Serbian diaspora

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Not to be confused with Serb diaspora.
For other meanings, see Serbian.
Geographical distribution of Serbian diaspora

Serbian diaspora refers to the Serbian communities that have formed outside Serbia and autochthonous areas of Western Balkans. Existence of a numerous Serbian diaspora are mainly consequences of either economic or political (coercion or expulsions) reasons.

There are over 2 million Serbs in diaspora throughout the world, although some sources put that figure as high as 4 million.[1] The largest community is found in German-speaking countries (Germany, Austria and Switzerland) amounting in total to more than 1.2 million.[2][3][4] The largest overseas community is reported from the United States, with more than 1 million members.

Historical preview[edit]

There were several waves of Serbian emigration:

  • The first wave of Serb emigration took place from the end of 19th century to World War II and was caused by economic reasons. In particular, a large numbers of Serbs (mainly from peripheral areas such as Herzegovina, Montenegro, and Lika) emigrated to the United States.
  • The second wave took place after World War II. This time, members of royalist Chetniks and other political opponents of the communist authorities fled mainly overseas (United States and Australia and, to a lesser degree, United Kingdom).
  • The third and largest wave started in the 1960s when several Western European countries signed billateral agreements with then-Yugoslavia allowing the recruitment of workers from Yugoslavia to work in the industrial sector of those countries, and this lasted until the end of the 1980s. The main destinations for emigrants were West Germany, Austria, and Switzerland, and to a lesser extent France and Sweden. That generation is collectively known as gastarbajteri (after German word "Gastarbeiter" meaning guest-worker, since the most of the emigrants headed for German-speaking countries).
  • The most recent emigration took place during the 1990s, and was caused by political and economic reasons. The Yugoslav wars were the dominant cause for Serb emigration from Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina in the first half of the 1990s. From within Serbia and Montenegro, the main reasons for emigrating was the fallen standard of living which the country experienced during that decade caused by the UN economic sanctions imposed on the country. It is estimated that 300,000 Serbs left during that period, 20% of which had a higher education.

Statistics[edit]

Serbian disapora is mainly to be found in the Western Europe, Russian Federation and the overseas countries (United States, Canada, Australia and Argentina).

Serbian diaspora by states[edit]

Europe[edit]

List of countries and territories by Serbian population
Country Official data Notes
 Germany 252,468 Serbian citizens (2014)[5] 700,000 ethnic Serbs (incl. ancestry),[6][7] see Serbs in Germany
 Austria 132,553 Serbian-born with Austrian citizenship (2014)[8] c. 300,000 (est.)[9][10] 320 000+ Serbs in Austria (Domestic numbers)[11]
  Switzerland 90,704 (2013) 150,000 (Immigrants regardless of ethnicity from Serbia and Montenegro, 2000)[12] 200,000 (Immigrants, 2008)[13] Unknown number of ethnic Serbs in Switzerland
 Sweden 15,289 (2014) non-naturalised Serbian-born (excl. Kosovo)[14] 80,000 (2003),[15] 120,000 Serbs in Sweden (2008)[citation needed]
 France 46,424 (2011)[16][not in citation given] 120,000-190,000 Serbs in France[citation needed]
 Italy 46,958 (2013) "Foreign citizens" from Serbia (excl. Kosovo)[17] 109,474 Immigrants from Serbia (2014),[18] Unknown number of Serbs in Italy
 Slovenia 26,368 Self-declared "Serb(ian)" community (2011)[19]
 United Kingdom 7,581 (2011) "Serbian" "Usual residents" in England and Wales[20] Serbian Embassy estimated 70,000 ethnic Serbs (2001)[21]
 Romania 18,076 (2011)[22] Unknown number of Serbs in Romania
 Netherlands 55,017 (2002)[23] 16,500-40,000[citation needed]
 Hungary 7,210 (2011) Serbian minority[24] The census records a "Serbian minority", which does not include Serbian nationals in Hungary
 Norway 4,853 (2015) Serbian (post-Yugoslavia) immigrants and descendants[25] 15,469 (2001)
 Denmark 4,311 (2015)[26]
 Greece 25,835 (2014) non-resident Serbian nationals (incl. Kosovo)[27] 15,000 (est.) Serbs in Greece
 Luxembourg 2,429 (2014)[28]
 Hungary 7,210 (2011)[29] Unknown number of Serbs in Hungary
 Spain 4,103 (2015)[30] 7,000 (January 2012 est.)[31]
 Turkey 315,000 (Serbian descent)[32] The 1965 census registered over 65,000 Serbian-speakers.[33]
 Russia 33,009 Serbian nationals, temporary residents (2015)[34] There were 3,510 Russian nationals of Serb ethnicity.[35]
 Finland 366 (2013) Serbian nationals[36] 3,000[citation needed]
 Belgium 4,091 (2013) Serbian nationals (excl. Kosovo)[37]
 Czech Republic 2,748 (2013)[38] 1,801 (2001)[citation needed]
 Cyprus 712 (2011)[39]
 Slovakia 698 (2011)[40]
 Bulgaria 569 Serbian citizens (2011)[41]
 Malta 541 (2011)[42]
 Liechtenstein 267 (2014)[43]
 Poland 844 (2011)[44]
 Portugal 186 (2011)[45]
 Ukraine 623 (2001) Serbian nationals[46]
 Iceland 73 (2014) Serbian nationals[47]
 Latvia 24 (2011) Serbian nationals[48]
 Estonia 20 (2011) Serbian nationals[49]
 Ireland 725 (2002)[50][citation needed] 201-1.000 estimate Serbs in Ireland
 Belarus 83 (1989)[51]
 Moldova 50 (1989)[52]
 Lithuania 12 (1989)[53]

Elsewhere[edit]

List of countries and territories by Serbian population
Country/territory Official data Notes
 United States 189,671 Serbian Americans (2013)[54] It is highly likely that among the citizens who declared Yugoslavian ethnicity (328,547 in 2010; 310,682 in 2012 estimation), are siblings to or offshoots of American Serbs.[55]
 Canada 80,320 of "Serbian descent" (2011)[56]
 Australia 69,544 (2011) Serbian ancestry[57] 55,114 (0.3%) English and Serbian-speakers (2011 census[57]); 9,857 only Serbian-speakers;[57] the 2006 census recorded 95,362 people of Serbian ancestry.[57] There is estimations of 300,000 Serbs in Australia.
 United Arab Emirates 6,500 (2012 est.)[58]
 Brazil 3,053 (2012)[59] 3,210 (2001)[citation needed]
 New Zealand 1,059 "Serbian ethnic group", residents (2013) [60] 1,176[citation needed]
 Syria ca. 200 (2012, prior to evacuation)[61]
 South Africa 153 (2013) Serbian immigrants (excl. Kosovo)[62] c. 20,000 Serbs (including by ancestry)[63]
 Kazakhstan 183 (1989)[64]
 Uzbekistan 26 (1989)[65]
 Azerbaijan 6 (1989)[66]
 Georgia 46 (1989)[67]
 Kyrgyzstan 10 (1989)[68]
 Tajikistan 4 (1989)[69]
 Armenia 8 (1989)[70]
 Turkmenistan 8 (1989)[71]
 China

Serbian diaspora by cities[edit]

former Yugoslavia

[72]

[73]

[74]

[75]

[76]

[77]

elsewhere

References[edit]

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  9. ^ "Srbi u Austriji traže status nacionalne manjine". Blic. 2010-10-02. "Srba u Austriji ima oko 300.000, po brojnosti su drugi odmah iza Austrijanaca i više ih je od Slovenaca, Mađara i Gradištanskih Hrvata zajedno, koji po državnom ugovoru iz 1955. godine imaju status nacionalne manjine u Austriji", navodi se u saopštenju. 
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  11. ^ http://www.dijaspora-info.ch/home/?p=5453[dead link]
  12. ^ Boskovska (2000), p. 2648
  13. ^ "Erstmals über eine Million EU- und EFTA Angehörige in der Schweiz". Neue Zürcher Zeitung. 14 October 2008. 
  14. ^ "Utrikes födda i riket efter födelseland, ålder och kön. År 2000 - 2014". 
  15. ^ http://www.dn.se/nyheter/sverige/serber-oroliga-for-nyvackt-avsky-1.489705
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  21. ^ "So, just how many Serbs live in Britain? Britić figures defy census figures of 2001.". Ebritic.com. June 3, 2011. There have been various attempts to estimate the population of Serbs living in the UK. The simplest answer was the 2001 national census which stated that there are 31,244 UK residents born in Serbian and Montenegro. A further 6,992 were born in Croatia. However, the obvious problems are that many Serbs were born in the UK (maybe even most British Serbs). Moreover, in 2001 there were still a large number of Kosovan Albanians in Britain who of course would have been registered as being born in Serbia and Montenegro. 
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  32. ^ "Verovali ili ne: U Turskoj Živi 9 Miliona Srba!", Press Online Serbia
  33. ^ Heinz Kloss & Grant McConnel, Linguistic composition of the nations of the world, vol,5, Europe and USSR, Québec, Presses de l'Université Laval, 1984, ISBN 2-7637-7044-4
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  50. ^ http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/18/23/34792376.xls
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  74. ^ Serbs in Sarajevo
  75. ^ Zagreb#Demographics
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  80. ^ Demographics of Paris
  81. ^ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Berlin#cite_note-pop-detail-75
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  84. ^ Rotterdam#Ethnic make-up
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a.  

External links[edit]

Serbian diaspora organizations
Other