Sequential manual transmission
A sequential manual transmission (or sequential manual gearbox) is a type of manual transmission used on motorcycles and high-performance cars for auto racing, where gears are selected in order, and direct access to specific gears is not possible.
With traditional manual transmissions, the driver can move from gear to gear, by moving the shifter to the appropriate position. This type of transmission is often referred to as a H-pattern because of the path that the shift lever takes as it selects the various gears. A clutch must be disengaged before the new gear is selected, to disengage the running engine from the transmission, thus stopping all torque transfer. In auto racing, this process is slow and prone to human error; hence the development of the sequential transmission. A true sequential transmission will very often use dog clutch engagement rather than the more usual synchromesh as fitted to a normal H-pattern road car gearbox. Engagement using dogs only requires a very brief interruption of engine torque to complete a shift into any adjacent gear. This allows shifting between gears without the use of the clutch. The clutch would normally be used only for standing starts.
Sequential manual transmissions work by providing the driver with the ability to select the gear directly before or after the gear currently engaged. Usually the shift lever is pulled back to select the adjacent higher gear and pushed forwards to select the adjacent lower gear. On a true sequential gearbox, the shift lever operates a ratchet mechanism that converts the fore & aft motion of the shift lever into a rotary motion. This rotary action turns a selector drum (sometimes called a barrel) which has three or four tracks machined around its circumference. Running in the tracks are the selector forks, either directly, or via selector rods. These tracks deviate around the circumference and as the drum rotates, the selector forks running in the tracks are moved to select the required gear. Only a true sequential transmission has a shift mechanism that operates in this way.
Sequential gearboxes are also used in nearly all modern motorcycles as it is too cumbersome to have a conventional H-pattern shifter and would take up too much space in the confines of a motorcycle frame. Having control over the gear shifter, typically with the rider's left foot, frees their hands to operate both the clutch and brake without letting go of the handlebars.
Sequential manual transmissions are true manual transmissions, and should not be confused with automatic transmissions that provide some degree of user shifting input. One commercial example of this type of automatic transmission is the Tiptronic transmission. User shifting through buttons or lever does not necessarily mean that the transmission is a manual transmission.
Most motorsports cars do not have an "H" gate for the gearstick. They either jam the stick back and forth or use paddle-shifters behind the steering wheel. The paddle-shifters do the same job as the gearstick movement in this case, only using electronics to move the shifter. A sequential gearbox is just like a manual gearbox but the selector system is different. The manual gearbox example at the top of the page showed a series of selector forks which were moved by the physical position of the gearstick. In a sequential box, those selector forks are connected to a single shaft that has corkscrew-type grooves in it. The collar that fits around this selection shaft has a ballbearing in it which sits in a recess in the collar as well as in one of the corkscrew grooves.
When the gearstick is moved forwards or backwards, the selector shaft is mechanically turned by some number of degrees. That twisting motion rotates the corkscrew groove which in turn interacts with the ballbearings and the selector fork collars, forcing them to slide back and forth. Each click of the gearstick rotates the shaft another number of degrees and all the selector forks change position in one go. This is the reason it is called a sequential gearbox - the gears are always selected in sequence. Drivers can't jump from first to third, It would have to go via second. Often, sequential gearboxes have a "double-click for neutral" option and when you do this, it disengages the clutch and rotates the selector shaft back around to the neutral position, just before first gear. The advantage of of the sequential gearbox is that it has simpler design than a fully manual gearbox with less moving parts. For racing drivers it makes for much quicker gearchanges.
Beyond the ease of use from a driver's standpoint, an additional benefit of sequential manual gearboxes is that use of the clutch via foot pedal or hand control can be minimized or completely obviated, with the clutch only used for starting from a complete stop. Formula One cars of the 1990s made the most high-profile debut of this technology in motor sports, and enhanced variations on this theme are still in use in many forms of road racing and drag racing today. The simple push-pull action of the shift mechanism also lends itself to semi-automatic control using either hydraulic or pneumatic actuators—a system often referred to as paddle-shift. Instead of a manual gear lever, the driver is provided with (usually) a pair of flipper paddles on the steering wheel, rally cars often utilize just a double-acting single paddle. Pulling on the right-hand paddle makes an up-shift and pulling on the left-hand paddle makes a down-shift. The paddle-shift system will use a sophisticated electronic control unit to provide the necessary logic to operate the shift mechanism. This type of paddle-shift system fitted to race and rally cars should not be confused with most of the current crop of so-called paddle-shift systems fitted to some high-end road cars. More often than not, these systems are nothing more than conventional automatic transmissions which allow driver input to select the gears. The Mercedes Smart Car is an example of a Sequential manual transmission.
While a sequential manual transmission can (depending on the model) offer faster shift speeds and thus faster race times, many road-car-driving enthusiasts prefer a standard manual transmission, which—with a clutch pedal and the ability to skip gears—allows more driver input and a more traditional driving experience.
- Frank Marcus. "BMW M3 SMG - Short Take Road Test - Auto Reviews". Car and Driver. Retrieved 2011-08-29.