Serine racemase

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Serine racemase
Crystal structure of serine racemase 3hmk.png
Rendering based on 3hmk
Available structures
PDB Ortholog search: PDBe, RCSB
Identifiers
Symbols SRR ; ILV1; ISO1
External IDs OMIM606477 HomoloGene22775 ChEMBL: 4460 GeneCards: SRR Gene
EC number 4.3.1.17, 4.3.1.18, 5.1.1.18
Orthologs
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 63826 27364
Ensembl ENSG00000167720 ENSMUSG00000001323
UniProt Q9GZT4 Q9QZX7
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_021947 NM_001163311
RefSeq (protein) NP_068766 NP_001156783
Location (UCSC) Chr 17:
2.21 – 2.23 Mb
Chr 11:
74.91 – 74.93 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]

Serine racemase is an enzyme which generates D-serine from L-serine. D-serine acts as a neuronal signaling molecule by activating NMDA receptors in the brain. In humans, the serine racemase protein is encoded by the SRR gene.[1]

Mammalian serine racemase is a pyridoxal 5'-phosphate dependent enzyme that catalyzes both the racemization of L-serine to D-serine and also the elimination of water from L-serine, generating pyruvate and ammonia.[2] The enzyme is physiologically stimulated by divalent cations (e.g., magnesium) and is allosterically activated by the magnesium/ATP complex.

References[edit]

  1. ^ De Miranda J, Santoro A, Engelender S, Wolosker H (October 2000). "Human serine racemase: molecular cloning, genomic organization and functional analysis". Gene 256 (1–2): 183–8. doi:10.1016/S0378-1119(00)00356-5. PMID 11054547. 
  2. ^ De Miranda J, Panizzutti R, Foltyn VN, Wolosker H (October 2002). "Cofactors of serine racemase that physiologically stimulate the synthesis of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor coagonist d-serine". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99 (22): 14542–7. doi:10.1073/pnas.222421299. PMC 137919. PMID 12393813. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Morita, Y.; Ujike, H.; Tanaka, Y.; Otani, K.; Kishimoto, M.; Morio, A.; Kotaka, T.; Okahisa, Y.; Matsushita, M.; Morikawa, A.; Hamase, K.; Zaitsu, K.; Kuroda, S. (2007). "A Genetic Variant of the Serine Racemase Gene is Associated with Schizophrenia". Biological Psychiatry 61 (10): 1200–1203. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2006.07.025. PMID 17067558.  edit
  • Steffek, A. E.; Haroutunian, V.; Meador-Woodruff, J. H. (2006). "Serine racemase protein expression in cortex and hippocampus in schizophrenia". NeuroReport 17 (11): 1181–1185. doi:10.1097/01.wnr.0000230512.01339.72. PMID 16837850.  edit
  • Fujii, K.; Maeda, K.; Hikida, T.; Mustafa, A. K.; Balkissoon, R.; Xia, J.; Yamada, T.; Ozeki, Y.; Kawahara, R.; Okawa, M.; Huganir, R. L.; Ujike, H.; Snyder, S. H.; Sawa, A. (2005). "Serine racemase binds to PICK1: Potential relevance to schizophrenia". Molecular Psychiatry 11 (2): 150–157. doi:10.1038/sj.mp.4001776. PMID 16314870.  edit
  • Dumin, E.; Bendikov, I.; Foltyn, V. N.; Misumi, Y.; Ikehara, Y.; Kartvelishvily, E.; Wolosker, H. (2006). "Modulation of D-Serine Levels via Ubiquitin-dependent Proteasomal Degradation of Serine Racemase". Journal of Biological Chemistry 281 (29): 20291–20302. doi:10.1074/jbc.M601971200. PMID 16714286.  edit
  • Strísovský, K.; Jirásková, J.; Barinka, C.; Majer, P.; Rojas, C.; Slusher, B. S.; Konvalinka, J. (2003). "Mouse brain serine racemase catalyzes specific elimination of L-serine to pyruvate". FEBS letters 535 (1–3): 44–48. doi:10.1016/s0014-5793(02)03855-3. PMID 12560076.  edit
  • Hoffman, H. E.; Jirásková, J.; Ingr, M.; Zvelebil, M.; Konvalinka, J. (2009). "Recombinant human serine racemase: Enzymologic characterization and comparison with its mouse ortholog". Protein Expression and Purification 63 (1): 62–67. doi:10.1016/j.pep.2008.09.003. PMID 18812225.  edit
  • Sarras, H.; Semeralul, M. O.; Fadel, M. P.; Feldcamp, L. A.; Labrie, V.; Wong, A. H. C. (2010). "Elevated PICK1 mRNA in schizophrenia increased SRR mRNA in suicide". Schizophrenia Research 120 (1–3): 236–237. doi:10.1016/j.schres.2010.03.002. PMID 20385472.  edit
  • Yamada, K.; Ohnishi, T.; Hashimoto, K.; Ohba, H.; Iwayama-Shigeno, Y.; Toyoshima, M.; Okuno, A.; Takao, H.; Toyota, T.; Minabe, Y.; Nakamura, K.; Shimizu, E.; Itokawa, M.; Mori, N.; Iyo, M.; Yoshikawa, T. (2005). "Identification of Multiple Serine Racemase (SRR) mRNA Isoforms and Genetic Analyses of SRR and DAO in Schizophrenia and d-Serine Levels". Biological Psychiatry 57 (12): 1493–1503. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2005.03.018. PMID 15953485.  edit
  • Xia, M.; Liu, Y.; Figueroa, D. J.; Chiu, C. S.; Wei, N.; Lawlor, A. M.; Lu, P.; Sur, C.; Koblan, K. S.; Connolly, T. M. (2004). "Characterization and localization of a human serine racemase". Molecular Brain Research 125 (1–2): 96–104. doi:10.1016/j.molbrainres.2004.03.007. PMID 15193426.  edit

External links[edit]