Serbo-Croatian kinship

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The Serbo-Croatian standard languages (Croatian, Serbian and Bosnian) have one of the more elaborate kinship (srodstvo) systems among European languages. Terminology may differ from place to place. Most words are common to other Slavic languages, though some derive from Turkish. The standardized languages may recognize slightly different pronunciations or dialectical forms; all terms are considered standard in all four languages, unless otherwise marked: [B] (Bosnian), [C] (Croatian), [M] (Montenegrin) and [S] (Serbian) below.

There are four main types of kinship in the family: biological AKA blood kinship, kinship by law (in-laws), spiritual kinship (such as godparents), and legal kinship through adoption and remarriage.[1]

As is common in many rural family structures, three generations of a family will live together in a home in what anthropologists call a joint family structure, where parents, their son(s), and grandchildren would cohabit in a family home.[2]

Direct descendance and ancestry[edit]

Words for relations up to five generations removed—great-great-grandparents and great-great-grandchildren—are in common use. The fourth-generation terms are also used as generics for ancestors and descendants. There is no distinction between the maternal and paternal line. In addition there are terms for ancestors up to the 16th generation, but are not in common use.[note 1]

Latin Cyrillic Relation
potomkinja потомкиња female descendant
potomak потомак male descendant
čukununuka
šukununuka [C]
чукунунука
шукунунука [C]
great-great-granddaughter
čukununuk
šukununuk [C]
чукунунук
шукунунук [C]
great-great-grandson
praunuka праунука great-granddaughter, descendant
praunuk праунук great-grandson, descendant
unuka унука granddaughter
unuk унук grandson
kćer
kćerka
ćerka
kći
кћер
кћерка
ћерка
кћи
daughter
sin син son
majka
mater
mati
мајка
матер
мати
mother
mama мама mom
otac отац father
babo [B]
ćaća [C]
ćale [S]
tajo [M]
tata
бабо [B]
ћаћа [C]
ћале [S]
тајо [M]
тата
dad
baba
baka
nana [B]
nona
баба
бака
нана [B]
нона
grandmother
ded(a)
deka [S]
did(a) [C]
dido
djed
đed [M]
nono [C]
dedo [B]
дед(a)
дека [S]
дид(a) [C]
дидо
дјед
ђед [M]
ноно [C]
дедо [B]
grandfather
prababa
prabaka
прабаба
прабака
great-grandmother, ancestor
praded(a)
pradid(a) [C]
pradido
pradjed
prađed [M]
прадед(a)
прадид(a) [C]
прадидо
прадјед
прађед [M]
great-grandfather, ancestor
čukunbaba
šukunbaka [C]
чукунбаба
шукунбака [C]
great-great-grandmother
čukunded(a)
čukundjed
čukunđed [M]
šukundid [C]
šukundjed [C]
чукундед(a)
чукундјед
чукунђед [M]
шукундид(a) [C]
шукундјед [C]
great-great-grandfather[3]
predakinja [S]
pretkinja [C]
pređa [M]
предакиња [S]
преткиња [C]
пређа [M]
female ancestor
predak предак male ancestor

Ego's generation[edit]

Diminutive forms of siblings are used for cousins.

Latin Cyrillic English translation
brat брат brother
sestra сестра sister
bratić [C] братић [C] male first cousin
sestrična [C] сестрична [C] female first cousin
brat od strica
stričević
amidžić
брат од стрица
стричевић
амиџић
male cousin (always first or second), son of father's brother (or male first cousin)
brat od daja
brat od ujaka
daidžić
ujčević
брат од даја
брат од ујака
даиџић
ујчевић
male cousin (always first or second), son of mother's brother (or male first cousin)
brat od hale
brat od tetke
tetić
tetkić
tetišnji
брат од хале
брат од тетке
тетић
теткић
тетишњи
male cousin (always first or second), son of mother's or father's sister (or female first cousin)
sestra od strica
stričevićka
admidžišnja
сестра од стрица
стричевићка
амиџишња
female cousin (always first or second), daughter of father's brother (or male first cousin)
sestra od daja
sestra od ujaka
daidžišnja
ujčevićka
сестра од даја
сестра од ујака
даиџишња
ујчевићка
female cousin (always first or second), daughter of mother's brother (or male first cousin)
sestra od hale
sestra od tetke
tetišnja
сестра од хале
сестра од тетке
тетишња
female cousin (always first or second), son of mother's or father's sister (or female first cousin)
rođak рођак male cousin, relative
rođaka [S]
rođakinja
rodica [C]
рођака [S]
рођакиња
родица [C]
female cousin, relative

Indirect ancestry, descendants and legal relations[edit]

There are separate terms for maternal and paternal uncles, but not for aunts. In addition, spouses of uncles and aunts have their own terms.

Latin Cyrillic Relation
amidža
adžo
stric
амиџа
аџо
стриц
paternal uncle
amidžinica
adžinica
strina
амиџиница
аџиница
стрина
paternal uncle's wife
daidža / dajdža
dajo
ujak
даиџа / дајџа
дајо
ујак
maternal uncle
daidžinica / dajdžinica
dajnica
ujna
даиџиница / дајџиница
дајница
ујна
maternal uncle's wife; i.e. maternal aunt through marriage
hala
tetka
хала
тетка
aunt (only mother's or father's sister or cousin)
teča [S]
tetak [BCM]
теча [S]
тетак [BCM]
aunt's husband (where aunt defined as "tetka")
bratanac братанац fraternal nephew (for women[S], for men and women[C])
bratanić братанић fraternal nephew (for men and women)
sinovac синовац fraternal nephew (for men[S])
bratanica
brataničina
братаница
братаничина
fraternal niece
nećak нећак nephew
nećaka
nećakinja
нећака
нећакиња
niece
sestrić сестрић sororal nephew
sestričina сестричина sororal niece

In-laws[edit]

There are separate terms for a man's and a woman's parents-in-law. However, the same terms are commonly used for siblings-in-law and children-in-law. There are separate terms for co-siblings-in-law.[what about co-grandparent-in-law?]

Latin Cyrillic Relation English translation
svekar свекар husband's father father-in-law
svekrva свекрва husband's mother mother-in-law
punac [C]
tast[S]
пунац [C]
таст [S]
wife's father father-in-law
punica [C], tašta[S] пуница [C]
ташта [S]
wife's mother mother-in-law
zet зет daughter's or sister's husband son-in-law or brother-in-law
nev(j)esta
odiva [M]
snaha
snaja [S]
нев(ј)еста
одива [M]
снаха
снаjа [S]
son's or brother's wife daughter-in-law or sister-in-law
šura(k)
šurjak[C]
šogor[C]
шура(к)
шурjак [C]
шогор [C]
wife's brother brother-in-law
šurjakinja[C]
šurnjaja
шурјакиња[C]
шурњаја
wife's brother's wife sister-in-law
svastika
šogorica [C]
свастика
шогорица [C]
wife's sister sister-in-law
svastić свастић wife's sister's son nephew-in-law
svastičina свастичина wife's sister's daughter niece-in-law
badženjak
badžo
d(j)ever
đever [M]
баџењак
баџо
д(j)евер
ђевер [M]
husband's brother brother-in-law
jetrva јетрва husband's brother's wife co-sister-in-law
zaova заова husband's sister sister-in-law
pašanac
pašenog
пашанац
пашеног
wife's sister's husband co-brother-in-law
prija прија child's spouse's mother co-mother-in-law
prijatelj пријатељ child's spouse's father co-father-in-law; N.B. the exactly same word means "friend" (general word)

Step-relatives[edit]

Latin Cyrillic Relation
očuh очух stepfather
maćeha маћеха stepmother
pastorak пасторак stepson
pastorka
pastorkinja
пасторка
пасторкиња
stepdaughter
polubrat полубрат half-brother (through only one parent)
- brat po ocu брат по оцу half-brother (sharing same father, different mothers)
- brat po majci брат по мајци half-brother (sharing same mother, different fathers)
polusestra полусестра half-sister (through only one parent)
- sestra po ocu сестра по оцу half-sister (sharing same father, different mothers)
- sestra po majci сестра по мајци half-sister (sharing same mother, different fathers)

Foster-relatives[edit]

Foster relations are important and have dedicated terms.

Latin Cyrillic Relation
usvojenik усвојеник adopted son
usvojenica усвојеница adopted daughter
poočim поочим foster-father
pomajka помајка foster-mother
posinak
usinjenik [S]
посинак
усињеник [S]
foster-son
po(k)ćerka по(к)ћерка foster-daughter

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ These are, with feminine -a or -ka in parentheses, generation 6 kurđel(a), 7 askurđel(a), 8 kurđup(a), 9 kurlebalo/a, 10 sukurdol(a), 11 sudepač(a), 12 parđupan(a), 13 ožmikur(k)a, 14 kurajber(a), 15 sajkatav(k)a, 16 (m) b(ij)eli orao (f) b(ij)ela orlica.

References[edit]