Sergey Lavrov

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Sergey Lavrov
Sergey Lavrov September 2014.jpg
Lavrov in September 2014
Minister of Foreign Affairs of Russia
Incumbent
Assumed office
9 March 2004
Prime Minister Mikhail Fradkov
Viktor Zubkov
Vladimir Putin
Dmitry Medvedev
Preceded by Igor Ivanov
Russian Ambassador to the United Nations
In office
22 September 1994 – 12 July 2004
President Boris Yeltsin
Vladimir Putin
Preceded by Yuli Vorontsov
Succeeded by Andrey Denisov
Personal details
Born (1950-03-21) 21 March 1950 (age 64)
Moscow, Russian SFSR, Soviet Union
(now Moscow, Russian Federation)
Political party United Russia
Spouse(s) Maria Lavrova
Children Ekaterina
Alma mater Moscow State Institute of International Relations
Signature
Military service
Awards Orden of Honour.png Order of Honour

Sergey Viktorovich Lavrov (Russian: Серге́й Ви́кторович Лавро́в, pronounced [sʲɪrˈgʲej ˈvʲiktərəvʲɪt͡ɕ łɐvˈrof]; born 21 March 1950) is a Russian diplomat, who has been the Foreign Minister of Russia since 2004.[1] His nomination to the Foreign Minister's office was approved by two Russian presidents, in 2008 by Dmitry Medvedev and in 2012 by Vladimir Putin.

Prior to that, Lavrov was a Soviet diplomat and Russia's ambassador to the United Nations from 1994 to 2004. Besides his native Russian, Lavrov speaks English, French, and Sinhala.[2]

Early life and education[edit]

Lavrov was born in Moscow on 21 March 1950[3] to an Armenian father from Tbilisi[4][5] and a Russian mother from Georgia. His mother worked in the Soviet Ministry for Foreign Trade. Lavrov graduated from high school with a silver medal. Since his favorite class was physics, he planned to enter either the National Research Nuclear University or the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, but he entered the Moscow State Institute of International Relations (MGIMO) and graduated in 1972.[3] During his education at the MGIMO, Lavrov studied international relations. Soon he learned Sinhalese, then the only official language of Sri Lanka, as well as Dhivehi, the official language of the Maldives. Moreover, Lavrov learned English and French, but has stated that he is unable to speak the French language fluently.[citation needed] After he was admitted to the university, Lavrov, along with other students, was sent for a month to build the Ostankino Tower. During his summer vacations, Lavrov also worked in Khakassia, Tuva and the Russian Far East. Each semester Lavrov with his fellow students conducted drama performances, which were later presented on the main stage of the university. During the third year of his studies, Lavrov married.[6]

Career[edit]

Soviet Union[edit]

Diplomatic career in Sri Lanka[edit]

Lavrov graduated in 1972. As per the rules of that time, a graduate of the Moscow State Institute of International Relations had to work for the Foreign Ministry for a certain amount of time. Lavrov was employed in the Soviet embassy in Sri Lanka as an advisor, as he was already a specialist on the country. At the time, the Soviet Union and Sri Lanka had close market and economic cooperation and the Soviet Union launched the production of natural rubber in the country. The Soviet embassy in Sri Lanka also maintained relations with the Maldives. The embassy in Sri Lanka employed only 24 diplomats. Lavrov was given the task of continuously analysing the situation in the country, but he also worked as a translator, personal secretary and assistant for Rafiq Nishonov. In addition, he gained the diplomatic rank of an attaché.[6]

Section of the International Economic Relations and the U.N.[edit]

In 1976 Lavrov returned to Moscow. He worked as a third and second secretary in the Section for the International Economic Relations of the USSR. There he was involved in analytics and his office also worked with various international organizations including the United Nations. In 1981, he was sent as a senior adviser to the Soviet mission at the United Nations in New York City. In 1988 Lavrov returned to Moscow and was named Deputy Chief of the Section of the International Economic Relations of the USSR. Between 1990 and 1992 he worked as Director of the International Organization of the Soviet Foreign Ministry.[6]

Russian Federation[edit]

In October 1990, Andrey Kozyrev, who led the control of the international organizations at the time, was named Foreign Minister of the Russian SFSR. In that year, the powers of the Soviet Foreign Ministry and the Foreign Ministry of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic were distributed. Until then the Russian SFSR had only a ceremonial role. In October 1991, the foreign ministers of all Soviet republics, except Georgia and the Baltic states, held a meeting where they dealt with the Union of Foreign Ministries. In November 1990, the State Council decided to change its name from the Union of Foreign Ministries to the Foreign Ministry of the Soviet Union and in December that year, the Foreign Ministry of Soviet Russia became the Foreign Ministry of the Russian Federation. In 1992 Lavrov was named director of the Department for International Organizations and Global Issues in the Foreign Ministry of the Russian Federation. In April 1991, he was named deputy foreign minister. Lavrov was asked to oversee the activities of the Human Rights and International Cultural Cooperation and the two departments – for the CIS countries, international organizations and international economic cooperation.[6] Lavrov worked for the Ministry of Foreign Affairs until 1994 when he returned to work in the United Nations, this time as the Permanent Representative of Russia. While in the latter position, he was the President of the United Nations Security Council in December 1995, June 1997, July 1998, October 1999,[7] December 2000, April 2002, and June 2003.[8]

Foreign ministership[edit]

Lavrov with U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton, Munich, Germany, on February 5, 2011

On 9 March 2004, President Vladimir Putin appointed Lavrov to the post of minister of foreign affairs.[3] He succeeded Igor Ivanov in the post. On 21 May 2012, Lavrov was reappointed foreign minister to the cabinet led by prime minister Dimitri Medvedev.[3]

Lavrov is regarded as continuing in the style of his predecessor: a brilliant diplomat but a civil servant rather than a politician. A Russian foreign policy expert at London's Chatham House, has described him as "a tough, reliable, extremely sophisticated negotiator", but adds that "he's not part of Putin's inner sanctum" and that the toughening of Russian foreign policy has got very little to do with him.[9]

2012 Backing of Bashar Al Assad[edit]

In 2012, a Russian delegation travelled to Syria to affirm Russia's backing of the Syrian regime. Lavrov and Mikhail Fradkov, who were part of the delegation, were given a royal welcome by thousands of pro-Assad supporters. The supporters waved Russian flags in thanks to Russia's veto of a UN resolution calling for tough sanctions on the Syrian regime.[10]

2014 crisis in Ukraine[edit]
U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry and Lavrov before a bilateral meeting in Paris, on January 13, 2014

After the March 2014 returning Crimea to Russia which was approved by a referendum, and after the United Nations General Assembly vote had declared invalid the results,[11] on 29 March Lavrov was interviewed over the crisis in Ukraine.[12] Here he proposed that Ukraine: be independent of any bloc agreeing with Kissinger;[13] the Russian language be recognised officially; and that the constitution be organised along federal lines, amongst other things.[12] Lavrov noticed William Hague's newspaper article which described the initial sanctions regime in response to Russia's "outrageous land grab", "bullying" and which left them "face(ing) global isolation".[14] Lavrov reminded readers that the zero-sum "either-or" bloc-politics of Ukraine were first suggested in 2004 by Karel De Gucht, then Foreign Minister of Belgium.[12]

While visiting Kiev, Ukraine on March 22, Canadian Prime Minister Stephen Harper stated that he supports expelling Russia from the G8 and expects to discuss the potential expulsion with other G7 leaders at an upcoming meeting in The Hague.[15] On March 24, G8 leaders met formally in The Hague, without Russia being present, and voted to officially suspend Russia's membership in the G8. Russian Foreign Minister Lavrov stated earlier that day that the G8 was an informal organization and membership was optional for Russia.[16] Australian Foreign Minister Julie Bishop, as host of the then-next G20 meeting, proposed on 19 March 2014 to ban Russia over its role in the 2014 Crimean crisis.[17] She was reminded on 24 March by a communique of the BRICS foreign ministers, of whom Lavrov is one, that "The Ministers noted with concern, the recent media statement on the forthcoming G20 Summit to be held in Brisbane in November 2014. The custodianship of the G20 belongs to all Member States equally and no one Member State can unilaterally determine its nature and character."[18]

Lavrov was interviewed again on 30 March.[19] He described the meeting at the Nuclear Security Summit (NSS) in The Hague earlier that week. His NSS position was consistent with the one in his 29 March interview,[12] in which he spoke of the February 21 agreement with he signed along with Viktor Yanukovich, Vitaly Klitchko, Arseniy Yatsenyuk, and Oleg Tyagnibok as well as the Foreign Ministers of Poland, France and Germany to promote peaceful changes in Ukrainian power. Lavrov stressed federalism as a solution to the constitutional impasse in the Ukraine, and deplored the disofficialisation of the Russian language. He noticed the work of the secretariat of the Council of Europe at the Venice Commission to prevent a legitimation of the Crimean referendum, and to expel Russia. Lavrov was taken aback by what the U.S. President Barack Obama said about Russia being a regional power and about the costs they will have to pay. He claimed that hard-ball tactics were used by the U.S. at the U.N. to declare invalid the Crimean referendum.[20] Lavrov deplored the misuse of the Schengen Agreement to force Crimeans to visit Kiev in order to gain a Schengen visa, and noticed that the E.U. proposes a visa-free regime for Ukrainian citizens. The Russians surveilled the contacts of E.U. ambassadors with the Svoboda party and claimed that the Ukrainians appeared to be in violation of the ICAO agreement on respite of pilots. Lavrov was quoted as saying "I’m not so much surprised by the pettiness of those who have seized power in Ukraine. But the pettiness of their Western sponsors is amazing." Lavrov reiterated the three-part Russian proposal for the progress of Ukraine:

  1. Constitutional federalism;
  2. Recognition of linguistic minorities;
  3. That Ukraine be a non-aligned state.

His subordinate in London, Ambassador Alexander Yakovenko, had on 28 March authored a piece in the Daily Telegraph which largely repeats the Russian three-point plan. Yakovenko remarked that the United States, United Kingdom, and Germany each have federalized systems, and suggests that Russian along with Ukrainian should be given an official language status while other languages will be granted a status in accordance with the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages.[21]

Lavrov in Maribor, Slovenia, during the opening ceremony for a museum commemorating the Soviet soldiers who died in Nazi captivity, 8 July 2014

The Kiev government on 30 March denounced Lavrov's proposals as amounting to “the complete capitulation of Ukraine, its dismemberment, and the destruction of Ukrainian statehood. (Lavrov)’s proposals for federalisation, a second official language, and referendums are viewed in Ukraine as nothing less than proof of Russia’s aggression. We sincerely regret that Minister S. Lavrov had to voice them,” said Foreign Minister Andrii Deshchytsia in a statement.[22] This position was repeated forcefully on 10 April in London's Daily Telegraph by Ambassador Volodymyr Khandogiy. Khandogiy asserted that "Ukraine always was – and, I’m convinced, will be – a unitary state. Kiev has unambiguously urged Moscow to avoid meddling in Ukraine’s internal affairs. Instead, the Russians offer an idea of federalisation aimed at destroying Ukraine," and concludes with an unfortunate Biblical reference to Matthew 7.[23]

In a significant breakthrough toward the peaceful resolution of this conflict, the Prime Minister of the Ukraine, Arseniy Yatseniuk, on 11 April offered concessions to rebels in the city of Donetsk, thus addressing point #1 of the Lavrov proposal (see above) as follows. He told regional leaders and businessmen there that parliament should consider a “law on referendums … to allow regions to decide issues of key importance to them. Executive committees of each region will be handed all financial, economic, administrative and other powers so (that) they control their own territories, giving them the ability to develop these territories to attract investment and receive additional income for each region by amending the budget law of Ukraine. The central government is ready not only for dialogue with the regions, but to meet legal demands and wishes of every resident of the country.”[24]

Lavrov denied accusations that Russia is arming the pro-Russian separatists, "There are reasons to believe that they hear us on other aspects of Russian position regarding the crisis in Ukraine, but that doesn't mean that they immediately move to heed our calls."[25] Lavrov said the separatists want to "defend their culture, their traditions, celebrate their holidays rather than anniversaries of Roman Shukhevych and Stepan Bandera."[26]

Personal life[edit]

He is a keen sportsman and a chain smoker.[9][27] Lavrov likes to watch football games on television,[28] is an ardent fan of the Moscow club Spartak, and a keen amateur footballer in his own right.[29] He has one daughter, Ekaterina, graduate of Columbia University, who stayed in New York until 2014, when she was asked to come back to live in Moscow.[30]

Honors and awards[edit]

This article incorporates information from the equivalent article on the Russian Wikipedia.
Russian President Dmitry Medvedev and Lavrov, awarded with the Order of Service to the Fatherland, 2nd class, July 2010

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Lavrov Sergey Viktorovich". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation. Retrieved 4 February 2013. 
  2. ^ Hayes, Rupert Wingfield (15 December 2007). "Russia's deep suspicion of the West". BBC News. British Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 16 December 2007. 
  3. ^ a b c d Dubien, Arnaud (June 2012). "The composition of Russia’s new Cabinet and Presidential Administration, and its significance". Policy Department DG External Policies. Retrieved 28 March 2013. 
  4. ^ Socor, Vladimir. (21 February 2014) The Jamestown Foundation Vladimir Socor 2010. Jamestown.org. Retrieved on 15 March 2014.
  5. ^ De Waal, Thomas (2010) The Caucasus: an introduction, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0199746206
  6. ^ a b c d Лавров, Сергей (in Russian). Lenta. Retrieved 17 July 2012. 
  7. ^ "Presidents of the Security Council: 1990–1999", UN.org.
  8. ^ "Presidents of the Security Council : 2000–", UN.org.
  9. ^ a b Jackson, Patrick (29 June 2007). "Profile: Putin's foreign minister Lavrov". BBC News. British Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 28 August 2007. 
  10. ^ Lavrov in Syria to Strongly Back Assad
  11. ^ bloomberg.com: "Crimea Resolution Backed by U.S. Barely Gets UN Majority" 27 Mar 2014
  12. ^ a b c d rt.com: "Russia has no intention to send troops into Ukraine – Lavrov" 29 Mar 2014
  13. ^ washingtonpost.com: "How the Ukraine crisis ends" 5 Mar 2014
  14. ^ telegraph.co.uk: "Russia faces global isolation - again" (Hague) 22 Mar 2014
  15. ^ Parry, Tom (22 March 2014). "Stephen Harper says he'll push for Russia's expulsion from the G8". CBC News. Retrieved 23 March 2014. 
  16. ^ "U.S., other powers kick Russia out of G8". CNN.com. Retrieved 2014-03-25. 
  17. ^ "Canberra considers barring Vladimir Putin from G20 in Brisbane over Crimea crisis" 20 Mar 2014
  18. ^ dfa.gov.za: "Chairperson's Statement on the BRICS Foreign Ministers Meeting held on 24 March 2014 in The Hague, Netherlands" 24 Mar 2014
  19. ^ rt.com: "Lavrov: If West accepts coup-appointed Kiev govt, it must accept a Russian Crimea" 30 Mar 2014
  20. ^ businessweek.com: "Crimea Resolution Backed by U.S. Barely Gets UN Majority" 27 Mar 2014
  21. ^ telegraph.co.uk: "Ukraine crisis: Crimea is like Scotland, says Russian ambassador" 28 Mar 2014
  22. ^ telegraph.co.uk: "Ukraine crisis: Russia 'withdrawing troops from border', Putin tells Merkel" 31 Mar 2014
  23. ^ telegraph.co.uk: "Ukraine crisis: We will take no lessons from Russia" 10 Apr 2014
  24. ^ "Kiev hands over powers to stop pro-Russian east breaking away" 11 Apr 2014
  25. ^ "Sergei Lavrov accuses US of fuelling Ukraine crisis" 28 June 2014
  26. ^ "Answers to questions of the mass media by the Russian Foreign Minister, Sergey Lavrov, summarising the results of his negotiations with the US Secretary of State, John Kerry, Paris, 5 June 2014"
  27. ^ "Russia's Medvedev was given a cold remedy and tried archery". RIA Novosti. 27 August 2009. Retrieved 28 August 2009. 
  28. ^ "Interview of S.V. Lavrov, Minister of Foreign Affairs of Russia, to Channel One on 90th Anniversary of FC Spartak". The Ministry of Foreign Affairs Russian Federation. Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Russian Federation. Retrieved 27 May 2013. 
  29. ^ Berry, Lynn (4 December 2012). "Russia's leaders battered by 'sports injuries'". Associated Press. Retrieved 27 May 2013. 
  30. ^ «Сейчас элита принимает решение — на чьей она стороне..» Министр Лавров перевез свою дочь из Нью-Йорка в Москву. Кто следующий? (in Russian). URA.ru. 2014-09-17. Retrieved 2014-10-09. 
  31. ^ Комитет Почетных членов Императорского Православного Палестинского Общества. ippo.ru

External links[edit]

Diplomatic posts
Preceded by
Yuli Vorontsov
Russian Ambassador to the United Nations
1994–2004
Succeeded by
Andrey Denisov
Political offices
Preceded by
Igor Ivanov
Minister of Foreign Affairs
2004–present
Incumbent