Principality of Serbia
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|Principality of Serbia
Principality of Serbia in 1878
|-||1817–39||Miloš Obrenović I (first)|
|-||1868–82||Milan Obrenović IV (last)|
|-||Recognized by Porte||1815|
|-||Statehood Day||February 15, 1835c|
|-||Recognized||July 13, 1878d|
|a: Moved to Belgrade in 1838.
b: De jure in the 1830 Hatt-i Sharif.
c: Outbreak of Serbian revolution, First Constitution adopted.
d: De facto independent since 1867, de jure by the Treaty of Berlin.
The Principality of Serbia (Serbian: Кнежевина Србија or Kneževina Srbija) was a semi-independent state in the Balkans that came into existence as a result of the Serbian revolution which lasted between 1804 and 1817. Its creation was negotiated first through an unwritten agreement between Miloš Obrenović, leader of the Second Serbian Uprising and Ottoman official Marashli Pasha. It was followed by the series of legal documents published by the Porte in 1828, 1829 and finally, 1830 — the Hatt-i Sharif.
Despite oppression by the Ottoman authorities, first Karađorđe and then Miloš Obrenović, the revolutionary leaders, succeeded in their goal to liberate Serbia after centuries of Turkish rule. Turkish authorities acknowledged the state in 1830 by the charter known as the Hatt-i Sharif, and Miloš became a hereditary prince of the Serbian Principality.
At first, the principality included only the territory of the former Pashaluk of Belgrade, but in 1831-1833 it expanded to the east, south, and west. In 1867 the Ottoman army was expelled from the Principality, securing its de facto independence. A new Constitution in 1869 defined Serbia as an independent state. Serbia was further expanded to the south-east in 1878, when its independence from the Ottoman Empire won full international recognition at the Treaty of Berlin. The Principality would last until 1882 when it was raised to the level of the Kingdom of Serbia.
The Principality was ruled by the Obrenović dynasty, except for a period under Prince Aleksandar of the Karađorđević dynasty. Princes Miloš and Mihailo Obrenović each reigned twice.
List of princes of the principality:
- Miloš Obrenović I (1817–1839) first reign
- Milan Obrenović II (1839) reigned for only 26 days and died
- Mihailo Obrenović III (1839–1842) first reign
- Aleksandar Karađorđević (1842–1858)
- Miloš Obrenović I (1858–1860) second reign
- Mihailo Obrenović III (1860–1868) second reign
- Milan Obrenović IV (1868–1882)
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