Sergei Rachmaninoff

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Sergei Rachmaninoff

Sergei Vasilievich Rachmaninoff (Russian: Серге́й Васи́льевич Рахма́нинов;[1] Russian pronunciation: [sʲɪrˈɡʲej rɐxˈmanʲɪnəf]; 1 April [O.S. 20 March] 1873 – 28 March 1943)[2] was a Russian composer, pianist, and conductor.[3] Rachmaninoff is widely considered one of the finest pianists of his day and, as a composer, one of the last great representatives of Romanticism in Russian classical music.[4]

Early influences of Tchaikovsky, Rimsky-Korsakov, and other Russian composers gave way to a personal style notable for its song-like melodicism, expressiveness and his use of rich orchestral colors.[5] The piano is featured prominently in Rachmaninoff's compositional output, and through his own skills as a performer he explored the expressive possibilities of the instrument.

Life[edit]

Rachmaninoff at age 10

Childhood and youth[edit]

Zverev's students in the late 1880s. Rachmaninoff is the fourth from the right. Scriabin is the second on the left.
Rachmaninoff at the piano, in the early 1900s, before he graduated from the Moscow Conservatory

The Rachmaninoff family was a part of an "old aristocracy", where all of the attitude but none of the money remained. The family, of Russian and distant Moldovan descent, had been in the service of the Russian tsars since the 16th century, and had strong musical and military leanings. The composer's father, Vasily Arkadyevich (1841–1916), an amateur pianist and army officer, married Lyubov Petrovna Butakova (1853–1929), gained five estates as a dowry, and had three boys and three girls.[6] Sergei was born on 1 April 1873 at the estate of Semyonovo, near Great Novgorod in north-western Russia.[7]

When he was four, his mother gave him casual piano lessons,[8] but it was his paternal grandfather, Arkady Alexandrovich, who brought Anna Ornatskaya, a teacher from Saint Petersburg, to teach Sergei in 1882. Ornatskaya remained for "two or three years", until Vasily had to auction off their home due to his financial incompetence—the five estates had been reduced to one; he was described as "a wastrel, a compulsive gambler, a pathological liar, and a skirt chaser"[9][10]—and they moved to a small flat in Saint Petersburg.[11]

Ornatskaya returned to her home, and arranged for Sergei to study at the Saint Petersburg Conservatory, which he entered in 1883, at age ten. That year his sister Sofia died of diphtheria, and his feckless father left the family, with their approval, for Moscow.[6] Sergei's maternal grandmother stepped in to help raise the children, especially focusing on their spiritual life. She regularly took Sergei to Russian Orthodox services, where he was first exposed to the liturgical chants and the church bells of the city, which would later permeate many of his compositions.[11]

Another important musical influence was his sister Yelena's involvement in the Bolshoi Theater. She was just about to join the company, being offered coaching and private lessons, but she fell ill and died of pernicious anemia at the age of 18. As a respite from this tragedy, grandmother Butakova brought him to a farm retreat on the Volkhov River, where he had a boat and developed a love for rowing.[6] Having been spoiled in this way by his grandmother, he became lazy and failed his general education classes, altering his report cards, in what Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov would later call a period of "purely Russian self-delusion and laziness."[12]

In 1885, back at the Conservatory, Sergei played at important events often attended by Grand Duke Konstantin and other important people, but he failed his spring academic examinations and Ornatskaya notified his mother that his admission might be revoked.[6] Lyubov consulted with her nephew (by marriage) Alexander Siloti, already an accomplished pianist studying under Franz Liszt. After appraising his cousin's pianism and listening skills, Siloti recommended that Sergei attend the Moscow Conservatory to study with his own original teacher and disciplinarian, Nikolai Zverev.[13][14]

Graduation[edit]

While living with the Satins, Rachmaninoff (standing, second from left) would vacation at Ivanovka, their summer house. He would marry his cousin Natalia Satina (sitting, second from left). Photo from mid-1890s.

Neighboring families would come to visit, and Rachmaninoff would find his first romance in the Skalon family, with Vera, the youngest of three daughters. The mother would have none of that, and he was forbidden to write to her, so he corresponded with her older sister, Natalia, and from these letters much information about his early compositions can be extracted.[13] In the spring of 1891, he took his final piano examination at the Moscow Conservatory and passed with honors. He moved to Ivanovka with Siloti, and composed some songs and began what would become his Piano Concerto No. 1 (Op. 1). During his final studies at the Conservatory he completed Youth Symphony, a one-movement symphonic piece, Prince Rostislav, a symphonic poem, and The Rock (Op. 7), a fantasia for orchestra.[6]

He gave his first independent concert on 11 February 1892, premiering his Trio élégiaque No. 1, with violinist David Kreyn and cellist Anatoliy Brandukov. He performed the first movement of his first piano concerto on 29 March 1892 in an over-long concert consisting of entire works of most of the composition students at the Conservatory.[15]

His final composition for the Conservatory was Aleko, a one-act opera based on the poem The Gypsies by Alexander Pushkin, which Rachmaninoff completed while staying with his father in Moscow.[16] It was first performed on 19 May 1892, and although he responded with a pessimistic, "the opera is sure to fail," it was so successful, the Bolshoi Theater agreed to produce it, starring Feodor Chaliapin.[13] It gained him the Great Gold Medal, awarded only twice before (to Sergei Taneyev and Arseny Koreshchenko[17]), and has since had many more productions than his later works, The Miserly Knight (Op. 24, 1904) and Francesca da Rimini (Op. 25, 1905). The Conservatory issued him a diploma on 29 May 1892, and now, at the age of 19, he could officially style himself "Free Artist."[6]

Rachmaninoff continued to compose, publishing at this time his Six Songs (Op. 4) and Two Pieces (Op. 2). He spent the summer of 1892 on the estate of Ivan Konavalov, a rich landowner in the Kostroma Oblast, and moved back with the Satins in the Arbat District.[6] His publisher was slow in paying, so Rachmaninoff took an engagement at the Moscow Electrical Exhibition, where he premiered his landmark Prelude in C-sharp minor (Op. 3, No. 2).[18] This small piece, part of a set of five pieces called Morceaux de fantaisie, was received well, and is one of his most enduring pieces.[19][20]

He spent the summer of 1893 in Lebedyn with some friends, where he composed Fantaisie-Tableaux (Suite No. 1, Op. 5) and his Morceaux de salon (Op. 10).[21] At the summer's end, he moved back to Moscow, and at Sergei Taneyev's house discussed with Tchaikovsky the possibility of his conducting The Rock at its premiere. However, because it had to be premiered in Moscow, not Europe, where Tchaikovsky was touring, Vasily Safonov conducted it instead, and the two met soon after for Zverev's funeral. Rachmaninoff had a short excursion to conduct Aleko in Kiev, and on his return, received the news about Tchaikovsky's unexpected death on 6 November 1893. On the same day, he began work on his Trio élégiaque No. 2, just as Tchaikovsky had quickly written his Trio in A minor after Nikolai Rubinstein's death. The music's overwhelming aura of gloom reveals the depth and sincerity of his grief.[22]

Setbacks and recovery[edit]

Rachmaninoff's First Symphony (Op. 13, 1896) was premiered on 28 March 1897 in one of a long-running series of "Russian Symphony Concerts", but was brutally panned by critic and nationalist composer César Cui, who likened it to a depiction of the ten plagues of Egypt, suggesting it would be admired by the "inmates" of a music conservatory in hell.[23] The deficiencies of the performance, conducted by Alexander Glazunov, were not commented on.[22] Alexander Ossovsky in his memoir about Rachmaninoff[24] tells, first hand, a story about this event.[25] In Ossovsky's opinion, Glazunov made poor use of rehearsal time, and the concert program itself, which contained two other premières, was also a factor. Natalia Satina, later Rachmaninoff's wife, and other witnesses suggested that Glazunov, who was by all accounts an alcoholic, may have been drunk, although this was never intimated by Rachmaninoff.[26][27]

The failure of Symphony No. 1 (1897) long bothered Rachmaninoff.

After the poor reception of his First Symphony, Rachmaninoff fell into a period of deep depression that lasted three years, during which he wrote almost nothing. One stroke of good fortune came from Savva Mamontov, a famous Russian industrialist and patron of the arts, who two years earlier had founded the Moscow Private Russian Opera Company. He offered Rachmaninoff the post of assistant conductor for the 1897–8 season and the cash-strapped composer accepted. The company included the great basso Feodor Chaliapin, who would become a lifelong friend.[28] During this period he became engaged to his first cousin and fellow pianist Natalia Satina, whom he had known since childhood. The Russian Orthodox Church and the girl's parents both opposed their marriage and this thwarting of their plans only deepened Rachmaninoff's depression.

In January 1900, Rachmaninoff and Chaliapin were invited to Yasnaya Polyana, the home of writer Leo Tolstoy, whom Rachmaninoff greatly admired. That evening, Rachmaninoff played one of his compositions, then accompanied Chaliapin in his song "Fate", one of the pieces he had written after his First Symphony. At the end of the performance, Tolstoy took the composer aside and asked: "Is such music needed by anyone? I must tell you how I dislike it all. Beethoven is nonsense, Pushkin and Lermontov also". (The song "Fate" is based on the two opening measures of Beethoven's Fifth Symphony.) As his guests were leaving, Tolstoy said: "Forgive me if I've hurt you by my comments"; and Rachmaninoff graciously replied: "How could I be hurt on my own account, if I was not hurt on Beethoven's?"; but the criticism of the great author stung nevertheless.

In the same year, Rachmaninoff began a course of autosuggestive therapy with psychologist Nikolai Dahl, who was himself an excellent though amateur musician. Rachmaninoff began to recover his confidence and eventually he was able to overcome his writer's block. In 1901 he completed his Piano Concerto No. 2 in C minor, Op. 18 and dedicated it to Dr. Dahl. The piece was enthusiastically received at its premiere at which Rachmaninoff was soloist and has since become one of the most popular and frequently played concertos in the repertoire. Rachmaninoff's spirits were further bolstered when, after three years of engagement, he was finally allowed to marry his beloved fiancée, Natalia. They were wed in a suburb of Moscow by an army priest on 29 April 1902, using the family's military background to circumvent the church. The marriage was a happy one, producing two daughters: Irina, later Princess Wolkonsky (1903-1969) and Tatiana Conus (1907-1961). Although Rachmaninoff was rumored to have had an affair with the 22-year-old singer Nina Koshetz in 1916,[29] his and Natalia's union lasted until the composer's death. Natalia Rachmaninova died in 1951.

After several successful appearances as a conductor, Rachmaninoff was offered a job as conductor at the Bolshoi Theatre in 1904, although political reasons led to his resignation in March 1906, after which he stayed in Italy until July. He spent the following three winters in Dresden, Germany, intensively composing, and returning to the family estate of Ivanovka every summer.[30]

Rachmaninoff made his first tour of the United States as a pianist in 1909, an event for which he composed the Piano Concerto No. 3 (Op. 30, 1909) as a calling card. These successful concerts made him a popular figure in America; however, he was unhappy on the tour and declined requests for future American concerts until after he emigrated from Russia in 1917.[30] This included an offer to become permanent conductor of the Boston Symphony Orchestra.[31]

The early death in 1915 of Alexander Scriabin, who had been his good friend and fellow student at the Moscow Conservatory, affected Rachmaninoff so deeply that he went on a tour giving concerts entirely devoted to Scriabin's music. When asked to play some of his own music, he would reply: "Only Scriabin tonight".

Emigration and career in the West[edit]

Rachmaninoff in front of a giant Redwood tree, California, 1919

The 1917 Russian Revolution meant the end of Russia as the composer had known it. Rachmaninoff was a member of the Russian bourgeoisie, and the Revolution led to the loss of his estate, his way of life, and his livelihood. On 22 December 1917, he left Petrograd for Helsinki with his wife and two daughters on an open sled, having only a few notebooks with sketches of his own compositions and two orchestral scores, his unfinished opera Monna Vanna and Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov's opera The Golden Cockerel. He was 44 years old. He spent a year giving concerts in Scandinavia while laboring to widen his concert repertoire. Near the end of 1918, he received three offers of lucrative American contracts. Although he declined all three, he decided the United States might offer a solution to his financial concerns. He departed Kristiania (Oslo) for New York on 1 November 1918. Once there, Rachmaninoff quickly chose an agent, Charles Ellis, and accepted the gift of a piano from Steinway before playing 40 concerts in a four-month period. At the end of the 1919–20 season, he also signed a contract with the Victor Talking Machine Company. In 1921, the Rachmaninoffs bought a house in the United States, where they consciously recreated the atmosphere of Ivanovka, entertaining Russian guests, employing Russian servants, and observing old Russian customs.[32]

Due to his busy concert career, Rachmaninoff's output as composer slowed tremendously. In the 25 years between 1918 and his death in 1943, while living in the U.S. and Europe, he completed only six compositions. Aside from the need to tour and perform constantly to support himself and his family, the main reason was homesickness. It was during these years that he toured the United States as a concert pianist.[33] When he left Russia, it was as if he had left behind his inspiration. His revival as a composer became possible only after he had built himself a new home, Villa Senar on Lake Lucerne, Switzerland, where he spent summers from 1932 to 1939. There, in the comfort of his own villa, which reminded him of his old family estate, Rachmaninoff composed the Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini, one of his best known works, in 1934. He went on to compose his Symphony No. 3 (Op. 44, 1935–36) and the Symphonic Dances (Op. 45, 1940), his last completed work. Eugene Ormandy and the Philadelphia Orchestra premiered the Symphonic Dances in 1941 in the Academy of Music.

In December 1939 he conducted the Philadelphia Orchestra. This was the first time he had stood on a conductor's podium since January 1917, his last appearance as a conductor in Russia.[34]

In late 1940 or 1941 he was approached by the makers of the British film Dangerous Moonlight to write a short concerto-like piece for use in the film, but he declined. The job went to Richard Addinsell and the orchestrator Roy Douglas, who came up with the Warsaw Concerto.[35]

Sergei Rachmaninoff was also on the Board of Directors for the Tolstoy Foundation Center in Valley Cottage, New York.

Friendship with Vladimir Horowitz[edit]

Vladimir Horowitz as he appeared at the time Rachmaninoff met him

Just as the Rachmaninoff household in the United States strove to reclaim the lost world of pre-revolutionary Russia, Rachmaninoff also sought the friendship and company of some great Russian musical luminaries. In addition to Chaliapin, he befriended pianist Vladimir Horowitz in 1928. Their first meeting, arranged by Steinway artist representative Alexander Greiner, took place in the basement of New York's Steinway Hall on 8 January 1928, four days prior to Horowitz's debut at Carnegie Hall playing the Tchaikovsky First Piano Concerto. Rachmaninoff mentioned to Greiner that he intended to attend the concert and had heard positive things about Horowitz's playing of his own Third Piano Concerto. He expressed a desire to accompany Horowitz in a performance of it.[36] For Horowitz the opportunity represented a dream come true. As he described it, "[Rachmaninoff was] the musical god of my youth ... To think that this great man should accompany me in his own Third Concerto ... This was the most unforgettable impression of my life! This was my real debut!"

Rachmaninoff, in a subsequent letter to Horowitz, offered praise and support to the pianist but described Horowitz's tempos in the Tchaikovsky concerto as too fast--"especially the cadenza"[37] About the pianist's interpretation of Rachmaninoff's own third concerto, the composer said to Abram Chasins that Horowitz "swallowed it whole ... he had the courage, the intensity, the daring."[36]

The men remained supportive of each other's work, each making a point of attending concerts given by the other.[37] They regularly gave two-piano recitals at the composer's home in Beverly Hills. The recitals, never recorded, are known to have included Rachmaninoff's Second Suite and the two-piano reduction of the Symphonic Dances.

A Library of Congress photo of Rachmaninoff

In 1940, with the composer's consent, Horowitz created a fusion of the 1913 original and 1931 revised versions of Rachmaninoff's Second Piano Sonata.[38] Horowitz remained a champion of Rachmaninoff's solo works and his Third Concerto, about which Rachmaninoff remarked publicly after the 7 August 1942 Hollywood Bowl performance, "This is the way I always dreamed my concerto should be played, but I never expected to hear it that way on Earth."[37]

Illness and death[edit]

Rachmaninoff fell ill during a concert tour in late 1942 and was subsequently diagnosed with advanced melanoma. His family was informed, but he was not. On 1 February 1943 he and his wife became American citizens.[39] His last recital, given on 17 February 1943 at the Alumni Gymnasium of the University of Tennessee in Knoxville, included Chopin's Piano Sonata No. 2, which contains the famous Marche funèbre (Funeral March). A statue called "Rachmaninoff: The Last Concert", designed and sculpted by Victor Bokarev, now stands in World Fair Park in Knoxville as a permanent tribute to Rachmaninoff. He became so ill after this recital that he had to return to his home in Los Angeles.[40]

Grave at Kensico Cemetery. Note English lettering and spelling on gravestone.

Rachmaninoff died of melanoma on 28 March 1943, in Beverly Hills, California, just four days before his 70th birthday. A choir sang his All Night Vigil at his funeral. He had wanted to be buried at the Villa Senar, his estate in Switzerland, but the conditions of World War II made fulfilling this request impossible.[41] He was therefore interred on 1 June in Kensico Cemetery in Valhalla, New York.[6]

After Rachmaninoff's death, the poet Marietta Shaginyan published fifteen of the apparently many letters they had exchanged between her first contacting him in February 1912 and their final meeting in July 1917.[42] Although she had signed her letters simply "Re", Rachmaninoff had fairly quickly discovered her identity.[43] The nature of Shaginyan and Rachmaninoff's relationship bordered on romantic, but was primarily intellectual and emotional. Shaginyan and the poetry she shared with Rachmaninoff during their correspondence has been cited as the inspiration for the six songs that make up Rachmaninoff's Opus 38.[44]

Works[edit]

The cadenza of Piano Concerto No. 3 is famous for its large chords.

Rachmaninoff wrote five works for piano and orchestra: four concertos—No. 1 in F-sharp minor, Op. 1 (1891, revised 1917), No. 2 in C minor, Op. 18 (1900–01), No. 3 in D minor, Op. 30 (1909), and No. 4 in G minor, Op. 40 (1926, revised 1928 and 1941)—plus the Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini. Of the concertos, the Second and Third are the most popular.[45]

Rachmaninoff also composed a number of works for orchestra alone. The three symphonies: No. 1 in D minor, Op. 13 (1895), No. 2 in E minor, Op. 27 (1907), and No. 3 in A minor, Op. 44 (1935–36). Widely spaced chronologically, the symphonies represent three distinct phases in his compositional development. The Second has been the most popular of the three since its first performance. Other orchestral works include The Rock (Op. 7), Caprice bohémien (Op. 12), The Isle of the Dead (Op. 29), and the Symphonic Dances (Op. 45).

Works for piano solo include 24 Preludes traversing all 24 major and minor keys: Prelude in C-sharp minor (Op. 3, No. 2) from Morceaux de fantaisie (Op. 3); ten preludes in Op. 23; and thirteen in Op. 32. Especially difficult are the two sets of Études-Tableaux, Op. 33 and 39, which are very demanding study pictures. Stylistically, Op. 33 hearkens back to the preludes, while Op. 39 shows the influences of Scriabin and Prokofiev. There are also the Six moments musicaux (Op. 16), the Variations on a Theme of Chopin (Op. 22), and the Variations on a Theme of Corelli (Op. 42). He wrote two piano sonatas, both of which are large scale and virtuosic in their technical demands. Rachmaninoff also composed works for two pianos, four hands, including two Suites (the first subtitled Fantasie-Tableaux), a version of the Symphonic Dances (Op. 45), and an arrangement of the C-sharp minor Prelude, as well as a Russian Rhapsody, and he arranged his First Symphony (below) for piano four-hands. Both these works were published posthumously.

Rachmaninoff wrote two major a cappella choral works—the Liturgy of St. John Chrysostom and the All-Night Vigil (also known as the Vespers). It was the fifth movement of All-Night Vigil that Rachmaninoff requested to have sung at his funeral. Other choral works include a choral symphony, The Bells, the cantata Spring, the Three Russian Songs and an early Concerto for Choir (a cappella).

He completed three operas, all short: Aleko (1892), The Miserly Knight (1903), and Francesca da Rimini (1904). He started three others, notably Monna Vanna, based on a work by Maurice Maeterlinck; copyright in this had been extended to the composer Février, and, though the restriction did not pertain to Russia, Rachmaninoff dropped the project after completing Act I in piano vocal score in 1908; this act was orchestrated in 1984 by Igor Buketoff and performed in the U.S. Aleko is regularly performed and has been recorded complete at least eight times, and filmed. The Miserly Knight adheres to Pushkin's "little tragedy". Francesca da Rimini exists somewhat in the shadow of the familiar, though entirely different, Zandonai opera of that name.

His chamber music includes two piano trios, both which are named Trio Elégiaque (the second of which is a memorial tribute to Tchaikovsky), and a Cello Sonata. In his chamber music, the piano tends to be perceived by some to dominate the ensemble. He also composed many songs for voice and piano, to texts by A. N. Tolstoy, Pushkin, Goethe, Shelley, Hugo and Chekhov, among others. Among his most popular songs is the wordless Vocalise.

Compositional style[edit]

Rachmaninoff with a piano score

Rachmaninoff's style showed initially the influence of Tchaikovsky. Beginning in the mid-1890s, his compositions began showing a more individual tone. His First Symphony has many original features. Its brutal gestures and uncompromising power of expression were unprecedented in Russian music at the time. Its flexible rhythms, sweeping lyricism and stringent economy of thematic material were all features he kept and refined in subsequent works. After the three fallow years following the poor reception of the symphony, Rachmaninoff's style began developing significantly. He started leaning towards sumptuous harmonies and broadly lyrical, often passionate melodies. His orchestration became subtler and more varied, with textures carefully contrasted, and his writing on the whole became more concise.[46]

Especially important is Rachmaninoff's use of unusually widely spaced chords for bell-like sounds: this occurs in many pieces, most notably in the choral symphony The Bells, the Second Piano Concerto, the E flat major Étude-Tableaux (Op. 33, No. 7), and the B-minor Prelude (Op. 32, No. 10). "It is not enough to say that the church bells of Novgorod, St Petersburg and Moscow influenced Rachmaninov and feature prominently in his music. This much is self-evident. What is extraordinary is the variety of bell sounds and breadth of structural and other functions they fulfil."[47] He was also fond of Russian Orthodox chants. He uses them most perceptibly in his Vespers, but many of his melodies found their origins in these chants. The opening melody of the First Symphony is derived from chants. (The opening melody of the Third Piano Concerto, on the other hand, is not derived from chants; when asked, Rachmaninoff said that "it had written itself".)[48] Rachmaninoff's frequently used motifs include the Dies Irae, often just the fragments of the first phrase. Rachmaninoff had great command of counterpoint and fugal writing, thanks to his studies with Taneyev. The above-mentioned occurrence of the Dies Irae in the Second Symphony is but a small example of this. Very characteristic of his writing is chromatic counterpoint. This talent was paired with a confidence in writing in both large- and small-scale forms. The Third Piano Concerto especially shows a structural ingenuity, while each of the preludes grows from a tiny melodic or rhythmic fragment into a taut, powerfully evocative miniature, crystallizing a particular mood or sentiment while employing a complexity of texture, rhythmic flexibility and a pungent chromatic harmony.[49]

A monument to Rachmaninoff in Moscow

His compositional style had already begun changing before the October Revolution deprived him of his homeland. The harmonic writing in The Bells (composed in 1913 but not published until 1920[50][51]) became as advanced as in any of the works Rachmaninoff would write in Russia, partly because the melodic material has a harmonic aspect which arises from its chromatic ornamentation.[52] Further changes are apparent in the revised First Piano Concerto, which he finished just before leaving Russia, as well as in the Op. 38 songs and Op. 39 Études-Tableaux. In both these sets Rachmaninoff was less concerned with pure melody than with coloring. His near-Impressionist style perfectly matched the texts by symbolist poets.[53] The Op. 39 Études-Tableaux are among the most demanding pieces he wrote for any medium, both technically and in the sense that the player must see beyond any technical challenges to a considerable array of emotions, then unify all these aspects[54]

The composer's friend, Vladimir Wilshaw, noticed this compositional change continuing in the early 1930s, with a difference between the sometimes very extroverted Op. 39 Études-Tableaux (the composer had broken a string on the piano at one performance) and the Variations on a Theme of Corelli (Op. 42, 1931). The variations show an even greater textural clarity than in the Op. 38 songs, combined with a more abrasive use of chromatic harmony and a new rhythmic incisiveness. This would be characteristic of all his later works—the Piano Concerto No. 4 (Op. 40, 1926) is composed in a more emotionally introverted style, with a greater clarity of texture. Nevertheless, some of his most beautiful (nostalgic and melancholy) melodies occur in the Third Symphony, Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini, and Symphonic Dances.[53]

Fluctuating reputation[edit]

Rachmaninoff monument, Novgorod

His reputation as a composer generated a variety of opinions before his music gained steady recognition across the world. The 1954 edition of the Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians notoriously dismissed Rachmaninoff's music as "monotonous in texture ... consist[ing] mainly of artificial and gushing tunes" and predicted that his popular success was "not likely to last".[55] To this, Harold C. Schonberg, in his Lives of the Great Composers, responded: "It is one of the most outrageously snobbish and even stupid statements ever to be found in a work that is supposed to be an objective reference."[55]

The Conservatoire Rachmaninoff in Paris, as well as streets in Veliky Novgorod (which is close to his birthplace) and Tambov, are named after the composer. In 1986, Moscow Conservatory dedicated a concert hall on its premises to Rachmaninoff, designating the 252-seat auditorium Rachmaninoff Hall. A monument to Rachmaninoff was unveiled in Veliky Novgorod, near his birthplace, as recently as 14 June 2009.

Pianism[edit]

Technique[edit]

Rachmaninoff in 1901

Rachmaninoff ranked among the finest pianists of his time, along with Leopold Godowsky, Ignaz Friedman, Moriz Rosenthal, Josef Lhevinne, and Josef Hofmann and he was famed for possessing a clean and virtuosic technique. His playing was marked by precision, rhythmic drive, notable use of staccato and the ability to maintain clarity when playing works with complex textures. Rachmaninoff applied these qualities in music by Chopin, including the B flat minor Piano Sonata. Rachmaninoff's repertoire, excepting his own works, consisted mainly of standard 19th Century virtuoso works plus music by Bach, Beethoven, Borodin, Debussy, Grieg, Liszt, Mendelssohn, Mozart, Schubert, Schumann and Tchaikovsky.[56]

Rachmaninoff possessed extremely large hands, with which he could easily maneuver through the most complex chordal configurations. His left hand technique was unusually powerful. His playing was marked by definition—where other pianists' playing became blurry-sounding from overuse of the pedal or deficiencies in finger technique, Rachmaninoff's textures were always crystal clear. Only Josef Hofmann and Josef Lhevinne shared this kind of clarity with him.[57] All three men had Anton Rubinstein as a model for this kind of playing—Hofmann as a student of Rubinstein's,[58] Rachmaninoff from hearing his famous series of historical recitals in Moscow while studying with Zverev,[59] and Lhevinne from hearing and playing with him.

The two pieces Rachmaninoff singled out for praise from Rubinstein's concerts became cornerstones for his own recital programs. The compositions were Beethoven's Appassionata and Chopin's Funeral March Sonata. He may have based his interpretation of the Chopin sonata on Rubinstein's. Rachmaninoff biographer Barrie Martyn points out similarities between written accounts of Rubinstein's interpretation and Rachmaninoff's audio recording of the work.[60]

As part of his daily warm-up exercises, Rachmaninoff would play the technically difficult Étude in A flat, Op. 1, No. 2, attributed to Paul de Schlözer.[61]

Tone[edit]

From those barely moving fingers came an unforced, bronzelike sonority and an accuracy bordering on infallibility.[62] Arthur Rubinstein wrote:

He had the secret of the golden, living tone which comes from the heart ... I was always under the spell of his glorious and inimitable tone which could make me forget my uneasiness about his too rapidly fleeting fingers and his exaggerated rubatos. There was always the irresistible sensuous charm, not unlike Kreisler's.[63]

Coupled to this tone was a vocal quality not unlike that attributed to Chopin's playing. With Rachmaninoff's extensive operatic experience, he was a great admirer of fine singing. As his records demonstrate, he possessed a tremendous ability to make a musical line sing, no matter how long the notes or how complex the supporting texture, with most of his interpretations taking on a narrative quality. With the stories he told at the keyboard came multiple voices—a polyphonic dialogue, not the least in terms of dynamics. His 1940 recording of his transcription of the song "Daisies" captures this quality extremely well. On the recording, separate musical strands enter as if from various human voices in eloquent conversation. This ability came from an exceptional independence of fingers and hands.[64]

Memory[edit]

Rachmaninoff also possessed an uncanny memory—one that would help put him in good stead when he had to learn the standard piano repertoire as a 45-year-old exile. He could hear a piece of music, even a symphony, then play it back the next day, the next year, or a decade after that. Siloti would give him a long and demanding piece to learn, such as Brahms' Variations and Fugue on a Theme by Handel. Two days later Rachmaninoff would play it "with complete artistic finish." Alexander Goldenweiser said, "Whatever composition was ever mentioned—piano, orchestral, operatic, or other—by a Classical or contemporary composer, if Rachmaninoff had at any time heard it, and most of all if he liked it, he played it as though it were a work he had studied thoroughly."[65]

Interpretations[edit]

Rachmaninoff at the piano (1936 or before)

Regardless of the music, Rachmaninoff always planned his performances carefully. He based his interpretations on the theory that each piece of music has a "culminating point." Regardless of where that point was or at which dynamic within that piece, the performer had to know how to approach it with absolute calculation and precision; otherwise, the whole construction of the piece could crumble and the piece could become disjointed. This was a practice he learned from Russian bass Feodor Chaliapin, a staunch friend.[56] Paradoxically, Rachmaninoff often sounded like he was improvising, though he actually was not. While his interpretations were mosaics of tiny details, when those mosaics came together in performance, they might, according to the tempo of the piece being played, fly past at great speed, giving the impression of instant thought.[66]

1919 Rachmaninoff recording of Liszt's 2nd Hungarian Rhapsody for Edison Records.

One advantage Rachmaninoff had in this building process over most of his contemporaries was in approaching the pieces he played from the perspective of a composer rather than that of an interpreter. He believed "interpretation demands something of the creative instinct. If you are a composer, you have an affinity with other composers. You can make contact with their imaginations, knowing something of their problems and their ideals. You can give their works color. That is the most important thing for me in my interpretations, color. So you make music live. Without color it is dead."[67] Nevertheless, Rachmaninoff also possessed a far better sense of structure than many of his contemporaries, such as Hofmann, or the majority of pianists from the previous generation, judging from their respective recordings.[64]

A recording which showcases Rachmaninoff's approach is the Liszt Second Polonaise, recorded in 1925. Percy Grainger, who had been influenced by the composer and Liszt specialist Ferruccio Busoni, had himself recorded the same piece a few years earlier. Rachmaninoff's performance is far more taut and concentrated than Grainger's. The Russian's drive and monumental conception bear a considerable difference to the Australian's more delicate perceptions. Grainger's textures are elaborate. Rachmaninoff shows the filigree as essential to the work's structure, not simply decorative.[68]

Speculations about Marfan syndrome and acromegaly[edit]

Along with his musical gifts, Rachmaninoff possessed physical gifts that may have placed him in good stead as a pianist. These gifts included exceptional height and extremely large hands with a gigantic finger stretch (he could play the chord C Eb G C G with his left hand). This and Rachmaninoff's slender frame, long limbs, narrow head, prominent ears, and thin nose suggest that he may have had Marfan syndrome, a hereditary disorder of the connective tissue. This syndrome would have accounted for several minor ailments he suffered all his life. These included back pain, arthritis, eye strain and bruising of the fingertips.[69] This Marfan speculation was proposed by Dr. D.A.B. Young (formerly principal scientist of the Wellcome Foundation) in a 20 December 1986 British Medical Journal article entitled, “Rachmaninov and Marfan’s syndrome.” Twenty years later, in October 2006, an article in the Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, by Dr. Manoj Ramachandran (Fellow in Paediatric and Young Adult Orthopaedics, The Royal National Orthopædic Hospital) and Dr. Jeffrey K. Aronson (Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Radcliffe Infirmary; and clinical pharmacologist and physician in the Department of Primary Health Care in the University of Oxford and a consultant physician in the Oxford Radcliffe Hospitals Trust) differed greatly from Young’s speculation. According to Ramachandran and Aronson:

The size of [Rachmaninov’s] hands may have been a manifestation of Marfan's syndrome, their size and slenderness typical of arachnodactyly. However, Rachmaninov did not clearly exhibit any of the other clinical characteristics typical of Marfan's, such as scoliosis, pectus excavatum, and eye or cardiac complications. Nor did he express any of the clinical effects of a Marfan-related syndrome, such as Beal's syndrome (congenital contractural arachnodactyly), Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, homocystinuria, Stickler syndrome, or Sphrintzen-Goldberg syndrome. There is no indication that his immediate family had similar hand spans, ruling out familial arachnodactyly. Rachmaninov did not display any signs of digital clubbing or any obvious hypertrophic skin changes associated with pachydermoperiostitis.
Acromegaly is an alternative diagnosis. From photographs of Rachmaninov in the 1920s and his portrait by Konstantin Somov in 1925 (Figure 1), at a time when he was recording his four piano concerti, the coarse facial features of acromegaly are not immediately apparent. However, a case can be made from later photographs...
During a heavy concert schedule in Russia in 1912, he interrupted his schedule because of stiffness in his hands. This may have been due to overuse, although carpal tunnel syndrome or simply swelling and puffiness of the hands associated with acromegaly may have been the cause. In 1942, Rachmaninov made a final revision of his troublesome Fourth Concerto but composed no more new music. A rapidly progressing melanoma forced him to break off his 1942-1943 concert tour after a recital in Knoxville, Tennessee. A little over five weeks later he died in the house he had bought the year before on Elm Drive in Beverly Hills. Melanoma is associated with acromegaly and may have been a final clue to Rachmaninov's diagnosis.
But then again, perhaps he just had big hands.[70]

Contrary to rumors of “six and a half feet,” Rachmaninoff’s physical height is documented in repeated (November 10, 1918 and October 30, 1924) U.S. Immigration manifests at Ellis Island as 6'-1".[71] However, conductor Eugene Ormandy (who teamed with Rachmaninoff in many piano and orchestra performances) recalled in 1979: "He [Rachmaninoff] was about six feet-three. I am five feet-five and a half..."[72][73] Therefore, Rachmaninoff's height would also not be considered a physical deformity or abnormality.[74]

Recordings[edit]

Rachmaninoff (1921 Victor advertisement)

Phonograph[edit]

Many of Rachmaninoff's recordings are acknowledged classics. Rachmaninoff recorded first for Edison Records on their "Diamond Disc" records, since they claimed the best audio fidelity in recording the piano at the time. Thomas Edison, who was quite deaf,[75] did not care for Rachmaninoff's playing and referred to him as a "pounder" at their initial meeting.[76] However, the staff at Edison's New York recording studio (led by company pianist Robert Gayler) asked Edison to reconsider his dismissive position, resulting in a limited contract for ten released sides. The Edison company took some care with its piano recordings but used an unusual make, the Lauter, made in Newark; Rachmaninoff recorded on a Lauter concert grand, one of the few the company made. Rachmaninoff believed his own performances to be variable in quality and requested that he be allowed to approve any recordings for commercial release. Edison agreed but still issued multiple takes, a common practice in the gramophone record industry at the time but especially prevalent at Edison, where strict company policy demanded three "perfect" takes of each selection in case of damage in manufacturing or wear to the metal masters; in practice, this meant to the staff that takes passed for issue were interchangeable, but it was also very wearing on artists who often had to record items repeatedly to produce three acceptable takes. Edison's staff and Rachmaninoff were pleased with the released discs and wanted to record more, but Thomas Edison refused to engage the pianist for further work, saying the ten sides were sufficient for label prestige purposes. Rachmaninoff then signed a contract with the Victor Talking Machine Company in 1920 and with its successor, RCA Victor. The company was pleased to comply with Rachmaninoff's restrictions, and proudly advertised him as one of their great recording artists. His recordings for Victor continued until 1942, when the American Federation of Musicians imposed a recording ban on their members.

Particularly renowned are his renditions of Schumann's Carnaval and Chopin's Funeral March Sonata, along with many shorter pieces. He recorded all four of his piano concertos with the Philadelphia Orchestra, including two versions of the second concerto with Leopold Stokowski conducting (an acoustical recording in 1924 and a complete electrical recording in 1929), and a world premiere recording of the Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini, soon after the first performance (1934) with the Philadelphians under Stokowski. The first, third, and fourth concertos were recorded with Eugene Ormandy in 1939-41. Rachmaninoff also made three recordings conducting the Philadelphia Orchestra in his own Third Symphony, his symphonic poem Isle of the Dead, and his orchestration of Vocalise. All of these recordings were released in a 10-CD set "Sergei Rachmaninoff The Complete Recordings" in RCA Victor Gold Seal 09026-61265-2.

In an article for Gramophone, April 1931, Rachmaninoff defended an earlier stated view on the musical value of radio, about which he was sceptical: "the modern gramophone and modern methods of recording are musically superior to wireless transmission in every way".[77]

Piano rolls[edit]

A Russian Federation commemorative Rachmaninoff coin

Rachmaninoff was also involved in various ways with music on piano rolls. Several manufacturers, and in particular the Aeolian Company, had published his compositions on perforated music rolls from about 1900 onwards.[78] His sister-in-law, Sofia Satina, remembered him at the family estate at Ivanovka, pedalling gleefully through a set of rolls of his Second Piano Concerto, apparently acquired from a German source,[79] most probably the Aeolian Company's Berlin subsidiary, the Choralion Company. Aeolian in London created a set of three rolls of this concerto in 1909, which remained in the catalogues of its various successors until the late 1970s.[80]

From 1919 he made 35 piano rolls (12 of which were his own compositions),[81] for the American Piano Company (Ampico)'s reproducing piano. According to the Ampico publicity department, he initially disbelieved that a roll of punched paper could provide an accurate record, so he was invited to listen to a proof copy of his first recording. After the performance, he was quoted as saying "Gentlemen—I, Sergei Rachmaninoff, have just heard myself play!" For demonstration purposes, he recorded the solo part of his Second Piano Concerto for Ampico, though only the second movement was used publicly and has survived. He continued to record until around 1929, though his last roll, the Chopin Scherzo in B-flat minor, was not published until October 1933.[82]

Media[edit]

Cultural references[edit]

Rachmaninoff's music is often used in cinema, especially themes from his second and third piano concertos, and the eighteenth variation of the Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini.

In addition, Rachmaninoff's melodies have often been referenced by composers of American popular music.

Other references to Rachmaninoff in popular culture include the following:

  • In 2010, a newly discovered 290-kilometer-wide impact basin on Mercury was named Rachmaninoff by NASA.[85]
  • In the 2010 film Iron Man 2, Sam Rockwell's character, a weapons manufacturer, refers to his most sophisticated missile as his "Rachmaninoff's Third."
  • In a 1994 episode of Beverly Hills, 90210, Brenda and Donna adopt a stray dog. They name him Rocky, short for Rachmaninoff, because the dog responds to David's playing Rachmaninoff on the piano at the beach apartment.[86]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Russian: Серге́й Васи́льевич Рахма́нинов, tr. Sergey Vasil'evich Rakhmaninov), also rendered in Roman characters as Rachmaninov and Rakhmaninov. Sergei Rachmaninoff was the spelling the composer himself used while living in the West throughout the latter half of his life. However, alternative transliterations of his name include "Sergej Vasil'evič Rahmaninov" (ISO 9:1995 & GOST 7.79 System A), "Sergej Vasil'evich Raxmaninov" (GOST 7.79 System B), "Sergeĭ Vasil'evich Rakhmaninov" (ALA-LC), "Sergej Vasil’evič Rachmaninov" (ISO/R 9:1968), "Sergey Vasil'yevich Rakhmaninov" (BGN/PCGN) & "Sergej Vasil’evič Raxmaninov" (scientific transliteration) as well as Serge, Rachmaninow, and Rakhmaninoff (and other versions; Russian transliteration can vary between languages). Naxos.com, Retrieved 2010–07–25.
  2. ^ See Sergei Rachmaninoff, by Sergei Bertensson and Jay Leyda, New York University Press, 1956, p. 1.
  3. ^ Geoffrey Norris. "Rachmaninoff, Serge. " In Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online Retrieved 11 November 2009.
  4. ^ Other obvious candidates being Nikolai Medtner, Alexander Scriabin, Nikolai Myaskovsky, and Alexander Glazunov
  5. ^ Norris, New Grove, 2nd. ed. , 707.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h Harrison, Max (2006). Rachmaninoff: Life, Works, Recordings. London: Continuum. ISBN 0-8264-9312-2. 
  7. ^ Randel, Don M. (1999). The Harvard Concise Dictionary of Music and Musicians. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press (Belknap). ISBN 0-674-00978-9. 
  8. ^ Shelokhonov, Steve (2007). "Biography for Sergei Rachmaninoff". IMDb. Retrieved 2007-12-14. 
  9. ^ Accardi, Julie Ciamporcero (2008). "Rach Bio". Rachmaninoff. Retrieved 2008-09-13. 
  10. ^ Greene, David Mason (1985). Greene's Biographical Encyclopedia of Composers. Reproducing Piano Roll Foundation. p. 1004. ISBN 978-0-385-14278-6. 
  11. ^ a b von Riesemann, Oscar (1934). Rachmaninoff's Recollections. New York: Macmillan. ISBN 0-8369-5232-4. OCLC 38439894. 
  12. ^ Rimsky-Korsakov, Nikolai (1989). My Musical Life. tr. J. A. Joffe. London: Faber. pp. 94–5. ISBN 0-571-14245-1. 
  13. ^ a b c Bertensson, Sergei; Jay Leyda (2001). Sergei Rachmaninoff: A Lifetime in Music. Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press. ISBN 0-253-21421-1. 
  14. ^ Giulimondi, Gabriele (2000-12-20). "Sergei Rachmaninoff". The Internet Piano Page. Archived from the original on 2008-01-12. Retrieved 2007-12-14. 
  15. ^ Norris, Geoffrey (1993). The Master Musicians: Rachmaninoff. New York City: Schirmer Books. ISBN 0-02-870685-4. 
  16. ^ "Sergei Rachmaninoff". San Francisco Symphony. 2007. Archived from the original on 2007-12-13. Retrieved 2007-12-14. 
  17. ^ Sergei Rachmaninoff, Bertensson, Leyda, Satina
  18. ^ "RACHMANINOV: Preludes Op. 23 / Cinq morceaux de fantaisie". Naxos Records. 2008. Retrieved 2008-03-15. 
  19. ^ "Martin Werner Plays: Schubert - Schumann - Grieg - Chopin - Rachmaninoff - Felder". Guild Music. May 31, 2007. Retrieved 2008-03-15. 
  20. ^ "Sergei Rachmaninoff - Composer page". Boosey & Hawkes. 2008. Retrieved 2008-03-21. 
  21. ^ Threlfall, Robert; G. Norris (1982). Catalogue of the Compositions of Rachmaninoff. London: Scholar. p. 45. ISBN 0-85967-617-X. 
  22. ^ a b Norris, New Grove, 2nd. ed., 709.
  23. ^ Kyui, Ts., "Tretiy russkiy simfonicheskiy kontsert," Novosti i birzhevaya gazeta (17 March 1897(o.s.)), 3.
  24. ^ Ossovsky Alexander Viacheslavovich (1871–1957), renowned critic and musicologist and close friend of Rachmaninoff, see external links.
  25. ^ Also see, Harrison, Max (2006). Rachmaninoff: Life, Works, Recordings. Continuum,London, p.77.
  26. ^ Geraint Lewis. "Programme notes for Proms performance of Glazunov's Violin Concerto". BBC. 
  27. ^ David Brown, Liner Notes to a Deutsche Grammophon recording of the 3rd Rachmaninov Symphony conducted by Mikhail Pletnev
  28. ^ Harrison, 84–85.
  29. ^ Koshetz, Nina at cantabile-subito.de[dead link]
  30. ^ a b Norris, New Grove, 15:553.
  31. ^ Norris, New Grove, 15:551.
  32. ^ Norris, New Grove, 15:554.
  33. ^ "Sergei Rachmaninoff Biography". 8notes. Retrieved 2008-03-02. 
  34. ^ The Royal Philharmonic Society; Retrieved 17 October 2013
  35. ^ "Richard Addinsell – Films as composer". filmreference.com. Retrieved 2008-10-10. 
  36. ^ a b Plaskin, Glenn, Horowitz, a biography,, 107.
  37. ^ a b c ">
  38. ^ Nelson, Lee-Ann, Dissertation (MMus, Performing Arts) Rachmaninoff's Second Piano Sonata Opus 36: Towards the Creation of an Alternative Performance Version. University of Pretoria
  39. ^ Cunningham, Robert (2001). Sergei Rachmaninoff: a bio-bibliography – Google Books. Books.google.com. ISBN 978-0-313-30907-6. Retrieved 2010-03-13. 
  40. ^ Norris, New Grove, 15:554–555.
  41. ^ Norris, New Grove, 2nd ed., 713.
  42. ^ Bertensson & Leyda, p. 176
  43. ^ Norris (1978), p. 47
  44. ^ http://www.jstor.org/stable/40374219?seq=1&Search=yes&searchText=letters&searchText=rachmaninoff&list=hide&searchUri=%2Faction%2FdoBasicSearch%3FQuery%3Drachmaninoff%2Bletters%26amp%3Bacc%3Don%26amp%3Bwc%3Don%26amp%3Bfc%3Doff&prevSearch=&resultsServiceName=null
  45. ^ Piano Concerto No. 2 has made the top 3 of Classic FM (UK)'s Hall Of Fame poll, an annual survey of classical music tastes, every year since 1996 including No. 1 in the 2011 poll. In a poll of classical music listeners announced in October 2007, the ABC in Australia found that Rachmaninoff's Second Piano Concerto came second, topped only by the "Emperor" Concerto of Beethoven. See ABC.net.au, Retrieved on 24 August 2010
  46. ^ Norris, New Grove 2nd ed., 714–715.
  47. ^ Carruthers, Glen (2006). "The (re)appraisal of Rachmaninov's music: contradictions and fallacies". The Musical Times 147: 44–50. JSTOR 25434403. 
  48. ^ Yasser, Joseph (1969). "The Opening Theme of Rachmaninoff's Third Piano Concerto and its Liturgical Prototype". Musical Quarterly LV (3): 313–328. doi:10.1093/mq/LV.3.313. 
  49. ^ Norris, New Grove 2nd ed., 715.
  50. ^ Harrison, 191.
  51. ^ This may have been due to Rachmaninoff's main publisher, Gutheil, having died in 1914 and Gutheil's catalog being acquired by Serge Koussevitsky. (Harrison, 191).
  52. ^ Harrison, 190–191.
  53. ^ a b Norris, New Grove, 2nd ed., 716.
  54. ^ Harrison, 207.
  55. ^ a b Schonberg, Composers, 520.
  56. ^ a b Norris, New Grove 2d ed., 714.
  57. ^ Schonberg, Virtuosi, 317.
  58. ^ Schonberg, Pianists, 384.
  59. ^ Riesemann, 49–52.
  60. ^ Martyn,368, 403–406
  61. ^ Jorge Bolet – Encores
  62. ^ Schonberg, Virtuosi, 315.
  63. ^ Rubinstein, 1980., 87–89, 468.
  64. ^ a b Harrison, 270.
  65. ^ Schonberg, Composers, 522.
  66. ^ Harrison, 268.
  67. ^ From "Conversations with Rachmaninoff" by Basil Mayne, Musical Opinion, October 1936.
  68. ^ Harrison, 251.
  69. ^ Young, D.A.B., British Medical Journal (Clin Res Ed). 1986 December 20; 293(6562): 1624–1626. PMCID: PMC1351877 .
  70. ^ Ramachandran, Manoj and Aronson, Jeffrey K. “The diagnosis of art: Rachmaninov’s hand span,” Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 2006 October; 99(10): 529–530. PMCID: PMC1592053
  71. ^ "• View topic - SVR'S HEIGHT". Rachmaninoff.org. Retrieved 2014-01-19. 
  72. ^ Eugene Ormandy, in a conversation with Ed Cunningham, in Philadelphia. Radio station KUSC, of the USA's National Public Radio (NPR), broadcast excerpts of this conversation in 1979.
  73. ^ "• View topic - SVR's Vital Statistics". Rachmaninoff.org. Retrieved 2014-01-19. 
  74. ^ "• View topic - Marfan syndrome". Rachmaninoff.org. Retrieved 2014-01-19. 
  75. ^ "When Edison was 14, he contracted scarlet fever. The effect of the fever, as well as a blow to the head by an angry train conductor, caused Edison to become completely deaf in his left ear, and 80-percent deaf in the other."
  76. ^ Ziemann, George (October 2003), Thomas Edison, Intellectual Property and the Recording Industry 
  77. ^ Gramophone. "The most significant of modern musical inventions", Gramophone, April 1931
  78. ^ Music for the Pianola and the Aeriol Piano, The Aeolian Company, New York, July 1901.
  79. ^ Harrison 2006, p.223
  80. ^ Catalogue of Music for the Pianola and Pianola-Piano, The Orchestrelle Company, London, June 1910, and many successive catalogues.
  81. ^ Elaine Obenchain, The Complete Catalog of Ampico Reproducing Piano Rolls, 1977, William H. Edgerton, Darien CT ISBN 0-9601172-1-0
  82. ^ Obenchain 1987.
  83. ^ Raines, Mary Elizabeth. Laughing Cherub Hypnosis Site, ed. "Marilyn Monroe, Rachmaninoff and...Hypnosis?". Retrieved 2009-03-03. 
  84. ^ Keyboard
  85. ^ Blogs.nature.com
  86. ^ TV.com http://www.tv.com/shows/beverly-hills-90210/change-partners-27538/ |url= missing title (help). Retrieved 10/8/2014.  Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)

Bibliography[edit]

  • Bertensson, Sergei and Jay Leyda, with the assistance of Sophia Satina, Sergei Rachmaninoff—A Lifetime in Music (Washington Square, New York: New York University Press, 1956)). ISBN n/a.
  • D'Antoni, Claudio A. Rachmaninov – Personalità e poetica 2003 Roma, Bardi Editore, pp. 400; ISBN 88-88620-06-0; ISBN 978-88-88620-06-0
  • D'Antoni, Claudio A. Dinamica rappresentativa del ’suono-parola’- La ’drammaturgia compressa’ delle Romanze di Rachmaninov pp. 480 (only available on www.ilmiolibro.it) 2009 Roma
  • Harrison, Max, Rachmaninoff: Life, Works, Recordings (London and New York: Contunnum, 2005). ISBN 0-8264-5344-9.
  • Kennedy, Michael, The Oxford Dictionary of Music (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 1985). ISBN 0-19-311333-3.
  • Maes, Francis, tr. Pomerans, Arnold J. and Erica Pomerans, A History of Russian Music: From Kamarinskaya to Babi Yar (Berkeley, Los Angeles and London: University of California Press, 2002). ISBN 0-520-21815-9.
  • Matthew-Walker, Robert, "Arms of Steel, Heart of Gold," International Piano Quarterly, No. 11 (Spring 2000).
  • Matthew-Walker, Robert, Rachmaninoff (London and New York: Omnibus Press, 1980). ISBN 0-89524-208-7.
  • Norris, Geoffrey, Rachmaninoff (The Master Musicians) (London: Dent, 1978). ISBN 0-460-03145-7.
  • Norris, Geoffrey, Rachmaninoff (New York: Schirmer Books, 1993). ISBN 0-02-870685-4.
  • Norris, Geoffrey, ed. Stanley Sadie, The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians (London: MacMillan, 1980), 20 vols. ISBN 0-333-23111-2.
  • Norris, Geoffrey (2002). "Rakhmaninov, Sergey (Vasil'yevich)". In Alison Latham. The Oxford Companion to Music. London: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-866212-2. OCLC 59376677. 
  • Plaskin, Glenn, Horowitz—a biography (New York: William Morrow and Company, inc., 1983). ISBN 0-688-01616-2.
  • Davide Polovineo, Review Article "Rachmaninoff.The Beginning.How are Genius Taught?" (21 Apr 2008 Moscow Time), in Journal of the Istituto Europeo di Musica 1 (2011), pp. 12
  • Sergei Rachmaninoff, Rachmaninoff's Recollections Told to Oskar von Rieseman, translated by Dolly Rutherford; New York, MacMillan, 1934
  • Rakhmaninov, Sergei Vasil'yevich by Richard Taruskin, in 'The New Grove Dictionary of Opera', ed. Stanley Sadie (London, 1992) ISBN 0-333-73432-7
  • The Lives of the Great Composers by Harold C. Schonberg,(Abacus; 2Rev Ed edition) ISBN 978-0-349-10972-5
  • Schonberg, Harold (1988). The Virtuosi: Classical Music's Great Performers From Paganini to Pavarotti. Vintage. ISBN 0-394-75532-4. 
  • Harrison, Max. 2006. Rachmaninoff: Life, Works, Recordings. London: Continuum International Publishing Group. ISBN 0-8264-9312-2.
  • Obenchain, Elaine. 1987. The Complete Catalog of Ampico Reproducing Piano Rolls (Vestal Press edition). Vestal, NY: Vestal Press. ISBN 0-911572-62-7.
  • Scott, Michael. "Rachmaninoff". (Gloucestershire: The History Press, 2008). ISBN 978-0-7509-4376-5

External links[edit]

Free scores