|French: Matinée de Septembre|
September Morn, a part of the permanent collection of the Metropolitan Museum of Art
|Artist||Paul Émile Chabas|
|Type||Oil on canvas|
|Dimensions||163.8 cm × 216.5 cm (64.5 in × 85.2 in)|
|Location||Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York|
Matinée de Septembre (English: September Morn) is a controversial oil painting on canvas by the French artist Paul Émile Chabas. Painted over several summers ending in 1911, it depicts a nude girl or young woman standing in the shallow water of a lake, leaning slightly forward in an ambiguous posture of either attempting to protect her modesty or huddle against the cold. Its use of lighting and subject matter is typical of Chabas' work. Although several women have claimed to be the model, Chabas never revealed her identity. He later described the work as "all I know of painting", and responded positively to statements that it was his masterpiece.
September Morn was first exhibited at the Paris Salon of May 1912, and although sources disagree as to its first owner, it is clear that Leon Mantashev acquired the painting by the end of 1913. It was taken to Russia, and when the October Revolution broke out in 1917 September Morn was feared lost. It resurfaced in 1935, in the collection of Calouste Gulbenkian, and after his death in 1955 the work was sold to a Philadelphia broker, who donated it anonymously to the Metropolitan Museum of Art (the Met) in 1957. After fourteen years on display at the Met and other institutions, it was put into storage. As of 2014[update] it is not on display.
Reproductions of the painting caused controversy beginning in 1913, after an art dealer in Chicago was charged with indecency and another in New York was targeted by anti-vice crusader Anthony Comstock. As censorship and art were debated in newspapers, and despite the threat of censure, over the next several years September Morn was reproduced in a variety of forms, including on pins and calendars. Songs were written about it, stage shows imitated it, and films were produced inspired by it. Eventually some 7 million reproductions were sold, although Chabas – who had not copyrighted September Morn – did not receive any royalties.
September Morn received positive reviews during the 1912 Salon, though reviews in the mid-20th century have been more negative; recent authors widely describe the painting as kitsch. The work has also been argued to be a voyeuristic and paedophilically provocative image.
- 1 Description
- 2 Background
- 3 Creation; identity of model
- 4 History
- 5 Reception
- 6 Explanatory notes
- 7 References
- 8 Works cited
- 9 External links
September Morn obliquely depicts a naked girl or young woman standing ankle deep in the water near the shoreline of a tranquil lake surrounded by hills. The lone figure is backlit by the morning sun, but fully visible. Her arms are folded about her body, her right arm passing below her breasts as she grasps her left elbow, while her left arm conceals her pubic area.[a] This pose has been variously interpreted as the subject protecting herself from the cold, covering her modesty, or sponge bathing, or as the artist's "fetishisation of innocence".
Reviews in 1912 noted that the painting was dominated by grays: the gray of the woman's shaded body, the blue-grays of the September water, the green-grays of the sky, and the pink-grays of the hills. The art critic François Thiébault-Sisson described this as evoking the morning, the young subject preparing to bathe while "light grey vapours are still floating over the lake". This oil painting on canvas measures 163.8×216.5 centimetres (64.5×85.2 in), and Chabas' signature is located in the lower left.
By the time he painted September Morn, Paul Émile Chabas (1869–1937) already had an established career as an academic artist. First participating in the Paris Salon in 1886, Chabas regularly submitted his work to the venue. He won a 3rd class medal in the Salon of 1895, and four years later his painting Joyeux ébats won the Prix National; the work earned him a gold medal at the 1900 Exposition Universelle and was acquired by the Musée des Beaux-Arts de Nantes. In subsequent years Chabas would spend the winters working in Paris, while in the summers he would pass painting young women along the shores of rivers, lakes, and seas. In 1902 he was made a Chevalier in the Legion of Honour.[b]
Chabas is cited as having studied under artists such as Tony Robert-Fleury, William-Adolphe Bouguereau, and Albert Maignan. Although his earlier works were generally portraits, most of the painter's later output consisted of nude girls and young women. The lakes and rivers of France were common settings for his paintings, and the interaction of light with the models and surroundings was prominent. September Morn is typical of his style.
J. Valmy-Baysse, in a 1910 overview of the artist, attributes this setting to the painter's time at the family summer home along the Erdre; he identifies the "grace of adolescence, its undefinable charm, [and] its chaste nudity" of the models with Chabas' reminiscences of his youth.[c] The art historian Bram Dijkstra has argued otherwise, stating that "no artist was more assiduous in exploiting the prurient possibilities of the woman-child" than Chabas, whom he considers to have "emphasized analogies of nude little girls and the familiar poses of vanity or physical arousal given to adult women".
Nudity and art
Female nudes were the dominant subject of painting in French Salons at the end of the 19th century; female models had supplanted male ones beginning in the early 19th century, first serving allegorical roles or as muses, but eventually becoming individuals "who could be classified and whose history could be written". In academic art – such as that of Chabas – the models were not portrayed as they were, but as idealized nudes, based on classical ideals; the body hair of women models, for instance, would not be shown, and the pubic area was rendered smoothly. Other schools, such as the hostess Suzanne Delve, who later claimed to have stood for September Morn, said that models were willing to provide "service to art" by posing nude for such works.
This is not to say that all forms of nude imagery were acceptable in France. The end of the 19th century had seen the introduction of various laws against pornography, images of adults and children meant to "provoke, incite, or stimulate debauchery". Works targeted were initially those meant for wide distribution (and thus, the lower class). However, by the early 1910s, Brauer writes, the line between art and pornography was blurred; even tighter laws, introduced in 1908, had resulted in censorship of modernist works. For instance, three paintings by Kees van Dongen (including two of his daughter) were rejected from the Salon d'Automne between 1911 and 1913 for being indecent.
The United States had, since colonial times, generally been more conservative in terms of art than Europe. In the mid- and late-19th century the country's government implemented laws against obscenity, such as the Tariff of 1842 which banned imports of foreign works of art deemed to be obscene. By the end of the 19th century, an uneasy understanding had been reached: museums could hold works depicting nudity, but commercial works (including photographs of artwork) could be – and were – confiscated. However, tensions remained over the issue of whether nudes represented European-style sophistication (important to the upper-class) or encouraged behaviors which threatened families and encouraged "impure imaginations".
Creation; identity of model
There are several versions of how September Morn was completed. According to Chabas, he began work on September Morn in mid-1910, at Talloires on the shores of Lake Annecy in Haute-Savoie. The model, whom he never identified but referred to as "Marthe", was well known to his family. Owing to the financial situation of the young woman's family, "Marthe" had to work to support her mother. On the first day of painting, "Marthe" entered the morning water and instinctively recoiled at its chilliness. Chabas approved of this pose, saying that it was "perfect". Over the course of two summers he worked on the painting, half an hour every morning. The work was completed on a September morning in 1911,[d] giving the painting its name. In 1935, responding to claims that "Marthe" was now living in poverty, Chabas explained that she had continued posing for him until she was 28, when she married a rich industrialist, and that she was then aged 41, plump, and had three children.
Numerous women have claimed or been claimed to be the model, some presenting different versions of events. In 1913, a Miss Louise Buckley, performing in Eugene, Oregon, claimed to have been the model, stating that she had been paid $1,000 and posed in the artist's studio. The Paris-based artist Jules Pages, meanwhile, stated that the woman depicted in September Morn had been a 25-year-old of good character who earned her living as an artist's model, but had gone into hiding after the controversy over the painting. Other claimants included a Swedish model named Gloria and a variety actress named Irene Shannon; the latter made the claim in the lead-up to a vaudeville skit called "November Mourning".
In 1937, the Parisian hostess Suzanne Delve declared that she had been the model. In her version of events, Chabas – who she said had known her since she was an infant – had her pose nude in his studio and then later painted Lake Annecy without her. Delve described her nervousness at the first session, her mother chatting to her to distract her mind while Chabas' wife played soothing music on the piano. She said she took her pose "instinctively" and that the controversy over the painting had ruined her life, as no Frenchman would want to marry a woman marred by scandal.
Yet another version is presented by the Metropolitan Museum of Art (the Met) in their 1966 catalogue of French holdings, including September Morn. According to this telling, Chabas completed the painting over three summers at Lake Annecy. However, his peasant model served only as the basis for the figure's body. The head was based on a sketch of a young American, Julie Phillips, which Chabas had completed upon observing her and her mother dining in Paris; finding her profile to his liking, he silently drew her, then introduced himself and "apologized for his presumption".
Paris Salon and first sale
Chabas first exhibited September Morn in the Paris Salon of May 1912; not planning on selling the painting, Chabas gave a price of 50,000 francs ($10,000) – more than he expected anybody to pay. For the painting, and his Portrait of Mme. Aston Knight, Chabas won a Medal of Honor, receiving 220 of 359 possible votes. At the Salon, the painting created no controversy, and it was soon reprinted in American publications such as Town & Country and The International Studio.
Sources are unclear as to the provenance of the painting after the Salon. According to the Met, the New York-based Philip (or Philippe) Ortiz had purchased the painting in late 1912. Ortiz owned the Holland House Bar, and according to a 1933 report in the Middletown Times Herald paid 12,000 francs ($2,400) for the work; in this version, Ortiz never brought the painting back to the United States, as his bar had already closed. However, Brauer writes that he sent it to his gallery in New York, where it caused a controversy.[e] According to the Met, the painting was later acquired by Leon Mantashev in c. 1913; Time states that this sale occurred after the painting was returned to Chabas.
A 1935 article in the Montreal Gazette, however, stated that the original September Morn had yet to go to the United States, and that Chabas had sold it directly to Mantashev. Chabas had stated in 1914 that an American had approached him to purchase the painting, but was unwilling to pay the asking price, and as such the sale was automatically forfeited; Mantashev, however, was willing to pay, and thus the work was sold to him. Although it is possible that the original painting did not cross the Atlantic by 1913, it is clear that reproductions did.
Controversy and popularity
A full size reproduction of September Morn was displayed in a window of Jackson and Semmelmeyer, a photography shop in Chicago, Illinois, in March 1913.[f] A passing police officer noticed the print and insisted that it was indecent and had to be taken down.[g] The mayor of the city, Carter Harrison, Jr., agreed with the policeman's decision, stating that the image could be sold, but should not be displayed in public as children could see it. Fred Jackson, the owner of the gallery, was charged with indecency, and upon his request the case was brought to trial on March 18.
In front of a jury, the city's art censor Jeremiah O'Connor argued that September Morn was lewd and thus should not be displayed in public, but rather only in a museum exhibition.[h] W. W. Hallam of the Chicago Vice Committee agreed, arguing that, as the woman was committing the illegal act of bathing in public, September Morn had to be banned. Other witnesses for the prosecution included censors, educators, and clergy, such as superintendent Ella Flagg Young and head of the Juvenile Protective Association Gertrude Howe Britton.
Jackson, acting as his own lawyer, highlighted the hypocrisy of censoring the painting while a nude statue of Diana could be found in front of the Montgomery Ward Building. He called upon painters, poets, and sculptors as his witnesses, including the artist Oliver Grover and the art critic Walter Smith.[i] In his testimony, Grover stated "A nude woman is no more indecent than a bare tree. Men and women weren't born with overcoats on. Anyhow, indecency may be decidedly apart from nudity".
After less than an hour of deliberations,[j] the jury found for Jackson, allowing him to reinstate the image in his display; Jackson was so pleased that he promised a free copy to each juror. However, ten days after the trial Mayor Harrison went to city council and proposed stricter obscenity laws. The city government agreed, and imposed a $25–100 fine for displaying nude art along public roads and in places frequented by children. By September Jackson (together with fellow art dealers Samuel Meyer and William Kuhl) had been found in violation of this law. Mayor Harrison later stated that he was "through" with the painting, saying "Chicago has been made the laughing stock of the whole country because of this bathing girl picture".
Further controversy arose in New York in May 1913, two months after the conclusion of the Chicago trial. Anthony Comstock, head of the New York Society for the Suppression of Vice and nationally recognized for his campaigns against "smut",[k] saw September Morn[l] on display in the window of Braun and Company, an art dealership on West 46th Street. Rushing inside, he raged "There's too little morn and too much maid! Take it out!".[m] A clerk, James Kelly, removed the painting, but Ortiz, the gallery's manager, reinstated it in the window upon returning from his lunch break.
Comstock threatened Ortiz with legal action, while the gallery owner refused to sell September Morn so that it could remain in his window. This controversy was highly covered in the press, and following Comstock's visit large crowds blocked the street outside Braun & Company, ogling September Morn. After two weeks, when the dealership had sold every print they had, Ortiz removed the painting; in a letter to the editor of The New York Times, he accused Comstock of causing the controversy to earn greater publicity for himself, and stated that he wearied of crowds outside his shop, who blocked paying customers from entering it. Ultimately, Comstock did not pursue legal action.[n]
The controversy promoted polemics regarding the painting and censorship, and multiple editorial cartoons; one depicted a young woman bathing, only her head showing, with a caption attributed to Comstock reading "Don't you suppose I can imagine what is UNDER the water?". Comstock called the painting "demoralizing in the extreme and especially calculated to excite immodesty in the young", arguing that it must be suppressed in the interest of the children. He emphasized that "the law is the law ... the picture will have to come out of the window". Reverend Sydney Ussher of St. Bartholomew's Episcopal Church took a more moderate approach, explaining that "so vivid a display of nudity as September Morn" would best not be displayed in [the United States], owing to the people's relative lack of appreciation for art".
Other, more positive, views were also expressed. The suffragist Inez Milholland defended the painting, stating that it was "exquisite and delicate, depicting perfect youth and innocence", and found it "funny, if it weren't so sad" that such a painting would be censored while more titillating film posters were left untouched. The social activist Rose Pastor Stokes was likewise positive, writing that this "glorious work of art" was a "rare" depiction of "the loveliest dream that nature ever made real—the human Body Beautiful" and that shame over one's body should not be blamed on the painting, but on a failed education system. The artist James Montgomery Flagg proclaimed "only a diseased mind can find anything immoral in September Morn".
In his 1931 autobiography, public relations pioneer Harry Reichenbach claimed responsibility for the controversy surrounding September Morn – and the work's resulting popularity. However, sources differ in the chronology of events. Jonathon Green's Encyclopedia of Censorship has Reichenbach acquiring the painting and bringing it to New York. Journalist Bob Considine, meanwhile, gives Braun and Company as having acquired some 2,000 reproductions of the painting which they could not sell; in this version, Reichenbach asked for $45 if he could unload the stock, then paid for a large lithograph reproduction to be made and put on display. Reichenbach then contacted public figures to protest against the display. When there was no response, he accosted Comstock in his office and dragged him to the dealership, where a "small gallery of urchins", young children Reichenbach had hired for fifty cents each, lusted over the painting. The public relations man then worked towards maintaining interest in the painting, prints of which had already increased in price.
Wide-spread reproduction and imitation
A 1937 Salt Lake Tribune article stated that, after the 1913 controversies, reproductions of September Morn were shown "on the front page of every newspaper in the land". These publications, however, were sometimes censored. Fred L. Boalt of The Seattle Star, covering a local exhibit of a reproduction, explained his newspaper's rationale for such censorship thusly: "For humane as well as other reasons, [...] the Star artist has painted in a short petticoat. He didn't want to do it. He suffered. But we made him do it".
Lithograph copies of September Morn were popularly sold for over a decade, extending the success that followed the scandal, and were widely hung in private homes. Reproductions were featured on a variety of products, including cigar bands, suspenders, postcards, bottle openers, statuettes, watch fobs, and candy boxes. According to a 1973 Associated Press report it was the first nude used for calenders, and by the late 1950s it had featured on millions. A couplet referring to Chabas' work, "Please don't think I'm bad or bold, but where its deep its awful cold", was also widely circulated.
References to the painting were common in vaudeville acts, becoming stock gags in the Orpheum Circuit. Stage imitations of the painting were also created. In 1913, for instance, Florenz Ziegfeld, Jr. cast Ann Pennington as the model as part of his Follies. In this successful version of September Morn, the subject bore a sheer cape, with leaves placed strategically over her body, and stood on a stage made-up as water. A burlesque act, deeming itself the "September Morning Glories", was also created, as was a three-act musical based on the painting. The latter – featuring a fifty-strong chorus line – was put on by Arthur Gillespie and Frank Tannehill, Jr. and debuted at the La Salle Theater. In Milwaukee, a man wearing "little or no clothing" passed himself off as "September Morn" in a 1915 state fair; he was brought to trial and fined $25. Theatrical references to the painting continued into the 1950s. For instance, in Tennessee Williams's 1957 play Orpheus Descending, the character Val sees it hanging in his room and mentions he "might keep turning the light on to take another look at it".
September Morn also inspired several films. A two-reel production by Pathé, titled September Morn, was released in February 1915 and followed the misadventures of a sailor who gets a tattoo of the model. After his girlfriend disapproves, he tries clothing the naked woman with a ripped skirt, but this fails to gain his lover's approval; ultimately, he ends up with a fully clothed nude and the text "Votes for Women" inked on his arm. Meanwhile, September Mourning, a November 1915 release produced by L-KO, portrayed a pair of artists first vying for the attentions of a young woman in the park, then invading a school for girls. Robert McElravy, reviewing for Moving Picture World, found the film funny, but considered it to lack plot. A third film, Lois Weber's Hypocrites, portrayed "The Naked Truth" (an uncredited Margaret Edwards) in a manner similar to Chabas' model.
Several songs inspired by September Morn were likewise released. Musicians Frank Black and Bobby Heath penned a song, "September Morn", based on the painting, and Aubrey Stauffer of Chicago published sheet music (for voice and piano) of "Oh, You September Morn", from Gillespie and Tannehill's musical. At Tin Pan Alley, Henry I. Marshall composed two works, a waltz for piano titled "Matin de Septembre (September Morn)", and a piece for voice and piano titled "September Morn (I'd Like to Meet Her)". Both were published through Jerome H. Remick & Co. in 1913, and the latter featured lyrics by Stanley Murphy.
As interest grew, purity societies attempted to ban reproductions of September Morn, and persons in possession of them ran the risk of confiscation and fines. Postcards bearing the painting were banned from the postal system. Harold Marx, a New Orleans art dealer who displayed a reproduction, was arrested a month after being told to take the painting down; displays of reproductions were also forcibly removed in Miami and Atlanta. In Chicago, a man was charged with disorderly conduct after bringing home a reproduction. Irene Deal, who dressed in a union suit and posed as "Miss September Morn" in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, as a publicity stunt, was controversially fined $50 for disorderly conduct. In 1914, students at the College of Wooster in Wooster, Ohio, burned a copy of the painting for being against their religious beliefs.
Ultimately some 7 million reproductions of September Morn were sold, and the "steady stream" of reproductions continued into the late 1930s; as late as the 1960s prints remained popular. Reichenbach characterized this popularity as a "laugh on the overzealous guardians of virtue" in which the entire American populace participated. Inspired by the commercial success of September Morn, displays of images of nude women became more common; a New York Times reader wrote that they had become "increasingly vulgar and suggestive".
In 1937 Life deemed September Morn "one of the most familiar paintings in the world", and a retrospective Toledo Blade article characterized the model as having become America's number one pin-up girl. Writing in 1957, Considine declared September Morn to be "the most controversial painting in the history of [the United States]", and the New York Post declared it "the most famous nude till the Marilyn Monroe calendar". In a 1961 American Heritage article, Gerald Carson wrote that September Morn had caused "the most heated controversy over nudity, art, and morals" in the United States since Hiram Powers' statue The Greek Slave in the 1840s.
Russia and Paris
The oil baron Leon Mantashev[o] acquired the original September Morn in c. 1913, for a price of $10,000. He brought it with him to Russia, and after the outbreak of the October Revolution the painting was feared destroyed; after Mantashev fled Russia, pieces of his sizeable collection considered to have artistic value were sent to museums, but there was no information regarding works such as September Morn. By 1933 Chabas was seeking information regarding his work's fate, which The Milwaukee Journal suggested to be "hanging in some crowded Russian room, its owner perhaps completely ignorant of its world fame". At the time several American galleries had copies which were purported to be the original.
However, the painting was safe; Mantashev had smuggled it out of the country, reportedly "rip[ping] it out of its frame" when the revolution broke out. In the early 1930s, in desperate need of funds, he sold September Morn to Armenian art collector and philanthropist Calouste Gulbenkian for $30,000;[p] it was the last painting he owned. A United Press reporter discovered the painting, which was framed as a tondo, in Gulbenkian's Paris home in 1935. There it hung with works by artists such as Claude Monet and Paul Cézanne. By 1937 September Morn was on display in the Musée du Luxembourg, hung between works by Jean-François Raffaëlli and Eugène Carrière. After Gulbenkian's death in 1955, the painting was acquired by Wildenstein and Company of New York.
Acquisition by the Metropolitan Museum of Art
September Morn was purchased by the Philadelphia broker and sportsman William Coxe Wright for $22,000 in 1957. In April of that year he offered it to the Philadelphia Museum of Art, but the painting was rejected for having "no relation to the stream of 20th century art". Eventually he anonymously donated the work – valued at an estimated $30,000 – to the Metropolitan Museum of Art (the Met) in New York City. Speaking for the museum, Dudley T. Easby explained that, although the painting could not be classified as a masterpiece, it was nevertheless "a part of art history in view of the controversy that raged around the picture in earlier years".
After acquisition, in September 1957 the painting was displayed near the Met's front entrance, taking a place previously occupied by the Pérussis Altarpiece. This position of honor was held for several weeks. Hughes reported a "veritable pilgrimage" of visitors came to see the painting, which she considered to add a "fresh, popular appeal" to the Met which had drawn museum-goers who would never have come otherwise. By then, however, the earlier scandal of the model's nudity had lessened; discussing an exhibit of the painting in Toledo, Ohio, Alan Schoedel of the Toledo Blade quoted a viewer as saying that 1950s America was so inundated with racy calendar art that the painting "couldn't stand the competition".
After September Morn was acquired by the Met, it was displayed at several venues, including the Palace of the Legion of Honor in San Francisco in 1958, the Toledo Museum of Art in Toledo, Ohio (also 1958), and by the Municipal Art Commission of Los Angeles in 1959. Six years later it was again exhibited at Palace of the Legion of Honor, as part of an exhibition of works collected by the Wrights. In 1971, the Met took September Morn off display and sent it to storage; Walter Monfried of The Milwaukee Journal wrote that the once-racy painting was now considered "too tame and banal". In September 2014, the MET's website listed the painting as not on display, though it had been hung in the museum around 2011.
Chabas was "pained and humiliated" by the controversy over September Morn, though later in life his view changed. He described the work as "all I know of painting", and responded positively to statements that it was his masterpiece. In a 1914 interview, he explained that he had not meant to sell the painting, as it "was [his] wife's favorite picture". At the time of his death in 1937, Chabas had only a single picture in his room: a reproduction of the painting, completed from memory; he had boasted "If I had never seen it from the day I put down my brushes after painting it, I could make a perfect copy". However, not having copyrighted the work, he did not receive any royalties from the marketing frenzy in the United States; he recalled, "Nobody was thoughtful enough even to send me a box of cigars".
Reviewing the painting after the Salon, Tr.L. in the Larousse Mensuel illustré (fr) praised Chabas' technique as being drawing "of a rare purity", and modelling "of a remarkable delicacy".[q] Henri Frantz, reviewing the Paris Salon for The International Studio, described September Morn as "one of the [Salon]'s most remarkable figure subjects", highlighting the nude's "graceful form". In Le Temps, François Thiébault-Sisson found that, despite an "excessively translucent technique", the painting had "indisputable charm" and included "superior, very artistic, and delicately composed" imagery. A 1913 article in the Oregon Daily Journal described the model as "beautifully drawn", and suggested that "it requires a powerful imagination to find anything suggestive in the work".
Later reviews were less positive. The director of the Met, James Rorimer, wrote in 1957 that September Morn stood at "different ends of a wide spectrum" than the works of Old Masters and "modern giants", but was important in helping viewers "realize the full benefit of our heritage" in their explorations of past and present art. That year, the Montreal Gazette 's art critic opined that the painting was banal and unacceptable for display in the Met's main hall. The reviewer suggested that September Morn, with its "delicate, pearly tonality and simple, sparse, airy composition", would be best served by being displayed among works considered better by early 20th-century collectors but since reviewed poorly, to "dramatiz[e] for the public the danger of too-hasty judgments".
In 1958, Blake-More Godwin of the Toledo Museum of Art stated that, although September Morn was certainly art, it was not "great art" and overshadowed by the controversy it had created; the painting, he said, "bears the same relationship to art as a minor poem does to the classic and the imperishable". Three years later, in an article in The Kenyon Review, Alfred Werner described September Morn as a "classic of kitsch" and "the 'idealized' nude at its worst": "without a wrinkle of the skin, without any breathing of the flesh ... pink, soft, spineless". This classification of kitsch has been applied by several further writers, including Kendrick and the film scholar Norman Taylor.
Brauer questions the judgment of September Morn as an innocent depiction of the pubescent model,[r] writing that, although the nude "seems to embody the moral purity at puberty" this innocence is actually a fetishistic mechanism which both allowed the work to pass the censors and be eroticised. Brauer highlights the "voyeuristic" view of the model and her pose, arguing that her right arm underscores the model's "bud-stage" breasts while the left directs the viewer's eye to her pubic region. Ultimately, Brauer concludes that the painting is "paedophilically provocative", and that Chabas was protected from censure by his status as an established artist and father. She has elsewhere questioned whether works such as September Morn can continue to be exhibited "innocent of paedophilic dimension", or whether they must be recontextualised as "awkward, anomalous and aberrant".
- The pose assumed by the model in September Morn is similar to the one taken by the model of Au crépuscule (At Twilight), a painting Chabas completed in c. 1905 (Musée d'Orsay, Au crépuscule), which was acquired by the Musée du Luxembourg in 1909 (Valmy-Baysse 1910, p. 10). A 1913 Milwaukee Sentinel article described the only difference being that the girl in Au crépuscule had long, straight hair, and that she clasped her right elbow with her left hand (The Milwaukee Sentinel 1913).
- Chabas would later go on to head the Société des Artistes Français (Kingsport Times-News 1957).
- Original: "Toute la gracilité de l'adolescence, son charme indéfinissable, sa nudité chaste..."
- Some sources erroneously give 1912 (such as Time 1957); this would have been impossible, as the painting was displayed at the Salon in May 1912.
- This is also corroborated by a 1935 Time piece (Time 1935).
- The store was located at 44 Wabash Avenue (Chicago Daily Tribune 1913).
- Sources disagree as to the name of this policeman. Boalt (1913, p. 1) gives "Jerry Sullivan", while The Milwaukee Journal gives "Fred Rirsch" (The Milwaukee Journal 1913, Paris).
- In an interview with the Chicago Daily Tribune, O'Connor stated that he personally liked the painting, but considered it "embarrassing for women to look at" and thought displays would have a negative impact on young boys. He drew a comparison with the Bible, explaining that it "may be good reading for people who understand it, but some chapters are not intended for young folks" (Chicago Daily Tribune 1913).
- The Milwaukee Journal reprinted one poem in defense of the painting, as follows (The Milwaukee Journal 1913, Beautiful):
Sometime, glad time, in Arcady, I want
to live a day
With Joy's slim daughter of the dawn
to teach my love the way;
To live a day without the clothes, the
coin, the masquerade
That burden so the struggle here—of
Sometime, dear time, in Arcady, im-
mune from 'pure' police
I hope to find the picture true, that
caught its light from Greece;
To be as true to life, dear life, as is the
Within the dawning of the day where
new ideals gleam.
- Sources differ as to the exact length of deliberations. The San Francisco Call gives 20 minutes (San Francisco Call 1913), while the Escanaba Morning Press gives 45 (Escanaba Morning Press 1913).
- Comstock had spearheaded laws at the end of the 19th century which prohibited the inter-state commerce of material deemed indecent or pornographic. Though he had wide popular support, he also had numerous detractors. Comstock boasted that he had seized more than 160 tons of indecent material during his career (Healion 1964, p. 42). He was not averse to arresting art dealers he considered to be peddling reproductions of obscene works; in 1887, for instance, he had arrested Roland Knoedler of the Knoedler Gallery for selling nudes painted by artists such as William-Adolphe Bouguereau and Jules Joseph Lefebvre (Beisel 1998, p. 109).
- Sources differ on whether it was the original (as in Brauer (2011, p. 124) and The Tuscaloosa News 1937) or a print (as in Taylor (2012, p. 166)). A contemporary report describes the controversial image as "grac[ing] a frame less than a foot high" (The Sun 1913, Nude Maid), and in 1933 Ortiz stated that it was a print (Middletown Times Herald 1933).
- Other versions are phrased "There's too little morning and too much maid!" (Monfried 1971, p. 9), or include further lines such as "It ought to have been pitch dark for a girl to go wading like that" (The Tuscaloosa News 1937). The version told by Monfried (1971, p. 9) includes Comstock commenting on Jean-François Millet's The Goose Girl while leaving.
- Kendrick (1996, p. 147) attributes this to him showing leniency as September Morn was a work of art, whereas Carson (1961) attributes it to a knowledge that no action could be taken against the painting.
- Also Mantacheff (MET, September Morn). The son of Armenian oil magnate Alexander Mantashev, Leon was known for his extravagant lifestyle. Robert W. Tolf, in his history of the Russian oil industry, describes him as "Russia's greatest gambler, a collector of paintings, race horses, and beautiful women" (Tolf 1976, p. 100).
- The Met gives 1931 (MET, September Morn) while a 1935 Montreal Gazette article states that the sale happened the preceding year (The Montreal Gazette 1935)
- Original: "le dessin ... d'une rare pureté, et le modelé d'une finesse remarquable"
- Bauer she that the model was aged 13 when the painting was completed; the age of consent in France at the time was 16 (Brauer 2011, p. 123).
- Tr.L 1912, p. 465.
- Brauer 2011, p. 136.
- San Francisco Call 1913.
- Shteir 2004, p. 59.
- Brauer 2011, p. 122.
- Pattison 1913, p. 243.
- quoted in Brauer 2011, p. 123; translation by Brauer
- MET, September Morn.
- Sterling & Salinger 1966, pp. 222–23.
- Valmy-Baysse 1910, p. 6.
- Valmy-Baysse 1910, p. 7.
- Kingsport Times-News 1957.
- Valmy-Baysse 1910, p. 13.
- Brauer 2011, p. 124.
- Valmy-Baysse 1910, p. 11.
- Logansport Pharos-Tribune 1937.
- Sterling & Salinger 1966, p. 221.
- Stratton 1914, p. 421.
- Valmy-Baysse 1910, pp. 4–5.
- Quoted in Witchard 2009, pp. 126, 186
- Lathers 2001, pp. 24.
- Failing 2003, p. 175.
- Salt Lake Tribune 1937.
- Brauer 2011, p. 128.
- Failing 2003, p. 176.
- Cornog & Perper 1994, pp. 98–99.
- Beisel 1998, p. 109.
- Beisel 1998, pp. 112, 119.
- Monfried 1971, p. 9.
- The Gazette and Daily 1937.
- The Indiana Gazette 1933.
- The San Bernardino County Sun 1935.
- Time 1935.
- Daily Guard 1913.
- The Oregon Daily Journal 1913, 'September Morn'.
- The Milwaukee Journal 1921.
- The Pittsburgh Press 1913.
- The Leavenworth Times 1913.
- Oakland Tribune 1914.
- The International Studio 1912, p. 223.
- Green & Karolides 2009, p. 506.
- Pattison 1913, p. 244.
- Frantz 1912, p. 107.
- The Sun 1913, Nude Maid.
- Middletown Times Herald 1933.
- Brauer 2011, pp. 123–24.
- Time 1957.
- The Montreal Gazette 1935.
- Kendrick 1996, p. 147.
- The Milwaukee Journal 1913, Beautiful.
- Chicago Daily Tribune 1913.
- The Spokesman-Review 1913.
- The Milwaukee Journal 1913, Don't be Afraid.
- Boalt 1913, p. 1.
- Escanaba Morning Press 1913.
- Garvey 1988, p. 158.
- The Sun 1913, Chabas's Picture.
- Taylor 2012, p. 166.
- The New York Times 1913, Wearies.
- Healion 1964, p. 42.
- Oregon Daily Journal 1913, September Morn.
- Reichenbach & Freedman 1931, pp. 104–05.
- Considine 1957, p. 3.
- Carson 1961.
- Sarasota Herald-Tribune 1973.
- The Berkshire County Eagle 1957.
- Vallillo 1981, p. 27.
- Adams, Keene & Koella 2012, p. 75.
- Toledo Blade 1958.
- The Charlotte News 1915.
- The Milwaukee Sentinel 1915.
- Williams 1971, p. 296.
- Taylor 2012, pp. 166–67.
- Moving Picture World 1914, September Morn.
- McElravy 1915, p. 1319.
- WorldCat, Oh You September Morn.
- WorldCat, Matin de Septembre.
- WorldCat, September Morn.
- The Indianapolis Star 1913.
- The Miami News 1983.
- Variety 1913, Ideal's 'Morn'.
- Variety 1913, Ideal is Fined.
- The Washington Post.
- Life 1937, Painter.
- Werner 1961, pp. 219–20.
- The New York Times 1915.
- quoted in Brauer 2011, p. 124
- Toledo Blade 1957.
- The Milwaukee Journal 1933.
- The Milwaukee Journal 1937.
- Levine 2007, p. 48.
- Beaver Valley Times 1957.
- Werner 1961, p. 219.
- Hughes 1957, p. 15.
- Schoedel 1958, p. 1.
- Brauer 2011, p. 139.
- Frantz 1912, p. 102.
- Rorimer 1957, p. 1.
- The Montreal Gazette 1957.
- Taylor 2012, p. 221.
- Brauer 2011, p. 123.
- Brauer 2011, pp. 130–31, 136–39.
- Brauer 2011, pp. 131, 139.
- Brauer 2001.
- "5,000 Artists Leap Back to Savagery Over Night". The Milwaukee Journal. June 16, 1921. p. 1. Retrieved September 18, 2014 – via Google News Archive.
- "A Male September Morn? No! Why, Yes!". The Milwaukee Sentinel. September 18, 1915. p. 3. Retrieved September 17, 2014 – via Google News Archive.
- Adams, Katherine H; Keene, Michael L; Koella, Jennifer Campbell (2012). Seeing the American Woman, 1880-1920: The Social Impact of the Visual Media Explosion. McFarland. ISBN 978-0-7864-6661-0.
- "Amusements". The Charlotte News. December 8, 1915. p. 3 – via Newspapers.com.
- "Art: Lady of the Lake". Time 70 (10). September 2, 1957. ISSN 0040-781X. (subscription required)
- "Art: Twenty-five Years After". Time 25 (11). March 18, 1935. ISSN 0040-781X. (subscription required)
- "Artist Reveals Story of 'September Morn' Untrue". The San Bernardino County Sun. March 8, 1935. p. 6 – via Newspapers.com.
- "Artist Seeks Trace of Nude". Middletown Times Herald. March 16, 1933. p. 7. Retrieved September 17, 2014 – via Newspapers.com.
- "Au crépuscule" (in French). Musée d'Orsay. Archived from the original on September 19, 2014. Retrieved September 19, 2014.
- "Beautiful Bathing Girl Is Victor For Art, But Policeman Doubts". Escanaba Morning Press. March 25, 1913. p. 5. Retrieved September 19, 2014 – via Newspapers.com.
- "Bared At Last: The Girl Who Was 'September Morn"". The Salt Lake Tribune. January 10, 1937. p. 84. Retrieved September 17, 2014 – via Newspapers.com.
- "Beautiful Shivering Girl on Trial; Must September Morn Be Clothed?". The Milwaukee Journal. March 21, 1913. p. 6. Retrieved September 17, 2014 – via Google News Archive.
- Beisel, Nicola (1998). "Censorship, Audiences, and the Victorian Nude". In Smith, Philip. The New American Cultural Sociology. Cambridge University Press. pp. 109–25. ISBN 978-0-521-58415-9.
- Brauer, Fae (2001). "Picturing Paedophilia: The Salon Nymphettes and Child Pornography of 'la Belle Époque'". 27th Annual Conference of the Association of Art Historians. Oxford, England. Archived from the original on September 21, 2014.
- Brauer, Fae (2011). "'Moral Girls' and 'Filles Fatales': The Fetishisation of Innocence". Australian and New Zealand Journal of Art 10 (1): 122–143. ISSN 1443-4318.
- Boalt, Fred L. (May 20, 1913). "That Shameless Hussy Miss Morn Comes to Town; Poses in 2nd Ave. Window Where All May See". The Seattle Star. p. 1. Retrieved September 16, 2014 – via Library of Congress.
- Carson, Gerald (August 1961). "They Knew What They Liked". American Heritage 12 (5). ISSN 0002-8738. Archived from the original on September 26, 2014.
- "Censor Praises Nude Study, But Says It's Not For Wife". Chicago Daily Tribune. March 19, 1913. p. 12. Retrieved September 19, 2014 – via Newspapers.com.
- "Chabas' Original Work Never in the US". The Montreal Gazette. March 29, 1935. p. 6. Retrieved September 17, 2014 – via Google News Archive.
- "Chabas's Picture Approved". The Sun. June 27, 1913. p. 9. Retrieved September 23, 2014 – via Library of Congress.
- "Chicago Still Squabbles over 'September Morn'". The Pittsburgh Press. September 3, 1913. p. 8. Retrieved September 18, 2014 – via Google News Archive.
- Considine, Bob (September 2, 1957). "'September Morn' Made Respectable Through Purchase By Noted Museum". Corsicana Daily Sun. p. 3. Retrieved September 19, 2014 – via Newspapers.com.
- Cornog, Martha; Perper, Timothy (1994). "Censorship and Sex". In Bullough, Vern; Bullough, Bonnie. Human Sexuality: An Encyclopedia. Garland reference library of social science 685. Garland. pp. 91–105. ISBN 978-0-8240-7972-7.
- "Discreet Nude That Shocked Grandma's Day To Be Shown". Kingsport Times-News. September 1, 1957. p. 21. Retrieved September 17, 2014 – via Newspapers.com.
- "Don't be Afraid of the Policeman; Teach Children to Trust Blue Coats". The Milwaukee Journal. May 4, 1913. p. 6. Retrieved September 19, 2014 – via Google News Archive.
- "Eve-like Picture is Held Modest". San Francisco Call. March 22, 1913. p. 5. Retrieved September 19, 2014 – via Library of Congress.
- Failing, Patricia (2003). "Nudes Under Siege". Yale Journal of Law & the Humanities 15 (1): 173–78. OCLC 60616201.
- "Famed 'September Morn' Finds Niche". Toledo Blade. August 28, 1957. p. 9. Retrieved September 17, 2014 – via Google News Archive.
- Frantz, Henri (1912). "The Old and the New Salon in Paris". The International Studio 47: 102–108. OCLC 1624007.
- Garvey, Timothy J (1988). Public Sculptor: Lorado Taft and the Beautification of Chicago. University of Illinois Press. ISBN 978-0-252-01501-4.
- Green, Jonathon; Karolides, Nicholas, eds. (2009). Encyclopedia of Censorship. Infobase Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4381-1001-1.
- Healion, James V. (December 9, 1964). "New Caanan Crusader Fathered Beleaguered Birth Curb Laws". The Bridgeport Post. p. 42. Retrieved September 23, 2014 – via Newspapers.com.
- Hughes, Alice (September 3, 1957). "A Woman's New York". Reading Eagle. p. 15. Retrieved September 17, 2014 – via Google News Archive.
- "'Ideal' is Fined". Variety. XXXII (4): 6. September 19, 1913. ISSN 0042-2738.
- "Ideal's 'Morn' Criticized". Variety. XXXII (3): 6. September 19, 1913. ISSN 0042-2738.
- Kendrick, Walter M. (1996). The Secret Museum: Pornography in Modern Culture. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-20729-5.
- Lathers, Marie (2001). Bodies of Art: French Literary Realism and the Artist's Model. University of Nebraska Press. ISBN 978-0-8032-2941-9.
- Levine, Steve (2007). The Oil and the Glory: The Pursuit of Empire and Fortune on the Caspian Sea. Random House. ISBN 978-0-375-50614-7.
- "Matin de Septembre". WorldCat. Archived from the original on September 20, 2014. Retrieved September 20, 2014.
- McElravy, Robert C. (November 13, 1915). "September Mourning". Moving Picture World 26 (8): 1319.
- "Miss "September Morn" Now Mother of 5 Strapping Sons". The Indiana Gazette. April 18, 1933. p. 11. Retrieved September 17, 2014 – via Newspapers.com.
- "Miss September Twilight Comes to Vie with Miss September Morn". The Milwaukee Sentinel. May 28, 1913. p. 2. Retrieved September 17, 2014 – via Google News Archive.
- Monfried, Walter (December 1, 1971). "'September Morn' Gets Cold Shoulder at Last". The Milwaukee Journal. p. 9. Retrieved September 17, 2014 – via Google News Archive.
- "Nude Maid Lingers Yet in Show Window". The Sun. May 14, 1913. p. 9. Retrieved September 23, 2014.
- "Oh You September Morn". WorldCat. Archived from the original on September 20, 2014. Retrieved September 20, 2014.
- Pattison, James William (April 1913). "Public Censorship of Art". Fine Arts Journal 28 (4): 243–246. doi:10.2307/25587172 – via JSTOR.
- "Painter of 'September Morn' Dies at 68". Life 2 (21): 53. May 24, 1937.
- "Painting of 'September Morn' Has Now Become Respectable". The Berkshire County Eagle. August 28, 1957. p. 3. Retrieved September 17, 2014 – via Newspapers.com.
- "'Paris has Nothing on Chicago Saloons when it Comes to Art', Says This Cop". The Milwaukee Journal. March 5, 1913. p. 13. Retrieved September 18, 2014 – via Google News Archive.
- "Paul Chabas, Who Painted "September Morn", Dies In Paris". The Gazette and Daily. May 11, 1937. p. 11. Retrieved September 17, 2014 – via Newspapers.com.
- "Picture of Nude Girl is Approved". The Spokesman-Review. March 22, 1913. p. 1. Retrieved September 18, 2014 – via Google News Archive.
- "Pin-Ups Out on New Calendars". Sarasota Herald-Tribune. December 27, 1973. p. 1A. Retrieved September 19, 2014 – via Google News Archive.
- "Quaker City Stubs 'September Morn'". Beaver Valley Times. August 30, 1957. p. 22. Retrieved September 17, 2014 – via Google News Archive.
- Reichenbach, Harry; Freedman, David (1931). Phantom Fame: The Anatomy of Ballyhoo. Simon and Schuster. OCLC 857072.
- Rorimer, James J. (Summer 1957). "Notes". The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin XVI (1): 1.
- Rosenfeld, Jason. "The Salon and The Royal Academy in the Nineteenth Century". Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. Metropolitan Museum of Art. Archived from the original on September 29, 2014. Retrieved September 29, 2014.
- Schoedel, Alan (August 24, 1958). "'September Morn' Bathes Without Leers in Toledo Museum". Toledo Blade. p. 1. Retrieved September 17, 2014 – via Google News Archive.
- "September Morn". Oregon Daily Journal. July 6, 1913. p. 54. Retrieved September 17, 2014 – via Newspapers.com.
- "September Morn". Metropolitan Museum of Art. Archived from the original on September 16, 2014. Retrieved September 16, 2014.
- "September Morn". Moving Picture World 19 (8): 1008. February 21, 1914.
- "'September Morn'". The Tuscaloosa News. May 14, 1937. p. 3. Retrieved September 17, 2014 – via Google News Archive.
- "'September Morn', 1913's Naughty Nude, to be Displayed Here". Toledo Blade. June 22, 1958. p. 1. Retrieved September 19, 2014 – via Google News Archive.
- "September Morn at Metropolitan". The Montreal Gazette. September 14, 1957. p. 27. Retrieved September 19, 2014 – via Google News Archive.
- "'September Morn' Barred From New Orleans Mails". The Indianapolis Star. August 10, 1913. p. 18. Retrieved September 17, 2014 – via Newspapers.com.
- "'September Morn' Can't Be Seen in Magic City". The Miami News. January 15, 1983. p. 4C. Retrieved September 19, 2014 – via Google News Archive. (reproduced from a 1913 Miami Daily Metropolis article)
- "'September Morn' Creator Coming". Oakland Tribune. June 21, 1914. p. 11. Retrieved September 17, 2014 – via Newspapers.com.
- "'September Morn' Creator Dies After Long Illness". Logansport Pharos-Tribune. May 11, 1937. p. 3. Retrieved September 17, 2014 – via Newspapers.com.
- "'September Morn' Dressed Up". The Pittsburgh Press. December 19, 1913. p. 33. Retrieved September 18, 2014 – via Google News Archive.
- "'September Morn' Echoes". The New York Times. May 2, 1915. p. 9. Retrieved September 19, 2014. (subscription required)
- "'September Morn' Given Flame Bath As College Students Get 'Religion'". The Washington Post. December 2, 1914. p. 5. Retrieved September 26, 2014. (subscription required)
- "'September Morn' Here". Eugene Daily Guard. December 26, 1913. p. 2. Retrieved September 17, 2014 – via Google News Archive.
- "'September Morn' Hides in Luxembourg Gallery". The Milwaukee Journal. August 8, 1937. p. 5. Retrieved September 17, 2014 – via Google News Archive.
- "September Morn (I'd Like to Meet Her)". WorldCat. Archived from the original on September 20, 2014. Retrieved September 20, 2014.
- "'September Morn' Is Curse To the Artist". The Oregon Daily Journal. September 29, 1913. p. 2. Retrieved September 19, 2014 – via Newspapers.com.
- "'September Morn' Is Real Trouble Maker". The Pittsburgh Press. October 22, 1913. p. 10. Retrieved September 17, 2014 – via Google News Archive.
- "'September Morn' Painting Missing". The Milwaukee Journal. May 13, 1933. p. 11. Retrieved September 17, 2014 – via Google News Archive.
- "She's the Original of 'September Morn'; Artists' Model Now an Actress and as "November Mourning" She Makes Hit". The Leavenworth Times. December 26, 1913. p. 5. Retrieved September 19, 2014 – via Newspapers.com.
- Shteir, Rachel (2004). Striptease: The Untold History of the Girlie Show. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-802935-9.
- Sterling, Charles; Salinger, Margaretta (1966). French Paintings: A Catalogue of the Collection of The Metropolitan Museum of Art 2. New York Graphic Society. OCLC 231879699.
- Stratton, Clarence (October 1914). "A Note on the Paris Salon of 1914". Art and Progress 5 (12): 420–421 – via JSTOR.
- "Studio Talk". The International Studio 47: 223–51. 1912. OCLC 1624007.
- Taylor, Norman (2012). Cinematic Perspectives on Digital Culture: Consorting with the Machine. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-230-29892-7.
- Tolf, Robert W. (1976). The Russian Rockefellers: The Saga of the Nobel Family and the Russian Oil Industry. Hoover Press. ISBN 978-0-8179-6583-9.
- Tr.L (July 1912). Augé, Claude, ed. "Matinée de Septembre". Larousse mensuel illustré (in French) 12 (65): 465. ISSN 0996-0120.
- Vallillo, Stephen M. (March 1981). "Broadway Revues in the Teens and Twenties: Smut and Slime?". The Drama Review 25 (1): 25–34. ISSN 0012-5962 – via JSTOR. (subscription required)
- Valmy-Baysse, J. (1910). Paul Chabas, sa vie, son oeuvre [Paul Chabas: His Life, His Oeuvre]. Peintres d'aujour d'hui 11. Librairie F. Juven. OCLC 27405907.
- Werner, Alfred (Spring 1961). "Lawrence and Pascin". The Kenyon Review 23 (2): 217–28 – via JSTOR. (subscription required)
- "Wearies Of Waiting A Comstock Arrest". The New York Times. May 15, 1913. p. 7. Retrieved September 23, 2014 – via Newspapers.com.
- Williams, Tennessee (1971). "Orpheus Descending". The Theatre of Tennessee Williams III. New Directions. ISBN 978-0-8112-0419-4.
- Witchard, Anne Veronica (2009). Thomas Burke's Dark Chinoiserie: Limehouse Nights and the Queer Spell of Chinatown. Ashgate. ISBN 978-0-7546-5864-1.