Sergey Ivanovich Muravyov-Apostol (Russian: Серге́й Иванович Муравьев-Апостол October 9 N.S. 1796 – July 25 N.S. 1826) was a Russian Lieutenant Colonel, one of the organizers of the Decembrist revolt. He was the brother of other Decembrists Ippolit Muravyov-Apostol and Matvey Muravyov-Apostol. He was also the cousin of Decembrists Nikita Muravyov and Artamon Muravyov.
Sergey Ivanovich Muravyov-Apostol was born to a family of a Russian diplomat Ivan Muravyov-Apostol in Saint Petersburg on October 9 N.S. 1796 (some other sources state November 2, 1795). He spent his childhood in Hamburg and Paris, then graduated from Saint Petersburg Institute of Road Engineers (Петербургский Институт Инженеров Путей Сообщения), then served in the Russian Army.
He was a veteran of the Patriotic War of 1812. He took part in the battle of Vitebsk, the battle of Borodino, the battle of Tarutino, the Battle of Maloyaroslavets, the battle at the crossing of the Berezina river (for which he was awarded the golden sword for bravery), the Battle of Nations at Leipzig, and the battle for Paris (for which he was awarded with the Order of St. Anna, second degree).
After the Napoleonic wars he was a poruchik, later captain of Russian Guards, Semenovsky regiment. After the uprising of the Semenovsky regiment in 1820 he transferred as a Lieutenant Colonel to Poltava regiment, in 1822 to Chernigov regiment.
Between January 2, 1817 and December 22, 1818 he was a Freemason, a member and a ritual-keeper of Lodge Three Virtues. He was one of the founders of pre-Decembrist secret societies Union of Salvation (member of Moscow conspiracy of 1817) and Union of Welfare (member and the keeper of Korennoy Soviet). One of directors of Decembrist's South Society (head of Vasilkovskaya Uprava). He was the coordinator of correspondence between the South Society and the pro-Polish Society of United Slavs. Sergey was the author of the Decembrist's Сatechesis and a very articulate supporter of establishing a republic and abolishing serfdom in Russia.
In 1825, he led the uprising of the Chernigov regiment. He was arrested on December 29 O.S. 1825, then freed by his fellow officers, and led an insurgency against government forces on January 3 O.S. 1826, was critically wounded by canister shot. According to the legend, his wounds prevented him from staying in the saddle. So he ordered to be fastened to his horse by ropes so as to lead the desperate cavalry attack on the government artillery battery. The attack was unsuccessful and he was captured.
On January 20 he was delivered to Saint Petersburg. He was one of the five sentenced to quartering, but later this sentence was replaced with hanging. He was executed in Peter and Paul Fortress on July 25, 1826 and interred with the rest of the five in a secret grave on Goloday Island in Saint Petersburg.
- Biography of Sergey Muravyov-Apostol - in Russian