopted by a great majority of the people of many lands, would, as if by a miracle, transform the whole scene and make Europe as free and happy as Switzerland is today... We must build a kind of United States of Europe."[46]
  • The first Cannes Film Festival was held, taking place at the city of the same name on the French Riviera. The event had originally been planned for September 1, 1939, the day that World War II began, and postponed until the war's end.[47]
  • Walter F. White, Executive Director of the NAACP, and five other civil rights activists met at the White House with President Truman to ask for the help of the U.S. government in ending violence against African-Americans. Although White had met in the past with Presidents Coolidge, Hoover and Roosevelt without success, Truman was horrified by the description of the blinding of Isaac Woodard, and ordered Attorney General Tom Clark to begin working on "the inauguration of some sort of policy to prevent such happenings".[48]

September 20, 1946 (Friday)[edit]

  • President Truman fired Secretary of Commerce Henry Wallace, eight days after Wallace's controversial speech in New York. Noting that "the Government of the United States must stand as a unit in its relations with the rest of the world," President Truman announced, "I have today asked Mr. Wallace to resign from the Cabinet.;[49]
  • The landscape of the American and Canadian Niagara Falls was permanently altered when a 120 foot wide section of rock collapsed at 10:19 in the morning.;[50]

September 21, 1946 (Saturday)[edit]

  • Died: Vincent Benevento, 46, self-styled "Cheese King" of Chicago, was killed while vacationing in Lake Zurich, Illinois. After surviving being shot 10 times in a 1945 attack, Benevento died after being shot 7 more times in the new incident.[51]

September 22, 1946 (Sunday)[edit]

Berra
  • Yogi Berra made his major league debut, entering a game for the New York Yankees against the Philadelphia A's. Berra hit a home run in his first time at bat, and then went on to a colorful career.[52]
  • Albania played its first international soccer football match, defeating Montenegro 5-0[53]

September 23, 1946 (Monday)[edit]

  • The Iagting, legislature for the Faroe Islands, voted 12-11 in favor of creating a nation independent of Denmark, which had ruled since the year 1386, in accordance with the September 15 plebiscite. King Christian X dissolved the Iagting the next day and denied the resolution. On September 9, 1947, a new Faroen parliament accepted a Danish proposal for autonomy in a continued union with Denmark.[54]
  • In what would later become the South Vietnam, the Commissioner of the French controlled Autonomous Republic of Cochin-China issued an order authorizing the arrest of any Asian resident whose identity papers were not in order. Police and the French Army arrested more than 50,000 Vietnamese and conscripted them to work at the area's rubber plantations.[55]

September 24, 1946 (Tuesday)[edit]

  • White House counsel Clark Clifford presented President Truman with a top secret report, authored by George Elsey, and entitled "American Relations with the Soviet Union". "The U.S. must be prepared to wage atomic and biological warfare," the report stated in part, adding that "a war with the USSR would be 'total' in a more horrible sense than any previous war and there must be constant research for both offensive and defensive weapons."[56] In her biography of her father, Margaret Truman wrote that when Clifford said that only ten copies existed, Truman told him, "I want the other nine."[57] The Clifford-Elsey Report remained secret for was not revealed until 20 years later when a copy was given to Arthur Krock of the New York Times.[58]
  • Cathay Pacific Airways was founded by Roy C. Farrell and Sydney H. de Kantzow.[59]
  • Born: "Mean Joe Greene", American NFL player, as Charles Edward Greene in Temple, TX; and Lars Emil Johansen, 2nd Prime Minister of Greenland, 1991-1997; in Illorsuit
  • Died: Jeff Tesreau, 57, American baseball pitcher

September 25, 1946 (Wednesday)[edit]

  • African-American actor Canada Lee surprised and impressed audiences at Boston's Shubert Theatre, portraying Daniel de Bosola in a production of The Duchess of Malfi. In a reversal of the longtime practice, seen in minstrel shows, of white men donning blackface, Lee "opened a new field for Negro actors today by donning white makeup and portraying a white character for the first time in the history of the American stage", according to a UPI report.[60]
  • Born: Bishan Singh Bedi, Indian cricketer, in Amritsar.
  • Died: Dr. Hans Eppinger, physician at Dachau concentration camp who oversaw experiments on making seawater drinkable. Eppinger committed suicide as the Nuremberg War Crimes Trials were concluding.

September 26, 1946 (Thursday)[edit]

September 27, 1946 (Friday)[edit]

  • Defending world middleweight boxing champion Tony Zale retained his title against heavily favored challenger Rocky Graziano, in a bout at Yankee Stadium. A crowd of 39,827 watched Zale, fighting after four years of World War II service, knocked Graziano out midway through the sixth round.[62]
  • Nikolai V. Novikov, the Soviet ambassador to the United States sent a long telegram to his boss, Foreign Minister Vyacheslav Molotov, describing U.S. foreign policy as reflecting "imperialistic tendencies of monopolistic American capital" and "a striving for world supremacy". Analogous to George F. Kennan's February 22 "long telegram", the Novikov cable helped shape strategy for one nation against its greatest adversary during the Cold War. Classified for years, the cable was not released until 1990 as part of the "Conduct of the Cold War" conferences.[63]
  • Died: Geoffrey de Havilland Jr., British test pilot, was killed when his DH-108 jet, the Swallow broke apart as he reached Mach 0.875 as he was attempting supersonic flight.[64]

September 28, 1946 (Saturday)[edit]

  • Australian federal election, 1946: Despite losing some races, the Australian Labor Party, led by Prime Minister Ben Chifley, retained its majority in both houses of the legislature, with 30 of the 36 seats in the Senate,[65] and 43 of the 74 House of Representatives posts.[66]
  • King George II of Greece returned to the throne, four years after fleeing to the United Kingdom, stepping ashore at Piraeus at 10:00 am. Hours after greeting the monarch on his return, Prime Minister Constantine Tsaldaris and his entire cabinet resigned.[67]
  • The Popular NBC radio program, National Barn Dance, was broadcast for the last time. Chad Berry, The Hayloft Gang: The Story of the National Barn Dance (University of Illinois Press, 2008) p89
  • U.S. Army General and future United States President Dwight D. Eisenhower said at a press conference in Frankfurt that nuclear weapons should be made illegal, stating "I believe the outlawing of the atom bomb is the outlawing of wars... I think the time has come when humanity is intelligent enough to do away with war." "[68]
  • Born: Jeffrey Jones, American actor, best known as Mr. Rooney in Ferris Bueller's Day Off; in Buffalo, New York

September 29, 1946 (Sunday)[edit]

September 30, 1946 (Monday)[edit]

  • The Nuremberg War Crimes Tribunal announced its verdicts on 21 members of the Nazi German regime. Three (Fritz von Papen, Hjalmar Schacht and Hans Fritzsche) were acquitted, and the other 18 were convicted of crimes against humanity, receiving sentences the next day ranging from 10 years to death by hanging[71]
  • Born: Héctor Lavoe, Puerto Rican singer, in Ponce (d. 1993), and Claude Vorilhon, French-born 'messenger' of Raelism, in Vichy
  • Died: Takashi Sakai, Japanese general, 58 (executed) and Ernst Späth, 60, Austrian chemist

References[edit]

  1. ^ John S. Koliopoulos and Thanos M. Veremis, Modern Greece: a history since 1821 (John Wiley and Sons, 2009) p120; "Greek Monarchy Wins In Plebiscite; 8 Die In Voting Disturbances", Pittsburgh Press, September 2, 1946, p1
  2. ^ Justin Corfield, The History of Cambodia (ABC-CLIO, 2009) p43
  3. ^ Gavan Daws, Shoal of Time: A History of the Hawaiian Islands (University of Hawaii Press, 1974) p363
  4. ^ David Kamp, The United States of Arugula: How We Became a Gourmet Nation (Random House, Inc., 2007) p51
  5. ^ "Era of National Govt. Dawns", The Indian Express (Madras), September 3, 1946, p1
  6. ^ Jagdish Chandra Sharma, Indian Prime Ministership: A Comprehensive Study (Concept Publishing Company, 2002) p19-20
  7. ^ Nick Redfern, Body Snatchers in the Desert: The Horrible Truth at the Heart of the Roswell Story (Simon and Schuster, 2005) pp63-64
  8. ^ "Plane Crash In France Kills Score", Miami Daily News, September 4, 1946, p1
  9. ^ "18 Die, 2 Missing In Airliner Crash", Pittsburgh Press, September 5, 1946, p1
  10. ^ Cynthia Jacobs Carter, Freedom in My Heart: Voices from the United States National Slavery Museum National Geographic Books, 2009) p191
  11. ^ John Lewis Gaddis, The United States and the origins of the Cold War, 1941-1947 (Columbia University Press, 2000) p331; "Byrnes Urges Government For Germany", Pittsburgh Press, September 6, 1946, p1
  12. ^ Bob Carroll, Total Football: The Official Encyclopedia of the National Football League (HarperCollins, 1999) p528
  13. ^ Al Blackburn, Aces Wild: The Race for Mach 1 (Rowman & Littlefield, 1999) p11
  14. ^ "23 Killed in Crash Of Plane in Africa", Pittsburgh Press, September 7, 1946, p1
  15. ^ "Bulgar Boy King Loses His Thorne", Miami Daily News, September 9, 1946, p2-A
  16. ^ "Bulgaria's former king OK'd as premier", Milwaukee Journal-Sentinel, July 25, 2001, p7A
  17. ^ Robert McHenry, Famous American Women: A Biographical Dictionary from Colonial Times to the Present (Courier Dover Publications, 1983) p121
  18. ^ Trans-Australia Airlines Museum
  19. ^ Meg Greene, Mother Teresa: a biography (Greenwood Publishing Group, 2004) p27
  20. ^ Joseph Langford, Mother Teresa's Secret Fire: The Encounter That Changed Her Life, and How It Can Transform Your Own (Our Sunday Visitor Publishing, 2008) pp44
  21. ^ Pasquale Anthony Leonardo and Adam Zagoria, Ultimate: The First Four Decades (Ultimate History, Inc. 2010)
  22. ^ "COURT HALTS POWER STRIKE", Pittsburgh Press, September 10, 1946, p1
  23. ^ "Dodgers Battle to 19-Inning Scoreless Tie With Reds", New York Times, September 12, 1946, p11
  24. ^ William J. Pomeroy, The Philippines: Colonialism, Collaboration, and Resistance (International Publishers Co, 1992) p152
  25. ^ James Chace, Acheson: The Secretary of State Who Created the American World (Simon and Schuster, 2007) p158; "WALLACE TALK SPLITS CABINET", Miami Daily News, September 13, 1946, p1
  26. ^ [http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,777086,00.html THE PRESIDENCY: What I Meant to Say...", TIME Magazine, September 23, 1946
  27. ^ Henry Armin Herzog, And Heaven Shed No Tears (University of Wisconsin Press, 2005) p306
  28. ^ RussianSpaceWeb.com
  29. ^ "Williams' Homer Trips Indians 1-0; Blow to Left in First Inning Decides, Bringing First Flag to Boston Since 1918", New York Times, September 14, 1946
  30. ^ Constantine Mavroudis and Carl L. Backer, Pediatric Cardiac Surgery (Elsevier Health Sciences, 2003) p168
  31. ^ Randy Roberts, The rock, the curse, and the hub: a random history of Boston sports (Harvard University Press, 2005) p55
  32. ^ "U.S. Population in 1990 to be 165,000,000" Miami Daily News, September 15, 1946, p1
  33. ^ "Population and Area (Historical Censuses", U.S. Census Bureau
  34. ^ Paul Hemphill, Lovesick Blues: The Life of Hank Williams (Penguin Books, 2006) p60
  35. ^ Paul R. Gregory, Lenin's Brain and Other Tales from the Secret Soviet Archives (Hoover Press, 2008) pp64-66
  36. ^ Neil Sheehan, A Bright Shining Lie: John Paul Vann and America in Vietnam (Random House, Inc., 2009)
  37. ^ "Faroes Favor Freedom: Islands' Plebiscite Shows Small Margin So Far for Secession", New York Times, September 16, 1946, p1
  38. ^ "Bulgaria a Republic", Daytona Beach Morning Journal, September 16, 1946, p2 Peter John Georgeoff, The Social Education of Bulgarian Youth (University of Minnesota Press, 1968) p7
  39. ^ Donald Filtzer, The Hazards of Urban Life in Late Stalinist Russia: Health, Hygiene, and Living Standards, 1943-1953, (Cambridge University Press, 2010) p4
  40. ^ John Lamm and Chuck Queener, Ferrari: Stories from Those Who Lived the Legend, (MBI Publishing Company, 2007 p13
  41. ^ Andrew Zimbalist, In the Best Interests of Baseball?: The Revolutionary Reign of Bud Selig (John Wiley and Sons, 2007)
  42. ^ James Von Schilling, The Magic Window: American Television, 1939-1953 (Psychology Press, 2003) p75
  43. ^ "State of the Art", by Edward Rosen, SPIN Magazine (July 1985) p55
  44. ^ David Patterson, Encyclopedia of Holocaust Literature (Greenwood Publishing Group, 2002) p207; Elie Wiesel and Dorothy Rabinowicz, Dimensions of the Holocaust: Lectures at Northwestern University (Northwestern University Press, 1990) p69
  45. ^ Dennis David and Lloyd Laumann, Tonka (MBI Publishing Company, 2004) p14
  46. ^ "Churchill's Plea: United States of Europe", Sydney Morning Herald, September 20, 1946, p1; Manoranjan Dutta, European Union and the Euro revolution (Emerald Group Publishing, 2007)
  47. ^ Cannes Film Festival History; Remi Fournier Lanzoni, French Cinema: From Its Beginnings to the Present (Continuum International Publishing Group, 2004)
  48. ^ Steve Neal, Harry and Ike: The Partnership That Remade the Postwar World (Simon and Schuster, 2002) p92-93
  49. ^ "TRUMAN FIRES WALLACE: GAGS AIDES ON POLICY", Pittsburgh Press", September 20, 1946, p1; Robert H. Ferrell, Harry S. Truman: A Life (University of Missouri Press, 1996)
  50. ^ "Niagara Falls Section Collapses", Pittsburgh Press September 30, 1946, p1
  51. ^ "Wife Sees Gunmen Slay Cheese King", Miami Daily News, September 22, 1946, p1
  52. ^ Yogi Berra and Dave Kaplan, Ten Rings: My Championship Seasons (HarperCollins, 2003)
  53. ^ http://en.ukraine2012.gov.ua/tournament/team/25
  54. ^ "Independence Voiced By Faroes Assembly", Ottawa Citizen, September 24, 1946, p9; "Danish King Dissolves Faroes Parliament", September 25, 1946, p7; "Faroe Islands Accept Proposal", September 10, 1947, p9
  55. ^ Ngô Vĩnh Long, Before the Revolution: The Vietnamese Peasants Under the French (Columbia University Press, 1991) pp114-115
  56. ^ Ken Hechler, Working with Truman: A Personal Memoir of the White House Years (University of Missouri Press, 1996)
  57. ^ Margaret Truman, Harry S. Truman (William Morrow Co., 1972) p323
  58. ^ John Acacia, Clark Clifford: The Wise Man of Washington (University Press of Kentucky, 2009)
  59. ^ Cathay Pacific Airways History
  60. ^ "Negro Actor Plays White Man on Stage- Successful Performance May Open New Field in American Theater", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, September 26, 1946, p3
  61. ^ Richard Butwell, U Nu of Burma (Stanford University Press, 1969) p49
  62. ^ "Zale Staggers Back to Flatten Graziano", Milwaukee Journal, September 28, 1946, p6
  63. ^ John Lewis Gaddis, The Cold War: A New History (Penguin, 2006) p30
  64. ^ "Plane Hit 'Supersonic Wall' on Fatal Test Flight, Is Belief", Milwaukee Journal, September 29, 1946, p6; James P. Harrison, Mastering the Sky: A History of Aviation from Ancient Times to the Present (Da Capo Press, 2000) p217
  65. ^ "Australian Politics and Elections", University of Western Australia
  66. ^ elections.uwa.edu.au
  67. ^ "King George II Returns to the Throne in Greece", New York Times, September 30, 1946, p1
  68. ^ Gen. Eisenhower Urges Outlawing Of Atomic Bomb", St. Petersburg (FL) Times, September 29, 1946, p11
  69. ^ "Dodgers and Cards Muff Chance to Win Flag; Meet in Playoff", Milwaukee Journal, September 30, 1946
  70. ^ "Eagles Win Negro Title- Newark Nine Trips Kansas City Monarchs", New York Times, September 30, 1946
  71. ^ Carlos Santiago Nino, Radical Evil on Trial (Yale University Press, 1998); "Verdict Dooms 21 Nazis in War Trial", Pittsburgh Press, September 30, 1946, p1