|Created by||Bernard Fein
Albert S. Ruddy
|Country of origin||United States|
|No. of seasons||6|
|No. of episodes||168 (Pilot episode-B/W; 167-color) (List of episodes)|
|Running time||25 minutes|
|Production company(s)||Alfran Productions
Bob Crane Enterprises (1970–1971)
Bing Crosby Productions
|Distributor||CBS Films (before 1971)
Viacom Enterprises (1971–95)
Paramount Domestic Television (1995–2006)
CBS Paramount Domestic Television (2006–07)
CBS Television Distribution (2007-present)
|Picture format||4:3 SDTV
|Original run||September 17, 1965– March 28, 1971|
Hogan's Heroes is an American television sitcom set in a German prisoner of war (POW) camp during World War II. It ran for 168 episodes from September 17, 1965, to July 4, 1971, on the CBS network. Bob Crane starred as Colonel Robert E. Hogan, co-ordinating an international crew of Allied prisoners running a Special Operations group from the camp. Werner Klemperer played Colonel Wilhelm Klink, the incompetent commandant of the camp, and John Banner was the inept sergeant-of-the-guard, Hans Schultz.
- 1 Storyline
- 2 Cast
- 3 Broadcast history
- 4 Episodes
- 5 Filming
- 6 Theme music
- 7 Jewish actors
- 8 Reception
- 9 German-language version
- 10 Infringement lawsuit
- 11 Dispute over rights
- 12 DVD releases
- 13 In popular culture
- 14 See also
- 15 References
- 16 External links
The setting is a fictional version of Luftwaffe Stalag 13 (Camp 13 in early episodes), a prisoner-of-war camp for captured Allied airmen located north of the town of Hammelburg in the Bad Kissingen woods. It was on the Hammelburg Road (now known as E45), on the way to Hofburgstraße and eventually Düsseldorf. One episode places the camp 106 kilometres (66 mi) from Heidelberg in flying miles; it is 199 km (124 mi) by car. The camp has 103 Allied prisoners of war (POWs) during the first season, but becomes larger by the end of the series.
The farcical premise of the show is that the prisoners of war (POWs) are actually using the camp as a base of operations for Allied espionage and sabotage against Nazi Germany as well as to help Allied POWs from other camps and defectors to escape Germany (including supplying them with civilian clothes and false identification). The prisoners work in cooperation with an assortment of resistance groups (collectively called "the Underground"), defectors, spies, counterspies, disloyal officers, and others. The mastermind behind the whole operation is the senior ranking prisoner American Colonel Robert Hogan. His staff of experts in covert operations comprises two Americans, one Brit, and one Frenchman. They are able to accomplish some of the wackiest and farfetched schemes such as having a prisoner visit the camp as a phony Adolf Hitler or rescuing a French Underground agent from Gestapo headquarters in Paris.
Colonel Hogan and his band are aided by the incompetence of the camp commandant Colonel Klink and the Sergeant of the Guard Schultz who wants to avoid trouble more than anything. Hogan routinely manipulates Klink and gets Schultz to look the other way while his men conduct these covert operations. Klink and Schultz are constantly at risk of being transferred to the cold and bloody Russian Front, and Hogan helps to keep the duo in place if for no other reason for fear of their being replaced by more competent soldiers. In general, Germans in uniform and authority are portrayed as inept, dimwitted, and/or easily manipulated. Many of the German civilians are portrayed as at least indifferent towards the German war effort or even willing to help the Allies.
Klink has a perfect record of no escapes as camp commandant (not including two guards who may have deserted). Hogan actually assists in maintaining this record and ensures any prisoners who need to be spirited away are transferred to another authority before their escape takes place, or replacements are provided to maintain the illusion that no one has ever escaped from Stalag 13. Because of this record, and the fact that the Allies would never bomb a prison camp, the Germans use the stalag for high level secret meetings or to hide important persons or projects the Germans want to protect from bombing raids. Klink also has many other important visitors and is temporarily put in charge of special prisoners. This brings the prisoners in contact with many important VIPs, scientists, high-ranking officers, spies, and some of Germany's most sophisticated and secretive weapons projects (Wunderwaffe), which the prisoners take advantage of in their effort to stop the German war machine.
The main five Allied prisoners (Hogan and his staff) bunk in "Barracke 2" (a goof here was that whenever the door was open, another building labeled "Barracke 3" could be seen, even though the barracks were supposed to be directly in front of the Kommandantur, which was, unlike actual prison camps, situated inside the prisoner's compound (kommandantur = headquarters, barracke = barracks). The prisoners are able leave and return almost at will via a secret network of tunnels and have tunnels to nearly every barracks and building in the camp, so much so that Hogan, in a third-season episode ("Everybody Loves a Snowman"), has difficulty finding a spot in the camp without a tunnel under it. The stove in Klink's private quarters, a tree stump right outside the camp (known as the emergency tunnel), and a doghouse in the guard dog compound serve as trapdoors. A bunk in their barracks serves as an elaborate trapdoor and the main entrance to the tunnels. The tunnels include access to the camp's Cooler, a name used by Allied prisoners for solitary confinement, where prisoners are routinely sent for punishment and to hold special prisoners temporarily entrusted to Klink. Just inside the "emergency tunnel" is a submarine-style periscope, which the prisoners use to check conditions outside the tree stump trapdoor. There is also a periscope in their barracks with one end hidden in a water barrel outside the barracks and the other disguised as a the sink faucet inside the barracks that allows them to see events in the compound.
The prisoners' infiltration of the camp is so extensive it includes control of the camp telephone switchboard, allowing them to listen in on all conversations and to make phony phone calls. They have radio contact with Allied command, based in London and, code named "Mama Bear" in some episodes and "Papa Bear" in others. Hogan's code name is "Goldilocks" sometimes, and Papa Bear other times, although in later seasons Stalag 13 utilized different code names. Their radio antenna is hidden in the camp flagpole on top of Klink's headquarters, and the prisoners are able to make phony radio broadcasts including some by a prisoner impersonating Adolf Hitler. A real microphone, hidden in Klink's office in the picture of Hitler making a speech exactly where the microphone is in the picture, allows the prisoners to hear what is being said in the office (the speaker is disguised as the coffee pot in their barracks). The guard dogs are friendly to the prisoners, thanks to the town veterinarian Oscar Schnitzer (played by Walter Janowitz), who supports the prisoners. He routinely replaces the dogs on the premise that they could become too friendly with the prisoners, but he also uses his truck to smuggle people and items in and out of the camp, where the German guards are too afraid of the dogs to open the truck. Prisoners work in the camp's motor pool and "borrow" vehicles, including Klink's staff car, as needed to carry out their schemes. Sections of the barbed wire fence are in a frame which the prisoners can easily lift when they need to get out of the camp. On special occasions Allied airplanes land near the camp, or they make airdrops when the need arises. Allied submarines pick up escapees and defectors Hogan and his men are helping flee Germany.
- Robert E. Hogan (portrayed by Bob Crane) - United States Army Air Forces Colonel Robert E. Hogan, senior ranking POW officer, is the leader of the group. He was born in Bridgeport, Connecticut, but considers Cleveland, Ohio, his home, though it is mentioned in "Hogan Gives a Birthday Party" that he is from Indianapolis. He commanded the 504th Bomb Group, which (after Hogan was shot down) was transferred back to the States to work with the Manhattan Project. He was shot down while on a raid on Hamburg in an operation masterminded by Luftwaffe Colonel Biedenbender (James Gregory), who studied Hogan's tactics in order to defeat him and was promoted to general for doing so (though Hogan gets even by framing Biedenbender for bombing a German refinery, thereby ruining Biedenbender's military career). In contrast to Colonel Klink, Hogan graduated third in his military class. As General Biedenbender stated, Hogan has a flair for the overcomplex, and he seems to thrive on difficult if not impossible missions, which is often shown in the series. Many of the covert operations shown are highly complex, but due to Hogan's care in planning and the skill of his staff, they are usually successful (at least in the end). A U.S. Navy submarine commander in a first-season episode states: "You know, Hogan, if you weren't one of their prisoners, I think you'd be one of ours", due to his less-than-conventional methods of accomplishing his goals. After Hogan tricks Leslie Smythe-Beddoes (Ruta Lee) into letting him make a scandalous broadcast over German radio, Der Führer (Adolf Hitler), who was listening to the broadcast, telephones her boss Colonel Sitzer (Alan Oppenheimer) and tells him: "If this man [Hogan] ever tries to escape, let him". And to say the least, he is a master of manipulation and routinely plays Klink and Schultz like a violin. However, once in a while Klink shows he isn't entirely dimwitted and at least initially gets the better of Hogan. Ever the ladies' man, Hogan has a kissing relationship with Klink's secretaries (Hilda and Helga) and is romantic with most of the civilian women with whom he comes in contact throughout the series. When impersonating German officers, Hogan will often refer to himself as "Hoganmüller", "Hoganschmidt", "Hoganheimer", "Hoganburg", or similar names, always using his surname for part of the German name. The series creator Bernard Fein named Hogan's character after his friend, the American soap opera and character actor Robert J. Hogan, who appeared in two episodes of Hogan's Heroes.
- Staff Sergeant Kinchloe (portrayed by Ivan Dixon) - United States Army Air Forces Staff Sergeant James (a.k.a. Ivan) "Kinch" Kinchloe is primarily responsible for radio, telephone, and other forms of electronic communications. Although outranked by TSgt. Carter, Kinch acts as second in command in Hogan's crew. This was a large step for a 1960s television show to have an African-American actor identified in such a manner. In the fifth episode of the first season, when it appeared Colonel Crittendon (Bernard Fox) would be the new senior Prisoner of War officer, Hogan introduces his men and cites Kinchloe as Chief of Operations. A talented mimic, Kinchloe easily imitates German officers speaking over the radio or telephone. When Hogan needs a strictly audio impression of Adolf Hitler, the men generally agree that Kinchloe is the better choice for the job over Technical Sergeant Carter. Kinch is from Detroit, where he had worked for the telephone company and before the war fought in the Golden Gloves boxing matches. In "The Softer They Fall", General Burkhalter (Leon Askin) makes reference to the Jesse Owens victories during the 1936 Summer Olympics and Adolf Hitler's displeasure that a black American won medals over German athletes. Kinchloe knocks out the heavyweight champ of Stalag 13, Battling Bruno (Chuck Hicks), while Burkhalter is in the camp. Kinchloe winds up fighting Bruno again, drawing out the fight in a delaying action while Hogan and the others accomplish another sabotage mission. Upon completion of the mission, Hogan yells to Kinch to end the fight, and Kinch knocks Bruno out with one punch, whereupon Hogan throws in the towel and surrenders the fight to prevent the obvious disaster of a black POW's defeating the "master race's finest boxer". At the end of the episode, Kinch says to Klink that he'd like to tell Bruno he is still the champion of Stalag 13, "as soon as he wakes up." As a black man in the middle of wartime Germany, Kinchloe's ability to participate in some undercover activities outside of the camp is limited. In one operation that takes the protagonists outside of Germany, Kinchloe plays the role of a doorman at a nightclub in Paris in order to get close to the owner Carol Dukes, known by her stage name Kumasa (Barbara McNair), who had been a high school classmate of his (a character most likely modeled upon Josephine Baker). In "The Prince from the Phone Company", he impersonates an African prince (also played by Ivan Dixon) and reluctantly has to shave off his trademark moustache. He has a romantic involvement with the prince's wife, Princess Yawanda (Isabel Cooley), a black woman from Cleveland, presumably an OSS agent who finds the easiest way to keep tabs on the prince is to continue to play the role of his wife. Dixon departed the series at the end of the fifth season to pursue other opportunities in the entertainment industry. Nothing was mentioned on-screen about Kinchloe's departure.
- Sergeant Baker (portrayed by Kenneth Washington) - Following Dixon's departure from the show after season five, the series producers chose to create a new character rather than recast the part of Kinchloe. Auditions were held in New York City and Los Angeles. Actor Kenneth Washington, who attended an open call, was chosen to play Sergeant Baker. United States Army Air Forces Sergeant Richard Baker, like Kinchloe, was an African-American radio expert who ran the underground communications center. However, with Kinchloe's departure, Newkirk is elevated to the Chief of Operations/Chief of Staff role (despite being subordinate to both Sergeant Baker and TSgt. Carter by rank) during the sixth season. As with Kinchloe, Baker's race limits his sabotage duties outside of Stalag 13, but he is able to contribute vital support to the missions assigned to him by Col. Hogan. As of 2013, Washington is one of two surviving cast members of Hogan's Heroes (the other being Robert Clary).
- Technical Sergeant Carter (portrayed by Larry Hovis) - United States Army Air Corps Technical Sergeant Andrew J. Carter is in charge of ordnance and bomb-making. He shows a great talent in chemistry and can produce formulas, chemicals, and intricate and explosive devices as needed, although in the first season episode "The Scientist", he claims to know very little chemistry. (This inconsistency was probably meant to heighten the tension in the plot.) He loves to talk about making and using explosives and, while bright and enthusiastic at his specialties, Carter is otherwise rather dimwitted and a bit of a bumbler (such as blowing himself up while mixing chemicals together or easily forgetting instructions). In one episode, after the blowing-up a train, he could not remember the way back to Stalag 13. Carter is also called upon to impersonate German officers and, most convincingly, Adolf Hitler. Carter, as Hitler, responds to a group of German officers saying "Heil Hitler" with "Heil Me". In several episodes, Carter's Hitler fooled Sgt. Schultz, Col. Klink, and even Gen. Burkhalter. Carter was a boy scout who formerly worked at a drug store in Muncie, Indiana and hopes to become a pharmacist after the war. He is an American Indian; his Sioux name is Little Deer Who Goes Swift and Sure Through Forest, and he once won a snowman-building contest in Bullfrog, North Dakota. His catchphrase is, "You got it Boy [correcting himself] Colonel". His awards include the Silver Star, Bronze Star, Purple Heart, Commendation Medal, and Good Conduct Medal. Unlike most of the rest of the "Heroes", Carter is not much of a "ladies' man". After he receives a "Dear John Letter" from his hometown sweetheart, Mary Jane, he requests permission to escape to try to win her back but is asked to complete one last solo mission before escaping. After the mission, he meets a German woman who charms him enough to feel losing Mary Jane isn't the end of the world. When he returns, he cavalierly says to his comrades before leaving the camp for a date: "Women are like a war; there's always another one coming along." In real life, Hovis was married and refused to remove his wedding ring while filming the show as the bachelor Sergeant Carter. Thus, Carter is usually shown wearing gloves, and his left hand is rarely shown in the show. As a Technical sergeant, Carter is the senior non-commissioned officer and, after Colonel Hogan, the senior prisoner regularly depicted on the program. Despite this, he is never shown to exercise any real authority over the other prisoners, as Staff Sergeant Kinchloe is Hogan's Chief of Staff. Furthermore, Corporals Newkirk and LeBeau routinely "rib" him about his naïveté, and he comes across as almost childlike in his innocence. However, Hogan's men admire and respect TSgt. Carter and are very loyal to him. Newkirk and Kinchloe even call him "Andrew" on occasion. In the black-and-white pilot episode ("The Informer"), Carter is a Lieutenant and not a prisoner of Stalag (Camp) 13. He is an escaped prisoner from another POW camp temporarily brought into the Stalag 13 so Hogan and his men can arrange for him to get out of Germany with civilian clothes and fake identity papers, and for a submarine to pick him up. After the pilot his character is made a sergeant and a regular member of the cast.
- Corporal Louis LeBeau (portrayed by Robert Clary) - Free French Air Force Corporal Louis LeBeau is a Master Chef who is passionate about his cooking and a notoriously patriotic Frenchman. He often generally refers to Germans in uniform and Nazis as "pigs", and specifically as "Boche" or "dirty Boche", while the other prisoners call them Krauts (which were traditionally meant to be derogatory remarks towards World War I and World War II German soldiers). Schultz and Klink refer to LeBeau as "Cockroach". LeBeau gets along better with the guard dogs than any other prisoner, and so is often seen using the tunnel entrance located in the kennel. Though highly claustrophobic, because of his small size he can hide in small spaces, such as the safe in Colonel Klink's office, box crates, or a dumbwaiter. LeBeau also uses his talent as a singer to help the "Heroes" in several episodes. (Clary began his career as a singer.) As a stereotypical French lover, LeBeau tries to be romantic with a number of the women with whom he comes in contact during the series. In numerous episodes, LeBeau uses his cooking skills to get Klink out of various jams with his superiors or simply so Klink can impress guests. In exchange for LeBeau's cooking a dinner or banquet, Hogan bargains for extra privileges (which is usually just a ruse to gain access to Klink's guests). LeBeau also bribes Schultz with food, especially his famous apple strudel. In the first two seasons (excluding the pilot), LeBeau made the uniforms and suits, although this job increasingly went to Newkirk. In fact, by the fifth season episode "Gowns by Yvette," it is suggested that LeBeau cannot even sew a stitch, though he claims creative responsibility for the dress Newkirk eventually sews; but later, he once again began to sew and mend the clothing alongside Newkirk. In the show, LeBeau suffers from hemophobia and is seldom seen without his scarf. He also may have been the first POW at Stalag 13. In one episode, it was shown that he couldn't remember his serial number, although it might have been an act. The farthest he got was "H12497". Robert Clary is a French Jew who was in the Nazi concentration camps Ottmuth and Buchenwald and still has his serial number tattooed on his arm. Clary became the last surviving original Hogan's Heroes cast member when Cynthia Lynn (Helga, first season, 1965–66) died of multiple organ failure on March 10, 2014.
- Corporal Newkirk (portrayed by Richard Dawson) - Royal Air Force Corporal Peter Newkirk is the group's conman, magician, pick-pocket, card sharp, forger, bookie, tailor, lock picker, and safe cracker. He does numerous impersonations of German officers as well as a voice imitation of Adolf Hitler, and on one occasion a great imitation of the British Prime Minister, Winston Churchill, during the war. On a number of occasions Newkirk dresses as a woman to fool the Germans as part of a mission. However, as a bit of a Casanova, he tries to romantically hook up with most of the women ("birds", as he calls them) he comes in contact with throughout the series. As a skilled tailor, Newkirk is in charge of making or altering uniforms, civilian clothes, and other disguises as needed for missions or for prisoners from other camps they're trying to help get out of Germany. He also uses his skills as pick-pocket, lock picker, and safe cracker on many occasions, particularly to open Klink's office safe. As a card sharp, Newkirk helps to make sure Schultz loses a lot and is forever in need of bribe money from the prisoners to pay his gambling losses (Schultz usually pays his debt or gets money to gamble by giving the prisoners information). Newkirk is called "the Englander" by Schultz and even by "Klink" in some of the episodes. He is also often teamed with Carter, and his irritation at Carter's bumbling antics and dimwittedness is used for comedic effect. This series marked Dawson's second appearance on American television (he had earlier appeared on an episode of The Dick Van Dyke Show in 1963). Dawson auditioned for the role of Hogan but was told he did not sound American enough Richard Dawson has stated in an interview that he had initially used a Liverpool accent for the Newkirk character, but had been told by Mike Dann (the then-president of CBS) to switch it to a Cockney accent, as Dann felt the Liverpool accent was not accessible to the American television audience. Dawson expressed his vindication upon seeing a marquee for the first Beatles film A Hard Day's Night in 1964.
- Colonel Wilhelm Klink (portrayed by Werner Klemperer) - Kommandant Colonel Wilhelm Klink is an old-line Luftwaffe officer of aristocratic (Junker) Prussian descent, but is inept, a bit dimwitted, cowardly, and often clueless if not rather gullible. He was born circa 1895 in Leipzig, though he refers to Düsseldorf, where he attended the Gymnasium (high school) (graduating 43rd in his class), as his home town. After failing the entrance exams to study law or medicine, he received an appointment from Kaiser Wilhelm II to a military academy, through the influence of his uncle, the Bürgermeister's barber, and graduated 95th in his class – the only one who has not risen to the rank of general. He has been stuck at the rank of colonel for 20 years with an efficiency rating a few points above "miserable". However, when questioned by Colonel Hogan, Colonel Klink admits that many of his higher-ranking classmates have been killed in action or shot by Hitler. The nearest he ever comes to becoming a General is when Hogan tricks Klink and the German General Staff into thinking Klink has been personally chosen by Hitler to be the new Chief of Staff just as the D-Day invasion begins. When faced with a decision whether to move the German reserves to Normandy or not, Klink can only order more champagne. He has fencing armor in his dining room and in his office a pompous coat of arms on the wall (only briefly seen in one episode).[which?] In another episode, when he thinks he is going to be rich, he claims his 500-year-old name will finally have some money as well. He always wears a monocle (which often reflects an image of the round studio lights) on his left eye, usually carries a riding crop, and walks with a stoop. In a few episodes Klink is seen wearing the Pour le Mérite (or The Blue Max), Iron Cross, Ground Assault Badge of the Luftwaffe, and the Parachutist Badge. A veteran aviator of the First World War, Klink is content to live out the end of his military career in the relative comfort and safety of a prison camp commandant's billet, although in one episode he wished he were piloting a Heinkel bomber again and wants his old bomb group back. However, his piloting skills are suspect. On August 4, 1917, during World War I, he panicked and crashed, which left his passenger with a permanent limp. His passenger was none other than "The Blue Baron" Mannfred von Richter (a parody of Manfred von Richthofen "The Red Baron", who did not survive the First World War). The Blue Baron, by then a general, visits Klink in "Will the Blue Baron Strike Again?" and reminds Klink of the injury. But according to Burkhalter and Schultz, Klink is too afraid to fly. With his innate skills as a conman, Hogan is able to very easily manipulate Klink through a combination of appealing to his vanity through a lot of flattery, chicanery, and playing with Klink's fears of being sent to the frigid and bloody Russian Front with the Soviet Union, or of being arrested by the Gestapo. Klink is so easily manipulated by Hogan that Klink doesn't even notice, though occasionally he wonders who is really in command of Stalag 13. Part of this running gag also has Schultz and others wondering who is really running the camp. When Hogan really wants to appeal to Klink's vanity he calls Klink the "Iron Colonel" or the "Iron Eagle". Klink is for the most part portrayed as a vain, bumbling, and incompetent career officer rather than as an evil German or ardent Nazi. Colonel Klink received the Citation of Merit-Second Class (fictitious) from General Stauffen during World War II. The general visits Stalag 13 to get a briefcase from Hogan filled with explosives, in a plot to assassinate Adolf Hitler, all under the unsuspecting eyes of Klink. This is typical of the scenarios in which Hogan will entangle Klink. A running gag is that Klink gets doused with water or covered with snow for comedic effect. Another running gag is that Klink is an inept violinist, and is only able to play the U.S. Army Air Forces Song. (In real life, Werner Klemperer was a skilled violinist, son of the famous orchestra conductor Otto Klemperer, and a skilled orchestra conductor in his own right. Colonel Klink is constantly annoyed by Hogan and his fellow prisoners' regularly playing with the World War I Pickelhaube of an Uhlan lancer regiment that sits on Klink's desk. (Hogan and sometimes Schultz also pilfer cigars from a box sitting next to the Pickelhaube). A third running gag is that Klink often forgets to give the Hitler salute at the end of a phone call, and instead usually asks, "What's that?" and then says, "Yes, of course, Heil Hitler". General Burkhalter tells Klink, a perpetual bachelor, to help him be promoted to general he needs to marry into an important family. Klink initially thinks that Burkhalter is referring to his lovely niece, but Klink finds out that it is actually Burkhalter's homely and gruff sister, the widow Frau Linkmeyer, whom Burkhalter wishes to have married and who scares Klink. Klink narrowly escapes from this fate several times with the help of Colonel Hogan. Klink later learns that the two other Stalag commandants under Burkhalter's command also narrowly escaped marriage to Frau Linkmeyer. In "War Takes a Holiday", Klink tries to flatter Schultz, a businessman in civilian life, hoping to be hired as a bookkeeper with Schultz's toy company now that he falsely thinks the war is over.
- Sergeant Schultz (portrayed by John Banner) - Senior Master Sergeant Hans Georg Schultz, serial number 23781, is Klink's bumbling, inept and somewhat dimwitted, but affable if not lovable, 300-pound Sergeant of the Guard who is forever taking small bribes from the prisoners with whom he is overly friendly. The bribes are usually in the form of chocolate from Red Cross packages or LeBeau's delicious cooking often in exchange for information. His main goal is to avoid trouble and as long as he does, or at least gets out of trouble, he doesn't concern himself too much about the prisoners' activities. However, when Schultz is confronted by evidence of the prisoners' suspicious activities ("monkey business" as he calls it) and feels he must report it to Klink, Hogan will use some means — such as reminding Schultz of all the bribes he would have to report to Klink, to convince Schultz he should not report anything. When a prisoner is missing, Hogan will assure him that the prisoner will be back. Although Schultz repeatedly tries to avoid reporting anything or at least having Klink find out, if he does report what is going on to Klink, Hogan and his men are usually able to cover up the problem before Klink arrives. Sometimes Schultz, not wanting to deal with the situation, will simply look the other way, repeating "I hear nothing, I see nothing, I know nothing!" (or, more commonly as the series went on, simply "I see nothing–NOTHING!"). This eventually became one of the main catchphrases of the series and probably the most widely used by fans of the show. Just the same, if Schultz is found to be derelict in his duty, he could easily be court-martialed, sent to the Russian Front to fight in the bitter cold, or shot as a traitor for his apparent complicity. When Schultz does get into trouble (usually on account of the prisoners) Hogan, as with Klink, tries to find a way to clear Schultz if for no other reason to avoid having him replaced with a more competent soldier who is not as easily manipulated. Though generally shown as being borderline incompetent, he (on occasions) proved his mettle, as can be seen in episodes such as "A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to London", in which he catches Hogan assisting another man attempting to escape; he even goes so far as to stand up to Hogan, moving him along at gunpoint. Like Colonel Klink, he is a veteran of World War I. His hometown is Heidelberg, and in civilian life he is the owner of Germany's biggest and most successful toy manufacturing company, The Schatzi Toy Company. With the onset of war, Schultz was involuntarily recalled to military duty and lost control of his toy factory as it was converted to military use. He has a wife, Gretchen (played by Barbara Morrison) and five children whom he sees only during infrequent leave. However, a few times he is unfaithful to his wife, for instance in "Sergeant Schultz Meets Mata Hari" he dates a woman who, as it turns out, is a secret Gestapo agent. LeBeau once refers to Schultz as a Social Democrat, a party that the Nazis banned in 1933, and Schultz on several occasions is shown to be very disgusted by Hitler in particular and the Nazis in general. In one episode he mentions how much he preferred having a kaiser rule Germany and his whole attitude can be summed up by his statement that "When it comes to war, I don't like to take sides". Schultz is also a bad gambler, frequently playing cards with the prisoners, and usually losing — although much of this is caused by Newkirk fixing the games in order to get information from Schultz (in exchange for the money he lost or for money to gamble). He also likes to drink a bit especially whenever free liquor is available, but above all Schultz loves to eat — a whole lot — especially LeBeau's exquisite cooking. He is described by Klink as being "in his forties." In real life, Banner was in his late fifties. When the prisoners make fun of Schultz he calls them "Jolly Jokers". Schultz carries a Krag-Jørgensen rifle, which he never keeps loaded and tends to misplace or even hand to the POWs when he needs to use both hands (he then might say "Give me back my gun, or I'll SHOOT!"). He never wears the chin-strap on his helmet and needs glasses to read He wears a fictitious version of the Iron Cross (4th Grade) awarded by General Kammler (Whit Bissell), a friend whom Schultz mentored during World War I and addresses Schultz by first name, and whom Schultz addresses as Lieutenant Kammler (the rank he held during World War I).
- Fräulein Helga (portrayed by Cynthia Lynn in 1965 to 1966) and Fräulein Hilda (portrayed by Sigrid Valdis in 1966 to 1971) - Helga and Hilda have served as the secretaries of Colonel Klink. Both Fräulein Helga and Fräulein Hilda were portrayed as having ongoing flirting and kissing relationships with Colonel Hogan. Both assist Hogan and his men in various ways, including providing tidbits of information, access to official papers or equipment or at least remaining indifferent towards their suspicious conduct in exchange for a warm kiss or some other form of affectionate gesture from Hogan. In the pilot episode, Helga works as manicurist in the prisoners' underground barber shop, but it is only in the pilot episode that it is suggested her cooperation with the prisoners is all that extensive. Eventually, during the run of the TV series, it is implied that Hilda and Hogan have a running romance, especially when she hints at getting a diamond engagement ring in exchange for her help. Sigrid Valdis and Bob Crane were married in 1970 on the show's set in Culver City, Calif., where all of the interior and some of the exterior scenes of Hogan's Heroes were filmed. Nearly all of the crewmen and -women, and all the cast members of the TV series were present, and Richard Dawson served as the best man to the groom.
- General Albert Hans "Hansi" Burkhalter (portrayed by Leon Askin) - General Albert Burkhalter is Klink's heavyset superior officer who is gruff and frequently tires of Klink's babbling and incompetence, often telling him to "shut up" and threatens to send him to the Russian Front. Burkhalter is mystified by Stalag 13's perfect record, unable to make sense of it in combination with its Kommandant's frequently evidenced incompetence. Klink's outstanding record at Stalag 13 is the primary reason for General Burkhalter never actually making good on any of his threats towards Klink. General Burkhalter's confusion over Klink's skill as a Kommandant when he appears to be an idiot in all other regards is a running gag. Burkhalter affected to live a Spartan existence like a good German officer, but in reality, he loves the good life, even in war. He is scared to death of Mrs. Burkhalter (calling her "the highest authority in Germany"), testifying to this several times during the series and after Hogan manages to get a few compromising photos of the General with very attractive women (in order to blackmail him). As the series progresses, he suspects Hogan's greater role at Stalag 13; however, in the end, Burkhalter, like the others, comes to depend upon Hogan to get them out of trouble with the High Command when one scheme or the other runs off the tracks.
- Major Wolfgang Hochstetter (portrayed by Howard Caine) - Major Wolfgang Hochstetter of the Gestapo and the SS (Schutzstaffel), is an ardent Nazi who never understands why Hogan is constantly allowed to barge into Klink's office at will. Hochstetter frequently demands of Klink "Who is this man?" or "What is this man doing here?!" with increasing stridency. His catchphrase is "Heads will roll". He is also noted for the many times he shouts "Baah!" at Klink or Hogan after his multiple failures. Klink is justifiably afraid of him, but Burkhalter, who despises Hochstetter just as Klink does, is not. But even Hochstetter is manipulated by Hogan. In "War Takes a Holiday", Hogan tricks Hochstetter into believing that the war has ended and lending his staff car to several captured underground leaders, who use it to escape just as Hochstetter's superiors arrive. Howard Caine played two other German officers in the series, Gestapo Kriminaldirektor (Colonel) Feldkamp and Major Keitel, before becoming Major Hochstetter.
- Colonel Rodney Crittendon (portrayed by Bernard Fox) - Colonel Rodney Crittendon is a Royal Air Force group captain whose medals include the Distinguished Service Order, Order of the British Empire, Military Cross and Bar, Distinguished Flying Cross, and Air Force Cross. He is a hopelessly incompetent British officer who crosses paths several times with Hogan and his crew. He believes that a POW's only duty is to escape and to be involved in anything is else is strictly against regulations. When first transferred to Stalag 13 from Stalag 18, Hogan poses a hypothetical question to Crittendon asking what he would do if he were aware the POWs were engaged in spying and sabotage; Crittendon replies that he would report them to the German authorities (thus preventing him from being included in the official mission of the Stalag 13 POWs). However, in a third season episode Crittendon volunteers to replace Hogan as the group's leader since he is familiar with the members of the team (even though he has only had a measly two-day training course in espionage and sabotage). Crittendon is also known for developing and attempting to execute various forms of prison camp escapes that never work, and for coming up with the secret "Crittendon Plan", which turns out to consist of planting geraniums along the sides of runways to cheer up returning British pilots. In a dual role, Bernard Fox played British traitor Sir Charles Chitterly (possibly a parody of William Joyce known as Lord Haw-Haw), who, along with his wife Lady Leslie Chitterly (Anne Rogers), are visiting the camp and their way to see their friend Adolf Hitler. Lookalike Crittendon, who was parachuted into the camp, replaces Sir Charles and is briefly able to fool his wife. After she discovers the truth, she decides not to reveal this to the Germans. Meanwhile, the real Sir Charles escapes and wanders around the camp. Crittendon outranked Hogan as Crittendon has 12 years seniority over Hogan because Crittendon had been stuck at colonel for so long. Crittendon admits that he's been behind a desk for many years.
- Marya (Nita Talbot) - Marya is a Russian spy who works occasionally with Hogan, but whom he does not entirely trust. She often appears as the trusted paramour of some high-ranking German officer or scientist. Her mission is to either discredit or destroy her paramours, as she notes that "...We cannot trust Hitler to shoot all his own generals". She meets Hogan and LeBeau in Paris during the second season where she learns of his Stalag 13 activities. Her schemes often come into conflict with Hogan's plans, but she nevertheless always proves to be either faithful to the Allied cause or having compatible causes of her own. She is described as a "White Russian", but it is unclear whether this refers to her possible ethnicity as a Belarusian or her possible political allegiance to the Russian anti-communist White Movement (thus allowing her character to remain apolitical - while the Soviet Union was an ally during the war, when the series was filmed anti-communist/anti-Soviet feeling ran high in the U.S., see the Cold War). Marya is constantly flirting with Hogan, to his discomfort, and also flirts with LeBeau, who believes her to be an innocent, decent woman who won't sell out or get the Heroes in trouble (at least not on purpose). Her trademark line, said with an exaggerated Russian accent, is "Hogan, Dah-link" (Hogan Darling in normal English).
- Tiger (portrayed by Arlene Martel) - Tiger is a beautiful female French Underground contact, who has a running romance with Hogan and appears in the series a few times. Hogan has noted that Tiger has saved his life at least once. Hogan describes Tiger as 'the' leader of the French Underground. He frees her from the Gestapo twice: once on the way to Berlin by train, and once springing her from Gestapo headquarters in Paris.
- Captain Fritz or Felix Gruber (portrayed by Dick Wilson) - Captain Fritz is Klink's adjutant who is rarely seen (Dick Wilson also played several other characters in the series including a member of the Underground). However, in "Don't Forget to Write", Gruber becomes the new ruthless Kommandant of Stalag 13 after Klink mistakenly volunteers for the Russian Front. Because Gruber is rather hard lined and not at all easy to manipulate, the prisoners desperately want to get Klink back. Hogan then orders three prisoners to escape and hide. When Gruber is unable to recapture them Burkhalter turns to Klink to recapture the prisoners, which he does with the help of Hogan. General Burkhalter sees that it would be a mistake to send Klink to the Russian Front and gives Klink his old job back. In addition to Gruber, several other junior officers or more capable NCO's are occasionally assigned to Klink's command, but one way or another Hogan finds a way to get rid of them. In one episode, Hogan pretends to be Klink's adjutant, a "Major Hogan Hüppel", to fool some German officers. During most of Hogan's Heroes, there is a conspicuous omission of any second-in-command to Kommandant Klink, and in fact, the omission of any junior Luftwaffe officers at all (however, there was an apparent adjutant to Klink in the pilot episode). Klink claims he doesn't need one and often feels threatened by more competent officers, even junior officers.
- Corporal Karl Langenscheidt (portrayed by Jon Cedar) - Corporal Karl Langenscheidt is one of Schultz's guards who is only seen or spoken of occasionally. He often arrives at the worst of times and also informs the distraught Colonel Klink when an important guest arrives, much to Klink's displeasure. In "Art for Hogan's Sake", Langenscheidt gets involved in Hogan's scheme to forge the famous Édouard Manet priceless painting, "The Fife Player", and switch it for the real one General Burkhalter had "requisitioned" from the Louvre museum in Paris to give to Hermann Göring as a birthday present.
- Frau Gertrude Linkmeyer (née Burkhalter) (portrayed by Kathleen Freeman, played once by Alice Ghostley) - Frau Gertrude Linkmeyer is General Burkhalter's gruff and homely sister whom he tries to marry off, notably to Klink who knows marrying her would help his career. However, she is usually in a one-sided relationship as Klink is scared to death of her, but Hogan manages to split the two one way or another. A running gag in several episodes with her is that Klink can run away with her husband Otto who, she sometimes protests, is only missing in action on the Russian Front (but as General Burkhalter says, missing in action on the Russian Front "is as good as dead"). In one episode Hogan commented "You two can start a club". In another running gag Klink threatens to have Hogan shot for even suggesting he could marry Frau Linkmeyer. In "Kommandant Gertrude", Frau Linkmeyer arrives at the camp with her new (reluctant) fiancé, Major Wolgang Karp (Lee Bergere), with whom she intends to replace Klink as camp commandant under her iron-fisted supervision, but Hogan manages to foil her plans and their engagement. She only appears in episodes with General Burkhalter.
- Maurice Dubay (portrayed by Felice Orlandi) - Maurice Dubay is a French Underground contact who appeared in several episodes. (Orlandi's real-life wife, Alice Ghostley, appeared in two episodes, one time assuming the role of Frau Linkmeyer and in the other as Mrs. Mannheim).
- Major Bonacelli (portrayed by Hans Conried in the first appearance, Vito Scotti in the second appearance) - Major Bonacelli is a visiting commander of an Italian prisoner-of-war camp who is at Stalag 13 to learn Klink's techniques for no escapes, but is actually not too supportive of the Fascist war effort, particularly the German war effort. In "The Pizza Parlor", Hogan dissuades Major Bonacelli from defecting to neutral Switzerland and convinces him to act as an Allied spy at his POW camp. In "The Return of Major Boncelli", Hogan talks Bonacelli into photographing the new advanced German anti-aircraft gun before defecting to Switzerland (while he is pursued by the Gestapo).
Among some of the notable actors to appear on Hogan's Heroes were:
- Gavin MacLeod (McHale's Navy, The Mary Tyler Moore Show and The Love Boat), played several dislikable German characters including the corrupt Gestapo Major Keitel and the despicable Gen. von Rauscher;
- James B. Sikking ("Lt. Howard Hunter" on Hill Street Blues) played three characters (in three episodes), including an SS officer, a German soldier, and an Underground leader.
- William Christopher ("Father Mulcahy" on M*A*S*H), played four characters (in four episodes) including a POW pretending to be a German general and POW "Thomas" who temporarily takes over the duties normally assigned to Carter.
- Henry Corden, also played several characters on both sides including "The Blue Baron"; Harold Gould, played several German generals.
- Ben Wright played several German officers including Count Rudolf von Heffernick, but also a defecting German scientist, Dr. Riemann.
- Noam Pitlik played several characters on both sides including the German spy planted among the prisoners in the black-and-white pilot episode.
- In a dual role, Lloyd Bochner played Group Captain James Roberts who is on his way to meet Winston Churchill, but is replaced by his lookalike German spy Leutnant Baumann who plans on assassinating Churchill.
- Antoinette Bower played three roles including "Berlin Betty" (a parody of "Axis Sally"), a British traitor who makes propaganda broadcasts for the Nazis.
- Friday at 8:30-9:00 p.m. on CBS: September 17, 1965—April 7, 1967; September 26, 1969—March 27, 1970
- Saturday at 9:00-9:30 p.m. on CBS: September 9, 1967—March 22, 1969
- Sunday at 7:30-8:00 p.m. on CBS: September 20, 1970—April 4, 1971
The pilot episode, "The Informer", aired on September 17, 1965. The episodes plot centered on two new prisoners entering Stalag 13, Lieutenant Carter (played by Hovis), who escapes into the camp, and Wagner (played by Noam Pitlik) who is actually a German spy posing as an Allied prisoner. Wagner attempts to expose Hogan's operation to Colonel Burkhalter, however, Hogan and his men are able to discredit the spy. As punishment for his outlandish claims, the spy is sent to the Russian front.
The series remained true to the pilot in most respects, however there were some notable differences. Some of the prisoner's luxuries, such as an underground steam room, were eliminated to make the operation more credible. The character of Colonel Klink was toned down and made more of a fool than a villain. His sharp accent was toned down as well.
The character of Vladimir Minsk, a Soviet POW played by Leonid Kinskey, was intended to be a series regular. However, Kinskey declined to continue with the series. Stewart Moss, who played an American POW named Olson in the pilot, also declined an offer to become a series regular. Larry Hovis was intended to be a guest star in the pilot only. However, producer Ed Feldman was impressed by his performance and, after Kinskey and Moss declined to take part in the series, was offered a regular role. Hovis' character was changed from a Lieutenant to a Sergeant. According to Hovis, Feldman chose to do this because "sergeants are more sympathetic." Although Hovis' character had escaped at the end of the pilot, Feldman did not see this as a problem because he believed "no one will care".
The theme music for Hogan's Heroes was composed by Jerry Fielding. Fielding added lyrics to the theme for Hogan's Heroes Sing The Best of World War II – an album featuring Dixon, Clary, Dawson and Hovis singing World War II songs. The song also appeared on the album Bob Crane, His Drums and Orchestra, Play the Funny Side of TV.
The actors who played the four major German roles—Werner Klemperer (Klink), John Banner (Schultz), Leon Askin (Burkhalter), and Howard Caine (Hochstetter)—were Jewish. Furthermore, Klemperer, Banner, Askin, and Robert Clary (LeBeau) were Jews who had fled the Nazis during World War II. Clary says in the recorded commentary on the DVD version of episode "Art for Hogan's Sake" that he spent three years in a concentration camp, that his parents and other family members were killed there, and that he has an identity tattoo from the camp on his arm ("A-5714"). Likewise John Banner had been held in a (pre-war) concentration camp and his family was killed during the war. Leon Askin was also in a pre-war French internment camp and his parents were killed at Treblinka. Howard Caine (Hochstetter), who was also Jewish (his birth name was Cohen), was American, and Jewish actors Harold Gould and Harold J. Stone played German generals; Jon Cedar played a camp guard.
As a teenager, Werner Klemperer (Klink) (son of the conductor Otto Klemperer) fled Hitler's Germany with his family in 1933. During the show's production, he insisted that Hogan always win over his Nazi captors or else he would not take the part of Klink. He defended his playing a Luftwaffe Officer by claiming, "I am an actor. If I can play Richard III, I can play a Nazi." Banner attempted to sum up the paradox of his role by saying, "Who can play Nazis better than us Jews?" Ironically, although Klemperer, Banner, Caine, Gould, and Askin play stereotypical World War II Germans, all had actually served in the U.S. Armed Forces during World War II — Banner and Askin in the U.S. Army Air Corps, Caine in the U.S. Navy, Gould with the U.S. Army, and Klemperer in a U.S. Army Entertainment Unit.
TV Guide in 2002 named Hogan's Heroes the fifth worst TV show of all time. The listing for Hogan's Heroes in particular accuses the show of trivializing the suffering of real life POWs and the victims of the Holocaust with its comedic take on prison camps in the Third Reich.
Note: The highest average rating for the series is in bold text.
|2) 1966–1967||#17||21.8 (Tied with The CBS Friday Night Movies)|
|3) 1967–1968||Not in the Top 30|
German film distributor KirchGruppe acquired the rights to Hogan's Heroes, but did not broadcast it for many years due to fears that it would offend viewers. It was first broadcast on German television in 1992, but the program failed to connect with viewers. However, after the dialogue was rewritten make the characters look even more foolish (which ensured that the viewers understood the characters were caricatures), the show became successful. The German version also introduced new unseen character, "Kalinke", who is Klink's cleaning lady and perennial mistress. Colonel Klink describes her as performing most of her cleaning duties in the nude.
Donald Bevan and Edmund Trzcinski, the writers of the 1951 play Stalag 17, a World War II prisoner of war story turned into a 1953 feature film by Paramount Pictures, sued Bing Crosby Productions, the show's producer, for infringement. However, their lawsuit was unsuccessful. While the jury found in favor of the plaintiffs, the federal judge overruled them. The judge found "striking difference in the dramatic mood of the two works."
Dispute over rights
In 2012, an arbitration hearing was scheduled to determine whether creators Bernard Fein and Albert S. Ruddy, the creators of the show, had transferred the right to make a movie of Hogan's Heroes to Bing Crosby Productions along with the television rights or had retained the derivative movie rights. In 2013, Fein (through his estate) and Ruddy acquired the sequel and other separate rights to Hogan's Heroes from Mark Cuban via arbitration, and a movie based on the show has been planned.
CBS DVD (distributed by Paramount) has released all six seasons of Hogan's Heroes on DVD in Region 1 & 4. The series was previously released by Columbia House as individual discs, each with five or six consecutive episodes.
|DVD Name||Episodes||Release dates|
|Region 1||Region 4|
|The Complete First Season||32||March 15, 2005||July 30, 2008|
|The Complete Second Season||30||September 27, 2005||November 7, 2008|
|The Complete Third Season||30||March 7, 2006||March 5, 2009|
|The Complete Fourth Season||26||August 15, 2006||June 3, 2009|
|The Complete Fifth Season||26||December 19, 2006||August 4, 2009|
|The Complete Sixth and Final Season||24||June 5, 2007||September 30, 2009|
|The Complete Series (The Kommandant's Collection)||168||November 10, 2009||December 3, 2009|
In popular culture
- In the Battalion Wars series of video games, the soldiers of the Western Frontier faction are referred to as "Herman's Heroes", an obvious allusion to Hogan's Heroes.
In 1968, Robert Clary, Richard Dawson, Ivan Dixon, and Larry Hovis cut an LP record, Hogan's Heroes Sing the Best of World War II, which included lyrics for the theme song. The record did not sell well and as a result is today considered a collector's item.
In 1968, MPC (Model Products by Craft Master, Model Products Corporation) released a model Jeep in 1/25 scale with spurious markings labeled as "Hogan's Heroes World War II Jeep". In 2003, another model (from the same mold, but with slightly different—though still spurious—decals) was released by AMT/ERTL. It cannot be built as a correct World War II military Jeep, regardless of markings, without body work because it has a tailgate opening, but it includes alternate parts to build a correct CJ-2A. A decal on the model read, "If found, return to Colonel Hogan".
- Mad magazine #108 (January 1967) parodied the show as "Hokum's Heroes". An additional one-page parody called "Hochman's Heroes" took the show's premise to the next level by setting it in Buchenwald concentration camp.
- In the December 1, 1966 Batman episode "It's How You Play the Game", Colonel Klink appears in one of the show's trademark window cameos as Batman scales the side of a building. When Batman and Robin ask why Colonel Klink is in Gotham City, Colonel Klink states that he is looking for an underground agent. Batman tells Colonel Klink to try not to get picked up as Chief O'Hara can be very tough with aliens incognito. Colonel Klink quotes "incognito, in my monocle?" When Robin tells Colonel Klink to say hi to Colonel Hogan for him and Batman, Colonel Klink quotes that it is a wonder Hogan has not borrowed one of Batman's bat-ropes for one of his escapes.
- The television series The Simpsons has made several references to Hogan's Heroes including:
- The episode "Burns Verkaufen der Kraftwerk" when Mr. Burns sells the Springfield Nuclear Power Plant to a German company. One of the Germans alludes to the show when he says, "The new owners have elected me to speak with you because I am the most non-threatening. Perhaps I remind you of the lovable Sergeant Schultz on Hogan's Heroes."
- Colonel Klink (voiced by Klemperer himself) appears in the episode "The Last Temptation of Homer", as a guardian angel assuming the form of a character Homer knows, who shows Homer what his life would be like without Marge. Throughout the episode Homer tells Klink of the tunnels and radio that were hidden from him throughout Hogan's Heroes.
- In the episode "The Great Louse Detective", Rainier Wolfcastle references Sgt. Schultz's catchphrase. When discussing a nudist Nazi exploitation film he made early in his career, he says "I Wore Nussing!"
- Colonel Klink and Sergeant Schultz appear in the Robot Chicken episode "Metal Militia", voiced by Seth Green. In a segment that parodies this show, Hulk Hogan and other wrestlers are in the place of Colonel Hogan and his inmates as they plan to make their escape when Adolf Hitler pays a visit to Colonel Klink's Stalag 13 camp.
- The children's Disney TV show Recess makes reference to Hogan's Heroes on the episode "Old Folks Home". In the episode, an old war hero named Logan reminisces about his days in the war to T.J. While he reminisces, a flashback appears of his days in a German-style POW camp. In the flashback, one of the barracks reads the number 13 (as in Stalag 13) in the background of the formation of Logan's men. While in formation, "Kommadant Pricklyton" questions Logan after losing his secret communique. In the flashback, many renowned Hogan's Heroes gag lines are used, such as the Kommadant's shouting "Logan!" and a husky man in a World War I style German uniform's stating: "I haven't seen a thing!"
- Episode 4 of the fourth season of television show Community contains many references to the show.
- The 2010 TV series Pound Puppies utilizes remarkably similar plot structure with gags including an inept pound manager and the kennel keeper mirroring Klink and Schultz, respectively, puppies using networks of underground tunnels, and a Hogan's Heroes theme song as the inspiration for the show's theme.
- Schultz's very popular catchphrase "I hear nothing, I see nothing, I know nothing!" (undoubtedly an allusion to the three wise monkeys) has entered public conscience. For example, in S5/E1 of Breaking Bad, "Live Free or Die", Saul Goodman warns Skyler White that the police may question her about Ted Beneke's "accident" and advises: "On the off chance, I want you thinking one thought: Hogan's Heroes. Sergeant Schultz. Remember Sergeant Schultz? 'I know nothing. I see nothing.' Remember how he... I want you like that."
- In the Disney Channel Original TV show, "Good Luck Charlie" episode "Bad Luck Teddy", Amy and Bob mention speaking to 'Colonel Klink' when talking about military school with Gabe.
- "Will the Real Adolf Please Stand Up". Hogan's Heroes. Season 2. Episode 12. December 2, 1966.
- "A Tiger Hunt in Paris: Part 1". Hogan's Heroes. Season 2. Episode 10. November 18, 1966.
- "A Tiger Hunt in Paris: Part 2". Hogan's Heroes. Season 2. Episode 11. November 18, 1966.
- "Everybody Loves a Snowman". Hogan's Heroes. Season 3. Episode 14. December 9, 1967.
- "Hogan Gives a Birthday Party". Hogan's Heroes. Season 2. Episode 1. September 16, 1966.
- "Who Stole My Copy of Mein Kampf". Hogan's Heroes. Season 4. Episode 16. January 11, 1969.
- "Reservations Are Required". Hogan's Heroes. Season 1. Episode 15. Dec 24, 1965.
- "Crittendon's Commandos". Hogan's Heroes. Season 5. Episode 25. March 20, 1970.
- "The Flight of the Valkyrie". Hogan's Heroes. Season 1. Episode 5. October 15, 1965.
- "D-Day at Stalag 13". Hogan's Heroes. Season 3. Episode 3. September 23, 1967.
- "The Softer They Fall". Hogan's Heroes. Season 5. Episode 18. January 23, 1970.
- "Is General Hammerschlag Burning". Hogan's Heroes. Season 3. Episode 11. November 18, 1967.
- "The Prince from the Phone Company". Hogan's Heroes. Season 1. Episode 26. March 18, 1966.
- Royce, Brenda Scott (15 October 1998). Hogan's Heroes: Behind the Scenes at Stalag 13. Renaissance Books. p. 22. ISBN 978-1580630313. Retrieved 2014-03-28.
- "The Scientist". Hogan's Heroes. Season 1. Episode 12. December 3, 1965.
- "Will the Real Adolf Please Stand Up?". Hogan's Heroes. Season 2. Episode 12. December 2, 1966.
- "Request Permission to Escape". Hogan's Heroes. Season 1. Episode 32. April 29, 1966.
- "The Informer". Hogan's Heroes. Season 1. Episode 1. September 17, 1965.
- "Gowns by Yvette". Hogan's Heroes. Season 5. Episode 19. January 30, 1970.
- Dawson interview re: Newkirk Accent
- "Go Fit of Go Fight". Hogan's Heroes. Season 5. Episode 16. January 9, 1970.
- "Commander of the Year". Hogan's Heroes. Season 1. Episode 3. October 1, 1965.
- "The Schultz Brigade". Hogan's Heroes. Season 2. Episode 2. September 23, 1966.
- "Will the Blue Baron Strike Again?"". Hogan's Heroes. Season 4. Episode 12. December 14, 1968.
- "Operation Briefcase". Hogan's Heroes. Season 2. Episode 4. October 7, 1966.
- Woo, Elaine (8 December 2008). "Werner Klemperer; Played Col. Klink in ‘Hogan’s Heroes’". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2014-03-28.
- "Hogan's Heroes: Quotes". Internet Movie Database. Retrieved 2014-03-28.
- "Cupid Comes to Stalag 13". Hogan's Heroes. Season 1. Episode 30. April 15, 1966.
- "War Takes a Holiday". Hogan's Heroes. Season 3. Episode 21. January 27, 1968.
- "A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to London". Hogan's Heroes. Season 3. Episode 5. October 7, 1967.
- "Sergeant Schultz Meets Mata Hari". Hogan's Heroes. Season 3. Episode 4. September 30, 1967.
- "To the Gestapo With Love". Hogan's Heroes. Season 4. Episode 5. October 26, 1968.
- "The Rise and Fall of Sergeant Schultz". Hogan's Heroes. Season 2. Episode 6. October 21, 1966.
- "Happy Birthday Adolf". Hogan's Heroes. Season 1. Episode 17. January 7, 1966.
- "The Battle of Stalag 13". Hogan's Heroes. Season 2. Episode 5. October 14, 1966.
- "Hogan, Go Home". Hogan's Heroes. Season 3. Episode 19. January 13, 1968.
- "The Crittendon Plan". Hogan's Heroes. Season 3. Episode 1. September 9, 1967.
- "Lord Chitterly's Lover: Part 1". Hogan's Heroes. Season 6. Episode 4. October 11, 1970.
- "Lord Chitterly's Lover: Part 2". Hogan's Heroes. Season 6. Episode 5. October 18, 1970.
- "The Assassin". Hogan's Heroes. Season 1. Episode 29. April 8. 1966.
- Shandley, Robert (September 15, 2011). Hogan's Heroes. Wayne State University Press. p. 90. ISBN 0814336000. Retrieved 2014-03-01.
- "Don't Forget to Write". Hogan's Heroes. Season 2. Episode 13. December 9, 1966.
- "Art for Hogan's Sake". Hogan's Heroes. Season 2. Episode 16. December 30, 1966.
- "Watch the Trains Go By". Hogan's Heroes. Season 4. Episode 19. February 1, 1969.
- "Kommandant Gertrude". Hogan's Heroes. Season 6. Episode 21. February 28, 1971.
- "That's No Lady, That's My Spy". Hogan's Heroes. Season 6. Episode 17. January 24m 1971.
- "The Pizza Parlor". Hogan's Heroes. Season 1. Episode 22. February 11, 1966.
- "The Return of Major Bonacelli". Hogan's Heroes. Season 4. Episode 25. March 15, 1969.
- "Clearance Sale at the Black Market". Hogan's Heroes. Season 4. Episode 1. September 28, 1969.
- "The Witness". Hogan's Heroes. Season 4. Episode 23. March 1, 1969.
- "My Favorite Prisoner". Hogan's Heroes. Season 4. Episode 18. January 25, 1969.
- "No Names, Please". Hogan's Heroes. Season 4. Episode 10. November 30, 1968.
- "The Big Broadcast". Hogan's Heroes. Season 6. Episode 12. December 6, 1970.
- "Will The Real Adolf Please Stand Up?". Hogan's Heroes. Season 2. Episode 12. December 2, 1966.
- "The Dropouts". Hogan's Heroes. Season 6. Episode 14. December 27, 1970.
- "The Late Inspector General". Hogan's Heroes. Season 1. Episode 4. October 8, 1965.
- "A Russian is Coming". Hogan's Heroes. Season 3. Episode 12. November 25, 1967.
- "Is There a Traitor in the House?". Hogan's Heroes. Season 5. Episode 13. December 19, 1969.
- Sara Buttsworth and Maartje Abbenhuis (ed.). Monsters in the Mirror: Representations of Nazism in Post-war Popular Culture. ABC-CLIO. p. 105. Retrieved May 9, 2014.
- Weintraub, Bernard (8 December 2000). "Werner Klemperer, Klink in 'Hogan's Heroes,' Dies at 80". The New York Times (NYTimes.com). Retrieved 2014-03-28.
- "John Banner aka "Sergeant Schultz" query". Axis History Forum. 20 December 2007. Retrieved 2014-03-28.
- Cosgrove-Mather, Bootie (12 July 2002). "The Worst TV Shows Ever". CBS News. Retrieved 2014-03-28.
- Steinmetz, Greg (31 May 1996). "In Germany Now, Col. Klink's Maid Cleans in the Nude". The Wall Street Journal (Hogan's Heroes Fan Club). p. A1. Retrieved 2014-03-28.
- Gardner, Eric (21 March 2012). "WGA Fights Over Movie Rights to 'Hogan's Heroes'". Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved June 4, 2012.
- Fleming, Jr., Mike (15 March 2013). "'Hogan's Heroes' Rights Won Back By Creators Al Ruddy And Bernard Fein; They're Plotting New Movie". Deadline Hollywood. Retrieved 2014-03-28.
- "Hogan's Heroes Sing the Best of World War II". Hogan's Heroes Fan Club. Retrieved 2014-03-28.
- "Pound Puppies". FilmScoreMonthly.com. 18 April 2012. Retrieved 2014-03-28.
- Ralske, Josh (7 August 2013). ""Better Call Saul!" The Best of Saul Goodman on Breaking Bad". TWC Central. Retrieved 2014-03-28.
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