Serbian-Hungarian Baranya-Baja Republic
|Serb-Hungarian Baranya-Baja Republic|
|Baranya-Bajai Szerb-Magyar Köztársaság
Српско-мађарска република Барања-Баја
|Historical era||Interwar period|
|-||Established||August 14, 1921|
|-||Disestablished||August 20, 1921|
The Serb-Hungarian Baranya-Baja Republic (Hungarian: Baranya-Bajai Szerb-Magyar Köztársaság, Serbian: Српско-мађарска република Барања-Баја, Srpsko-mađarska republika Baranja-Baja) was a short-lived, Soviet-oriented mini-state, proclaimed in Pécs on 14 August 1921, on occupied Hungarian territory during the peacemaking aftermath of the first World War, tolerated and fostered by the newly proclaimed Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes. Its territory included the geographical region of Baranya and the northern part of Bačka region.
The republic was established on 14 August 1921 and was dissolved on 20 August 1921. The area of southern Hungary was occupied by the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes' army and was administrated by the people's administration from Novi Sad. Following the defeat of Béla Kun's Hungarian Soviet Republic in the summer of 1919, many communist dissidents from Budapest, escaping from the "white terror" of Admiral Miklós Horthy, emigrated to Baranya, where Béla Linder, mayor of Pécs, gave them refuge. Linder, the military attaché of the Hungarian Soviet Republic based in Vienna in Austria, became the mayor of Pécs in September 1920.
In the Great People's Assembly of Pécs on 14 August, where in front of 15-20,000 people painter Petar Dobrović suggested the formation of independent republic that would include region of Baranya and northern part of Bačka around Baja. Petar Dobrović became president of executive committee of the new Republic.
|This section may be confusing or unclear to readers. (June 2012)|
The lobbying at the peace conference in Paris under the Belgrade-appointed Yugoslav Prefect Pandurovitch, it is said to have included two great Hungarian landowners, Count Pavao Keglević and Count Ivan Drašković, in addition to the leading Baranya jurist Tivadar Andrits, a former member of the Hungarian Parliament. Due to a miscarriage of justice Ivo Andrić was arrested some years before. Laszlo Pandurovitch certainly did not know this Pavao Keglević personally. Živko Petričić a far relative of this Pavao Keglević was the chief-negotiator of the Yugoslav peoples committee of the Croatian Parliament with the Government of Hungary. This Pavao Keglević (1911–2004) was one of the grandsons of the wholesaler of pork Franjo/Ferenc Keglević/Keglovich (1859 [baptized 1864]-1916) who in 1905 had emigrated from Hungary to Croatia and changed his name from Ferenc Keglovich to Franjo Keglević, and was at that time about 8 years old. It came to an inquiry in Hungary on this Committee of Pandurovitch, because Pandurovitch was an Austro-Hungarian officer. The members of his alleged Committee Iván Gróf Draskovich, Pál Gróf Keglevich, Tivadar Andric, Vladimir Stojcsics and Koszó Gyorgyevics were summoned, but this two alleged counts alias Draskovich and alias Keglevich quickly disappeared again, it was not established their true identity.
However, the authorities of the new republic did not manage to gain international recognition, and since the withdrawal of the Yugoslav kingdom's army, Horthy's forces entered into region and put an end to the Republic. From 21–25 August 1921, the region was reintegrated into Hungary, represented by Commissioner Károly Soós Bádoki, as had been allocated at the Treaty of Trianon of 1920.
|This section may be confusing or unclear to readers. (June 2012)|
On 12 October 1921, Ferenc Fischer, the tutor of Paul Keglevich (1911–2004), became the supreme governor of Baranya County. Furthermore, the history of Paul Keglevich is very controversial and not well researched, may be because of the changes in 1918 in the Tatra company, with which he was connected through his family, or may be because tutor Fischer had financed the so-called zeleni kadar (green cadres), which both became the reasons for the compulsory purchase of Paul Keglevich by his tutor Fischer. The newspapers in Pécs have written in 1930, when Paul Keglevich turned 19 years old, that he would have been a traitor of his country. May be because he was poor, what was better for his protection in those times. Or because he lived in Yugoslavia near Legrad, but the name of the train station in Hungary was until a few years ago also Legrad even if Legrad was not in Hungary. Or because of the upcoming nationalistic propaganda among Germans in Hungary in 1930, or because of the upcoming Nazi propaganda against also his surname in Austria. Pesti Hírlap with the Legrady brothers wrote in 1930 in Budapest: "Justice for Hungary! The Cruel Errors of Trianon." Miroslav Krleža wrote later that Josip Broz Tito was an illegitimate child of the above mentioned Franjo Keglević.
Most of the inhabitants of the republic were ethnic Hungarians, while other ethnic groups that lived in the area included Croats, Serbs, Germans, Romanians, Slovaks and others.
- According to the Serbian census in 1919, population of Pécs consisted of 14485 south Slavs, 17901 Hungarians, 14549 Germans
- According to the Hungarian census in 1920, population of Pécs consisted of 45 Serbs, 326 Croats, 40655 Hungarians, 5034 Germans
This differences clearly demonstrate the Serb efforts of annexation, moreover, at the Serbian Census, they had to calculate the members of the Serbian Army into the census because there was a classified order about this.
The President of the Executive Committee (14–20 August 1921), i.e. President of the Republic, was Petar Dobrović (1890–1942), an ethnic Serb.
- Szűts Emil: Az elmerült sziget. A Baranyai Szerb-Magyar Köztársaság (Pécs, 1991) ISBN 963-7272-42-9, p. 44, 167-168, 206-207
- Corporate governance of the Magyar Jelzálog-Hitelbank/Hungarian Mortgage-Credit Bank by Theodor Draskovich and by Emmerich Keglevich in 1900, Historijski zbornik, Band 53, Povijesno društvo Hrvatske, Društvo za hrvatsku povjesnicu, Nakladni zavod Hrvatske, 2000.
- Magyar Jelzálog-Hitelbank - Budapest, Dokumentensammlung 1870, Statuten, Geschäftsordnung (1881-1935); Jahres- sowie Geschäftsberichte (1870-1937) (Finanzwesen, Bilanzen); Zirkularmitteilungen an Aktionäre und Investoren, darunter auch Emissionsprospekte (1884-1914); Zeitungsausschnitte (1899-1913).
- The Baranya dispute, 1918-1921: diplomacy in the vortex of ideologies, Leslie Charles Tihany, p.28, East European quarterly, 1978.
- Prva hrvatska štedionica / First croatian savings-bank, Tragične pouke iz povijesti Prve hrvatske štedionice
- for his surmised illegitimate child see:Josip Broz Tito, S Krležom iz dana u dan: Trubač u pustinji duha, Enes Čengić, Miroslav Krleža, Globus, 1985.
- see also: Pig War (Serbia), Sándor Wekerle, 1848-1921, Géza Andreas von Geyr, Oldenbourg Wissenschaftsverlag 1993.
- Der Weltkrieg, Band 3, Karl Helfferich, Ullstein & Co. 1919.
- Huszadik Század, September 1930.
- Ethnic nationalism and the fall of empires: central Europe, Russia, and the Middle East, 1914-1923, Aviel Roshwald, Routledge, 2001.
- The national question in Yugoslavia: origins, history, politics, Ivo Banac, Cornell University Press, 1988.
- Avantgarde des Widerstands: Modellfälle militärischer Auflehnung im 19. und 20. Jahrhundert, Band 1, Richard Georg Plaschka, Böhlau Verlag Wien, 2000.
- Yugoslavia genocide: a documented analysis, Ante Beljo, Northern Tribune Pub. 1985.
- Denkschrift Konsul Höffinger (geheim), ADÖ 2/219, 25.April 1919, AdR, NPA, Präsidium NL/Bauer, Außenpolitische Dokumente der Republik Österreich 1918-1938: Im Schatten von Saint-Germain: 15.März 1919 bis 10.September 1919, Arnold Suppan, Klaus Koch, Walter Rauscher, Österreichisches Ost- und Südosteuropa-Institut, Oldenbourg Wissenschaftsverlag 1993.
- Judenviertel Europas: die Juden zwischen Ostsee und Schwarzen Meer, Hans Hinkel, Volk und Reich Verlag, 1939.
- Österreichische Geschichte, Band 10, Roman Sandgruber, Ueberreuter Verlag, 1995.
- "Arisierungen," beschlagnahmte Vermögen, Rückstellungen und Entschädigungen in Oberösterreich, Daniela Ellmauer, Michael John, Regina Thumser, Historikerkommission der Republik Österreich, Oldenbourg Wissenschaftsverlag, 2004.
- see: Franz A. Basch
- S Krležom iz dana u dan: Trubač u pustinji duha, Enes Čengić, Miroslav Krleža, Globus, 1985.
Sources and references
- Dimitrije Boarov, Politička istorija Vojvodine, Novi Sad, 2001.
- Leslie Charles Tihany, The Baranya dispute, 1918-1921: diplomacy in the vortex of ideologies, East European quarterly, distributed by Columbia University Press (Boulder [Colo.], New York), 1978.
- Baranya (former county)
- Baranya (county)
- Banat Republic
- Republic of Prekmurje
- Former countries in Europe after 1815
- List of historical unrecognized countries
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