Serbian diaspora

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Not to be confused with Serb diaspora.
Geographical distribution of Serbian diaspora

Serbian diaspora refers to the Serbian communities that have formed outside Serbia and autochthonous areas of Western Balkans. Existence of a numerous Serbian diaspora are mainly consequences of either economic or political (coercion or expulsions) reasons.

There are over 2 million Serbs in diaspora throughout the world, although some sources put that figure as high as 4 million.[1] The largest community is found in German-speaking countries (Germany, Austria and Switzerland) amounting in total to more than 1.2 million.[2][3][4] The largest overseas community is reported from the United States, with more than 1 million members.

Historical preview[edit]

There were several waves of Serbian emigration:

  • First wave of Serb emigration took place since the end of 19th century and lasted until the World War II and was caused by economic reasons; particularly large numbers of Serbs (mainly from peripheral ethnical areas such as Herzegovina, Montenegro, and Lika) emigrated to the United States.
  • Second wave took place after the end of the World War II. At this time, members of royalist Chetniks and other political opponents of communist regime fled the country mainly going overseas (United States and Australia) and, to a lesser degree, United Kingdom.
  • Third, and by far the largest wave, was economic emigration started in the 1960s when several Western European countries signed billateral agreements with then-Yugoslavia allowing the recruitment of workers from Yugoslavia to work in the industrial sector of those countries, and lasted until the end of the 1980s. Main destinations for Serbian emigrants were West Germany, Austria, and Switzerland, and to a lesser extent France and Sweden. That generation of Serbian diaspora is collectively known as gastarbajteri (after German word "Gastarbeiter" meaning guest-worker, since the most of the emigrants headed for German-speaking countries).
  • Most recent emigration took place during the 1990s, and was caused by both political and economic reasons. Political reasons were dominant cause for Serbs from Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina since there were war raging in the first half of the 1990s. On the other side, for Serbs from Serbia main reasons for emigrating was economic collapse which Serbia experienced during that decade caused by the UN economic sanctions imposed on the country. It is estimated that 300,000 people left Serbia during that period, 20% of which had a higher education.

Statistics[edit]

Serbian disapora is mainly to be found in the Western Europe, Russian Federation and the overseas countries (United States, Canada, Australia and Argentina). Below is the list of largest Serbian communities (with over 50,000 members).

Serbian diaspora by states[edit]

Europe[edit]

List of countries and territories by Serbian population
Country Official data Notes
 Germany 241,374 Serbian citizens (2013)[5] 700,000 ethnic Serbs (incl. ancestry),[6][7] see Serbs in Germany
 Austria 132,553 Serbian-born with Austrian citizenship (2014)[8] c. 300,000 (est.)[9][10] 320 000+ Serbs in Austria (Domestic numbers)[11]
  Switzerland 90,704 (2013) 150,000 (Immigrants regardless of ethnicity from Serbia and Montenegro, 2000)[12] 200,000 (Immigrants, 2008)[13] Unknown number of ethnic Serbs in Switzerland
 Sweden 15,289 (2014) non-naturalised Serbian-born (excl. Kosovo)[14] 80,000 (2003),[15] 120,000 Serbs in Sweden (2008)[citation needed]
 France 46,385 (2011)[16][not in citation given] 70,000-100,000 Serbs in France[citation needed]
 Italy 46,958 (2013) "Foreign citizens" from Serbia (excl. Kosovo) [17] 109,474 Immigrants from Serbia (2014),[18] Unknown number of Serbs in Italy
 Slovenia 26,368 Self-declared "Serb(ian)" community (2011)[19]
 United Kingdom 7,581 (2011) "Serbian" "Usual residents" in England and Wales [20] Serbian Embassy estimated 70,000 ethnic Serbs (2001)[21]
 Romania 18,076 (2011) [22] Unknown number of Serbs in Romania
 Netherlands 21,569 (2011)[23][better source needed] 16,500-40,000[citation needed]
 Hungary 7,210 (2011) Serbian minority [24] The census records a "Serbian minority", which does not include Serbian nationals in Hungary
 Norway 4,853 (2015) Serbian (post-Yugoslavia) immigrants and descendants [25] 15,469 (2001)
 Denmark 4,311 (2015)[26]
 Greece 25,835 (2014) non-resident Serbian nationals (incl. Kosovo)[27] 15,000 (est.) Serbs in Greece
 Luxembourg 2,429 (2014)[28]
 Hungary 7,350[29] Unknown number of Serbs in Hungary
 Spain 3,133 (2007)[30] 7,000 (January 2012 est.)[31]
 Turkey 315,000 (Serbian descent)[32] The 1965 census registered over 65,000 Serbian-speakers.[33]
 Russia 3,510 (2010) Serbian nationals [34]
 Finland 366 (2013) Serbian nationals [35] 3,000[citation needed]
 Belgium 2,236 (2010) Serbian nationals (excl. Kosovo) [36]
 Czech Republic 1,727 Serbian citizens (2011)[37] 1,801 (2001)[citation needed]
 Cyprus 712 (2011) [38]
 Bulgaria 569 Serbian citizens (2011) [39]
 Malta 541 (2011) [40]
 Liechtenstein 267 (2014) [41]
 Poland 381 (2001) [42]
 Portugal 249 (2009) [43]
 Ukraine 623 (2001) Serbian nationals [44]
 Slovakia 134 (2001)[citation needed] Unknown number of Serbs in Slovakia
 Iceland 73 (2014) Serbian nationals [45]
 Latvia 24 (2011) Serbian nationals [46]
 Estonia 20 (2011) Serbian nationals [47]
 Ireland [48][citation needed] 201-1.000 estimate Serbs in Ireland
 Belarus 83 (1989) [49]
 Moldova 50 (1989) [50]
 Lithuania 12 (1989) [51]

Elsewhere[edit]

List of countries and territories by Serbian population
Country/territory Official data Notes
 United States 189,671 Serbian Americans (2013)[52] It is highly likely that among the citizens who declared Yugoslavian ethnicity (328,547 in 2010; 310,682 in 2012 estimation), are siblings to or offshoots of American Serbs.[53]
 Canada 80,320 of "Serbian descent" (2011) [54]
 Australia 69,544 (2011) Serbian ancestry [55] 55,114 (0.3%) English and Serbian-speakers (2011 census[55]); 9,857 only Serbian-speakers;[55] the 2006 census recorded 95,362 people of Serbian ancestry.[55] There is estimations of 300,000 Serbs in Australia.
 United Arab Emirates 6,500 (2012 est.)[56]
 Brazil 3,053 (2012)[57] 3,210 (2001)[citation needed]
 New Zealand 1,059 "Serbian ethnic group", residents [58] 1,176[citation needed]
 Syria ca. 200 (2012, prior to evacuation)[59]
 South Africa 153 (2013) Serbian immigrants (excl. Kosovo)[60] c. 20,000 Serbs (including by ancestry)[61]
 Kazakhstan 183 (1989) [62]
 Uzbekistan 26 (1989) [63]
 Azerbaijan 6 (1989) [64]
 Georgia 46 (1989) [65]
 Kyrgyzstan 10 (1989) [66]
 Tajikistan 4 (1989) [67]
 Armenia 8 (1989) [68]
 Turkmenistan 8 (1989) [69]
 China

Serbian diaspora by cities[edit]

former Yugoslavia
elsewhere

References[edit]

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  14. ^ "Utrikes födda i riket efter födelseland, ålder och kön. År 2000 - 2014". 
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a.  

External links[edit]

Serbian diaspora organizations
Other