Sergio Osmeña

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This article is about former president of the Philippines. For the municipality, see Sergio Osmeña Sr., Zamboanga del Norte. For son, see Sergio Osmeña, Jr.. For grandson, see Sergio Osmeña III.
Sergio Osmeña
Osmena.jpg
4th President of the Philippines
2nd President of the Commonwealth
In office
August 1, 1944 – May 28, 1946
Vice President vacant
Preceded by José Laurel (de facto)
Succeeded by Manuel Roxas
2nd Vice President of the Philippines
In office
November 15, 1935 – August 1, 1944
President Manuel L. Quezon
Preceded by Mariano Trías
Francisco Carreón
Succeeded by Elpidio Quirino
Secretary of Public Instruction, Health, and Public Welfare
In office
1941–1944
President Manuel L. Quezon
Preceded by Jorge Bocobo
Succeeded by Carlos P. Rómulo
Secretary of Public Instruction, Health, and Public Welfare
In office
1941–1944
President Manuel L. Quezon
Preceded by Gracio Gonzaga
Succeeded by Mariano A. Eraña
Secretary of Public Instruction, Health, and Public Welfare
In office
1941–1944
President Manuel L. Quezon
Succeeded by Basilio Valdes
Secretary of Public Instruction
In office
1935–1940
President Manuel L. Quezon
Succeeded by Jorge Bocobo
2nd Senate President pro tempore of the Philippines
In office
1922–1934
Preceded by Esperidion Guanco
Succeeded by José Clarin
Senator of the Philippines from the 10th Senatorial District
In office
1922 – November 15, 1935
Served with:
Celestino Rodriguez (1922–1925)
Pedro Rodriguez (1925–1931)
Manuel C. Briones (1931–1935)
Preceded by Filemon Sotto
Succeeded by Position abolished
1st Speaker of the Philippine House of Representatives
In office
October 16, 1907 – 1922
Speaker of the National Assembly (1907–1916)
Preceded by Office Created
Succeeded by Manuel Roxas
Member of the Philippine House of Representatives from Cebu's 2nd District
In office
October 16, 1907 – 1922
Member of the National Assembly (1907–1916)
Preceded by Office Created
Succeeded by Vicente Sotto
Governor of Cebu
In office
1904 – October 16, 1907
Personal details
Born Sergio Osmeña
(1878-09-09)September 9, 1878
Cebu City, Spanish East Indies
Died October 19, 1961(1961-10-19) (aged 83)
Quezon City, Philippines
Resting place Manila North Cemetery, Santa Cruz, Manila, Philippines
Political party Nacionalista Party
Spouse(s) Estefania Veloso (1901–1918; her death); 10 children
Esperanza Limjap (1920–1961; his death); 3 children
Alma mater University of San Carlos
San Juan de Letran College
University of Santo Tomas
Profession Lawyer, Soldier
Religion Roman Catholic
Signature
Military service
Allegiance  Philippines
Service/branch Philippine Revolutionary Army
Philippine Commonwealth Army
Years of service 1899–1900
1941–1945
Battles/wars Philippine–American War
World War II
* Philippines Campaign (1941–1942)
* Japanese Occupation of the Philippines (1942-1945)
* Philippines Campaign (1944–1945)

Sergio Osmeña, PLH, better known as Sergio Osmeña, Sr. (September 9, 1878 – October 19, 1961) was a Filipino politician who served as the fourth President of the Philippines from 1944 to 1946. He was Vice President under Manuel L. Quezon, and succeeded as President upon Quezon's sudden death in 1944, becoming the oldest officeholder at age 65. A founder of Nacionalista Party, he was also the first Visayan to become President of the Philippines.

Prior to his accession in 1944, Osmeña served as Governor of Cebu from 1906 to 1907, Member and first Speaker of the Philippine House of Representatives from 1907 to 1922, and Senator from the 10th Senatorial District for thirteen years, in which capacity he served as Senate President pro tempore. In 1935, he was nominated to be the running-mate of Senate President Manuel L. Quezon for the presidential election that year. The tandem was overwhelmingly re-elected in 1941.

He was patriarch of the prominent Osmeña family, which includes his son, former Senator Sergio Osmeña, Jr., and his grandsons, senators Sergio Osmeña III and John Henry Osmeña), ex-governor Lito Osmeña, and former Cebu City mayor Tomas Osmeña.

Early life and career[edit]

Osmeña was born in Dao, Batangas to Cebu Chinese tycoon Don Pedro Lee Gotiaoco[1] and Juana Osmeña y Suico (1864 – 1941), who was reportedly only 14 years of age when she gave birth to him. Owing to the circumstances of his birth, the identity of his father had been a closely guarded family secret. Although carrying the stigma of being an illegitimate child – Juana never married his father – he didn't allow this aspect to affect his standing in society. The Osmeña family, a rich and prominent clan of Chinese Filipino heritage with vast business interests in Cebu, warmed to him as he established himself as a prominent figure in local society.[2]

Osmeña received his elementary education at the Colegio de San Carlos and graduated in 1892. Osmeña continued his education in Manila, studying in San Juan de Letran College where he first met Manuel L. Quezon, a classmate of his, as well as Juan Sumulong and Emilio Jacinto. He took up law at the University of Santo Tomas and was second place in the bar examination in 1903. He served on the war staff of General Emilio Aguinaldo as a courier and journalist. In 1900, he founded the Cebu newspaper, El Nuevo Día which lasted for three years.

Public Service in Cebu[edit]

When Cebu Governor Juan Climaco was sent as a member of the Board of Commissioners of the St. Louis Purchase Expedition, Osmeña was appointed acting governor. When Climaco returned, he was appointed as provincial fiscal. His stint there elevated him in politics when he was elected governor of Cebu in 1906.[3]

Congressional career[edit]

House of Representatives[edit]

While governor, he ran for election to the first National Assembly of 1907 and was elected as the first Speaker of that body. Osmeña was 29 years old and already the highest-ranking Filipino official. He and another provincial politician, Manuel L. Quezon of Tayabas, set up the Nacionalista Party as a foil to the Partido Federalista of Manila-based politicians.

In his first years as Speaker, he was plagued with organizational burdens as the National Assembly is still organizing. The Members of the Assembly sought to establish legislative procedures which were constantly rejected by the American superiors because they still perceive that Filipinos are incapable to be independent. Three important bills from the Assembly were rejected by the Philippine Commission:

  1. the repeal of the Sedition law which imposed penalties on any Filipino who advocated independence;
  2. the repeal of the Flag law which banned display of the Filipino flag;
  3. the grant of more powers to the local governments.

However, it did not stopped him to preside over important legislations the Assembly has passed. The creation of the Council of State and the Board of Control enabled the Philippine legislature to share some of the executive powers of the American Governor-General.

In 1916, the Jones Law was passed replacing the Philippine Commission with a Philippine Senate.

Quezon-Osmeña rivalry[edit]

Osmeña were friends and classmates with Manuel Quezon who was the Majority Floor Leader under Osmeña's speakership. When the Jones Law was passed, Quezon was elected as Senate President and Osmeña retained his post as Speaker.

[4]

Senate[edit]

In 1922 Osmeña was elected to the Senate representing the 10th Senatorial District. He went to the United States as part of the OsRox Mission in 1933, to secure passage of the Hare–Hawes–Cutting Independence Bill which was superseded by the Tydings–McDuffie Act in March 1934.[citation needed]

Vice-Presidency[edit]

Osmeña as Vice president

In 1924, Quezon and Osmeña reconciled and joined forces in what was denominated the Partido Nacionalista Consolidado against the threat of an emerging opposition from the Democrata Party. The reunited Nacionalista Party dominated the political scene until the second break-up when the members polarized into Pros and Antis in 1934. Quezon and Osmeña again reconciled for the 1935 Presidential Election. In 1935 Quezon and Osmeña won the Philippine's first national presidential election under the banner of the Nacionalista Party. Quezon obtained nearly 68% of the vote against his two main rivals, Emilio Aguinaldo and Bishop Gregorio Aglipay.[citation needed]

They were inaugurated on November 15, 1935. Quezon had originally been barred by the Philippine constitution from seeking re-election. However, in 1940, constitutional amendments were ratified allowing him to seek re-election for a fresh term ending in 1943. In the 1941 presidential elections, Quezon was re-elected over former Senator Juan Sumulong with nearly 82% of the vote. Re-elected in 1941, Osmeña remained vice president during the Japanese occupation when the government was in exile. As Vice-President, Osmeña concurrently served as Secretary of Public Instruction from 1935–40, and again from 1941–44.

Joaquín Miguel Elizalde, Sergio Osmeña and John W. Hausermann, ca. 1938 or 1939, U.S. Library of Congress

The outbreak of World War II and the Japanese invasion resulted in periodic and drastic changes to the government structure. Executive Order 390, December 22, 1941 abolished the Department of the Interior and established a new line of succession. Executive Order 396, December 24, 1941, further reorganized and grouped the cabinet, with the functions of Secretary of Justice assigned to the Chief Justice of the Philippines.

[5][6]

Quezon-Osmeña impasse[edit]

By 1943, the Philippine Government-in-exile was faced with a serious crisis.[7] According to the 1935 Constitution, the official term of President Quezon was to expire on 30 December 1943, and Vice-President Sergio Osmeña would automatically succeed him in the Presidency. This eventuality was brought to the attention of President Quezon by Osmeña himself, who wrote the former to this effect. Aside from replying to this letter informing Vice-President Osmeña that it would not be wise and prudent to effect any such change under the circumstances, President Quezon issued a press release along the same line. Osmeña then requested the opinion of U.S. Attorney General Homer Cummings, who upheld Osmeña's view as more in keeping the law. Quezon, however, remained adamant. He accordingly sought President Franklin D. Roosevelt's decision. The latter choose to remain aloof from the controversy, suggesting instead that the Philippine officials themselves solve the impasse. A cabinet meeting was then convened by President Quezon. Aside from Quezon and Osmeña, others present in this momentous meeting were Resident Commissioner Joaquin Elizalde, Brig. Gen. Carlos P. Romulo, and Cabinet Secretaries Andres Soriano and Jaime Hernandez. Following a spirited discussion, the Cabinet adopted Elizalde's opinion favorable the decision and announced his plan to retire in California.[7]

After the meeting, however, Vice-President Osmeña approached the President and broached his plan to ask the American Congress to suspend the constitutional provisions for presidential succession until after the Philippines should have been liberated. This legal way out was agreeable to President Quezon and the members of his Cabinet. Proper steps were taken to carry out the proposal. Sponsored by Senator Tydings and Congressman Bell, the pertinent Resolution was unanimously approved by the Senate on a voice vote and passed the House of Representatives by the a vote of 181 to 107, on November 10, 1943.[7]

Presidency[edit]

Presidential styles of
Sergio Osmeña
Reference style His Excellency
Spoken style Your Excellency
Alternative style Mr. President

Osmeña became president of the Commonwealth on Quezon's death in 1944. He returned to the Philippines the same year with General Douglas MacArthur and the liberation forces. After the war, Osmeña restored the Commonwealth government and the various executive departments. He continued the fight for Philippine independence. For the presidential election of 1946, Osmeña refused to campaign, saying that the Filipino people knew of his record of 40 years of honest and faithful service. He lost to Manuel Roxas, who won 54 percent of the vote and became president of the independent Republic of the Philippines.[citation needed]

Administration and cabinet[edit]

War Cabinet 1944–45[edit]

President Osmeña with members of his cabinet. Front row; left to right: Jaime Hernandez, Secretary of Finance; President Osmeña; Col. Carlos P. Romulo, Resident Commissioner and Secretary of Information. Back row, left to right: Col. Mariano A. Erana, Judge Advocate General of the Philippine Army and Secretary of the Department of Justice, Labor, and Welfare; Dr. Arturo B. Rotor, Secretary of Agriculture and Commerce; Ismael Mathay, Budget and Finance Commissioner; Colonel Alejandro Melchor, Undersecretary of National Defense, representing General Basilio Valdes, Secretary of National Defense.

On 8 August 1944, President Osmeña issued Executive Order 15-W reorganizing and consolidating the Executive Departments of the Commonwealth government. The reorganization of the government after it was reestablished on Philippine soil was undertaken with Executive Order No. 27; 27 February 1945.[citation needed]

OFFICE NAME TERM
President Sergio Osmeña 1944–1946
Secretary of Finance Jaime Hernández August 24, 1944 – February 27, 1945
Secretary of National Defense and Communications Basilio Valdes August 1, 1944 – February 6, 1945
Secretary of Public Relations Carlos P. Romulo (concurrent capacity) 1944–1945
Secretary of Justice, Labor and Welfare Mariano A. Eraña (acting capacity) 1944–1945
Secretary of Agriculture and Commerce Manuel Nieto 1944–1945
Secretary to the President Arturo Rotor 1944–1945
Resident Commissioner of the Philippines to the United States Congress Carlos P. Romulo 1944–1945
Budget and Finance Commissioner Ismael Mathay 1944–1945
Judge Advocate General of the Army Mariano Eraña 1944–1945
Economic Adviser Urbano Zafra 1944–1945
Military Adviser Alejandro Melchor 1944–1945

Cabinet and judicial appointments 1945–46[edit]

Executive Order No. 27; February 27, 1945 was issued upon the restoration of civilian authority to the government of the Commonwealth, and members of the new cabinet appointed on March 8, 1945. Subsequent renaming and mergers of departments have separate listings.

OFFICE NAME TERM
President Sergio Osmeña 1944–1946
Secretary of the Interior Tomás Confesor 1945
Secretary of Finance and Reconstruction Jaime Hernández February 27, 1945 – May 27, 1946
Secretary of Justice, Agriculture and Commerce Delfin Jaranilla February 1945-December 1945
Secretary of Justice Ramon Quisumbing December 28, 1945 – May 28, 1946
Secretary of Agriculture and Commerce Vicente Singson Encarnacion February 27, 1945 – May 28, 1946
Secretary of National Defense Tomás Cabili February 27, 1945 – July 11, 1945
Alfredo Montelibano, Sr. July 12, 1945 – May 27, 1946
Secretary of Health and Public Welfare Basilio Valdes 1945
José Locsin 1945–1946
Secretary of Public Instruction Maximo Kalaw February 27, 1945 – May 4, 1945
Jose Reyes May 5, 1945 – January 7, 1946
Francisco Benitez January 7, 1946 – May 27, 1946
Secretary of Public Works and Communications Sotero Cabahug 1945–1946
Secretary of the Budget Ismael Mathay 1944–1945
Secretary to the President José S. Reyes 1945–1946
Secretary of Labor Marcelo Aduru 1946
Resident Commissioner of the Philippines to the United States Congress Carlos P. Romulo 1945–1946

Liberation[edit]

Off Leyte, October 1944 Left to right: Lieutenant General George Kenney, Lieutenant General Richard K. Sutherland, President Sergio Osmeña, General Douglas MacArthur.
President Sergio Osmeña together with General Douglas MacArthur during the historic landing at Leyte in 1944.

Osmeña accompanied U.S. General Douglas MacArthur during the landing of U.S. forces in Leyte on 20 October 1944, starting the liberation of the Philippines during the Second World War was both the combined Filipino and American soldiers including the recognized guerrilla units was fought to the Japanese Imperial forces. Upon establishing the beachhead, MacArthur immediately transferred authority to Osmeña, the successor of Manuel Quezon, as Philippine Commonwealth president.

Domestic policies[edit]

Restoration of the Commonwealth[edit]

With Manila liberated,[7] General of the Army, Douglas MacArthur, on behalf of the United States, turned over the reins of government of the Philippines to Commonwealth President, Sergio Osmeña, on February 27, 1945, amidst brief, but impressive, ceremonies held at the Malacañan Palace. President Osmeña, after thanking the United States through General MacArthur, announced the restoration of the Government of the Commonwealth of the Philippines and work out the salvation of the Philippines from the ravages of war.[7]

Government reorganization[edit]

President Osmeña proceeded with the immediate reorganization of the government and its diverse dependencies. On 8 April 1945, he formed his Cabinet, administering the oath of office to its component members. Later, President Osmeña received the Council of State to help him solve the major problems confronting the nation. Government offices and bureaus were gradually reestablished. A number of new ones were created to meet needs then current. Also restored were the Supreme Court of the Philippines and the inferior courts. The Court of Appeals was abolished and its appellate jurisdiction was transferred to the Supreme Court, the members of which were increased to eleven – one Chief Justice and ten Associate Justice – in order to attend to the new responsibilities. Slowly but steadily, as the liberating forces freed the other portions of the country, provincial and municipal governments were established by the Commonwealth to take over from the military authorities.[7]

Rehabilitation of the Philippine National Bank[edit]

Following the restoration of the Commonwealth Government, the Congress was reorganized. Manuel Roxas and Elpidio Quirino were elected Senate President and Senate President pro tempore respectively. At the House of Representatives, Jose Zulueta of Iloilo was elected Speaker and Prospero Sanidad as Speaker pro tempore. The opening session of the Congress was personally addressed by President Osmeña, who reported on the Commonwealth Government in exile and proposed vital pieces of legislation.[7]

The First Commonwealth Congress earnestly took up the various pending assignments to solve the pressing matters affecting the Philippines, especially in regard to relief, rehabilitation, and reconstruction. The first bill enacted was Commonwealth Act No. 672 – rehabilitating the Philippine National Bank.[7]

People's court[edit]

Yielding to American pressure, on September 25, 1945, the Congress enacted C.A. No. 682 creating the People's Court and the Office of Special Prosecutors to deal with the pending cases of "collaboration".[7]

Foreign policies[edit]

President Osmeña and his family strolling in the Malacañang Palace gardens.

United Nations Charter[edit]

President Osmeña sent the Philippine delegation, which was headed by Carlos P. Romulo, to the San Francisco gathering for the promulgation of the Charter of the United Nations on 26 June 1945. Other members of the delegation were Maximo Kalaw, Carlos P. Garcia, Pedro Lopez, Francisco Delegado, Urbano Zafra, Alejandro Melchor, and Vicente Sinco. The 28th signatory nation of the United Nations, the Philippines was one of the fifty-one nations that drafted the UN Charter. Once approved by Philippine delegation, the UN Charter was ratified by the Congress of the Philippines and deposited with the U.S State Department on 11 October 1945.[7]

Foreign Relations Office[edit]

To prepare for the forthcoming independent status of the Philippine, President Osmeña created the Office of Foreign Relations.[7] Vicente Sinco was appointed as its first Commissioner, with cabinet rank. In this connection, President Osmeña also entered into an agreement with the United States Government to send five Filipino trainees to the U.S. State Department to prepare themselves for diplomatic service. They were sent by U.S. State Department to the United States embassies in Moscow and Mexico City and consulates in Saigon and Singapore.[7]

International banking[edit]

On 5 December 1945, President Osmeña appointed Resident Commissioner Carlos P. Romulo as his representative to accept Philippine membership in the International Monetary Fund and in the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, which bodies had been conceived in the Bretton Woods Agreement, in which the Philippine had also taken part. Romulo signed said membership on 27 December 1945 on behalf of the Philippines.[7]

Bell Trade Act[edit]

On 30 April 1946, the United States Congress, at last approved the Bell Act, which as early as 20 January had been reported to the Ways and Means Committee of the lower house, having been already passed by the Senate. President Osmeña and Resident Commissioner Ramulo had urged the passage of this bill, with United States High Commissioner, Paul V. McNutt, exerting similar pressure.

The Act gave the Philippines eight years of free trade with the United States, then twenty years during which tariffs would be upped gradually until they were in line with the rest of the American tariff policy. The law also fixed some quotas for certain products: sugar – 850,000 long tons; cordage – 6,000,000 pounds; coconut oil – 200,000 long tons; cigars – 200,000,000 pounds. This aid was coupled with that to be obtained from the recently passed Tydings Damage bill, which provided some nine hundred million dollars for payment of war damages, of which one million was earmarked to compensate for church losses. The sum of two hundred and forty million dollars was to be periodically allocated by the United States President as good will. Also, sixty million pieces of surplus property were transferred to the Philippines government.[7]

1946 presidential election[edit]

Soon after the reconstitution of the Commonwealth Government in 1945 Senators Manuel Roxas, Elpidio Quirino and their allies called for the holding on an early national election to choose the president and vice president of the Philippines and members of the Congress. In December, 1945 the House Insular Affairs of the United States Congress approved the joint resolution setting the election date no later than 30 April 1946. Prompted by this congressional action, President Sergio Osmeña called the Philippine Congress to a three-day special session. Congress enacted Commonwealth Act No. 725, setting the election on 23 April 1946, and this was approved by President Osmeña on 5 January 1946.

Three parties presented their respective candidates for the different national elective positions. These were the Nacionalista Party – Conservative (Osmeña) Wing, the Liberal Wing of the Nacionalista Party, and the Partido Modernista. The Nacionalistas had Osmeña and Senator Eulogio Rodriguez as their candidates for president and vice president respectively. The Modernistas chose Hilario Camino Moncado and Luis Salvador for the same positions. The standard bearers of the Liberals were Senators Manuel Roxas and Elpidio Quirino. On 3 January 1946, President Osmeña announced his re-election bid. On 22 January 1946 Eulogio Rodriguez was nominated as Osmeña's running mate for Vice President, in a convention held at Ciro's Club in Manila. According to the Manila Chronicle:

The convention opened at 10:15 in the morning when the acting secretary of the party, Vicente Farmoso, called the confab to order. Congressman José C. Romero, who delivered the keynote speech accused Senate President Manuel Roxas and his followers "of fanning the flames of discontent among the people, of capitalizing on the people's hardship, and of minimizing the accomplishment of the [Osmeña] Administration. These men with the Messiah complex have been the bane of the country and of the world. This is the mentality that produces Hitlers and the Mussolinis, and their desire to climb to power. they even want to destroy the party which placed them where they are today."

Senator Carlos P. Garcia, who delivered the nomination speech for President Sergio Osmeña, made a long recital of Osmeña's achievements, his virtues as public official and as private citizen.

A statue of President Osmeña in front of the Osmeña Museum in Cebu City.

Entering the convention hall at about 7:30 p.m, President Osmeña, accompanied by the committee on notification, was greeted with rounds of cheer and applause as he ascended the platform. President Osmeña delivered his speech which was a general outline of his future plans once elected. He emphasized that as far as his party is concerned, independence is a close issue. It is definitely coming on 4 July 1946[8]

On 19 January 1946, Senator Roxas announced his candidacy for President in a convention held in Santa Ana Cabaret in Manila. According to the Manila Chronicle:

...more than three thousand (by conservative estimate there were only 1,000 plus) delegates, party members and hero worshipers jammed into suburban, well known Santa Ana Cabaret (biggest in the world) to acclaim ex-katipunero and Bagong Katipunan organizer Manuel Acuña Roxas as the guidon bearer of the Nacionalista Party's Liberal Wing. The delegates, who came from all over the Islands, met in formal convention from 10:50 am and did not break up till about 5:30 pm.

They elected 1. Mariano J. Cuenco, professional Osmeñaphobe, as temporary chairman; 2. José Avelino and ex-pharmacist Antonio Zacarias permanent chairman and secretary, respectively; 3. nominated forty-four candidates for senators; 4. heard the generalissimo himself deliver an oratorical masterpiece consisting of 50 per cent attacks against the (Osmeña) Administration, 50 per cent promises, pledges. Rabid Roxasites greeted the Roxas acceptance speech with hysterical applause.[9]

President Osmeña tried to prevent the split in the Nacionalista Party by offering Senator Roxas the position of Philippine Regent Commissioner to the United States but the latter turned down the offer. As a result of the split among the members of the Nacionalista Party, owing to marked differences of opinion on certain vital issues of which no settlement had been reached, a new political organization was born and named the Liberal Wing of the Nacionalista Party, which would later become the Liberal Party. The election was generally peaceful and orderly except in some places where passions ran high, especially in the province of Pampanga. According to the "controversial" decision of the Electoral Tribunal of the House of Representatives in re Meliton Soliman vs. Luis Taruc, "Pampanga was under the terroristic clutches and control of the Hukbalahaps. So terrorized were the people of Arayat, at one time, 200 persons abandoned their homes, their work, and their food, all their belongings in a mass evacuation to the poblacion due to fear and terror."[citation needed]

A total of 2,218,847 voters went to the polls to elect their President and Vice President who were to be the Commonwealth's last and the Republic's first. Four days after election day, the Liberal party candidates were proclaimed victors. Roxas registered an overwhelming majority of votes in 34 provinces and nine cities: Abra, Agusan, Albay, Antique, Bataan, Batanes, Batangas, Bukidnon, Bulacan, Cagayan, Camarines Norte, Camarines Sur, Capiz, Cavite, Cotabato, Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Isabela, Laguna, La Union, Leyte, Marinduque, Mindoro, Misamis Oriental, Negros Occidental, Nueva Vizcaya, Palawan, Pangasinan, Rizal, Romblon, Samar, Sorsogon, Sulu, Surigao, Tayabas, Zambales, Manila, Quezon City, Bacolod City (Negros Occidental), Iloilo City (Iloilo), Baguio City (Mountain Province), Zamboanga City (Zamboanga), Tagaytay City (Cavite), Cavite City (Cavite) and San Pablo City (Laguna). Likewise, the Liberal Party won nine out of 16 contested senatorial seats. In the House of Representatives, the Liberals won an overwhelming majority with 50 seats while the Nacionalistas and the Democratic Alliance only got 33 and six seats, respectively.[citation needed]

Post-presidency and death[edit]

Osmeña on the verso of the 50-peso bill.
Tomb of Sergio Osmeña

After his electoral defeat, Osmeña retired to his home in Cebu. He died at age 83 on October 19, 1961 at the Veterans' Memorial Medical Center in Quezon City. He is buried in the Manila North Cemetery, Manila.

Personal life[edit]

Family[edit]

  • On April 10, 1901, he married Estefania Chiong Veloso, the couple had ten children: Nicasio Veloso-Osmeña, Vicenta Veloso-Osmeña, Edilderto Veloso-Osmeña, Milagros Veloso-Osemeña, Emilio Veloso-Osmeña, Maria Paloma Veloso-Osmeña, Jesus Veloso-Osmeña, Teodoro Veloso-Osmeña, José Veloso-Osmeña, and Sergio Osmeña, Jr.
  • In 1920, two years after the death of his first wife, Osmeña married Esperanza Limjap, the couple had three more children, namely, Ramón Limjap-Osmeña, Rosalina Limjap-Osmeña, and Victor Limjap-Osmeña.

Descendants[edit]

Several of Osmeña's descendants became prominent political figures in their own right:

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Flores, Wilson. "The secret father of President Sergio Osmenà & forebearer of John Gokongwei, Jr., Gaisanos, Gotianuns". The Philippine Star. 
  2. ^ Cullinane (2004), pg. 205
  3. ^ Paras, Corazon (1996). Speakers of the Philippine Legislative Branch. Salcedo Village, Makati: Fil-Asia Printers. p. 33. 
  4. ^ Paras, Corazon (1996). Speakers of the Philippine Legislative Branch. Salcedo Village, Makati: Fil-Asia Printers. p. 33. 
  5. ^ Source: The Sixth Annual Report of the United States High Commission to the Philippine Island to the President and Congress of the United States, Covering the Fiscal Year, 1 July 1941 to 30 June 1942 Washington, D.C. (20 October 1942).
  6. ^ Source: Executive Orders of the Commonwealth of the Philippines, Manila, Bureau of Printing (1945).
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Molina, Antonio. The Philippines: Through the centuries. Manila: University of Santo Tomas Cooperative, 1961
  8. ^ Celso G. Cabrera. "Rodriguez is Nominated as Osmeña's Running-Mate", Manila Chronicle, 22 January 1946, pg. 2
  9. ^ "Conventions Climax Hectic Week", Manila Chronicle: "This Week", 27 January 1946, pg. 3

References[edit]

  • Cullinane, Michael, Ilustrado Politics: Filipino Elite Responses to American Rule, 1898–1908, Ateneo de Manila University Press, 2004, ISBN 971-550-439-6
  • Zaide, Gregorio F. (1984). Philippine History and Government. National Bookstore Printing Press. 

External links[edit]

Political offices
New office Speaker of the Assembly
1907–1916
Succeeded by
Himself
as Speaker of the House of Representatives
Preceded by
Himself
as Speaker of the Assembly
Speaker of the House of Representatives
1916–1922
Succeeded by
Manuel Roxas
Preceded by
Esperidion Guanco
President pro tempore of the Senate
1922–1933
Succeeded by
José Clarin
Preceded by
Mariano Trías
Francisco Carreón
De facto
Vice President of the Philippines
November 15, 1935 – August 1, 1944
Succeeded by
Elpidio Quirino
Preceded by
Manuel L. Quezon
José Laurel
De facto
President of the Philippines
August 1, 1944 – May 28, 1946
Succeeded by
Manuel Roxas
Senate of the Philippines
Preceded by
Filemon Sotto
Senator from the 10th district
1922–1935
Position abolished