Seru Epenisa Cakobau

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Ratu Seru Epenisa Cakobau
King of Fiji
Cakobau, died February 1883, photograph by Francis H. Dufty.jpg
Reign 5 June 1871 - 10 October 1874
Titles 6th Vunivalu of Bau
King of Bau
Born 1815
Birthplace Natoloa Nairai, Lomaiviti
Died 1883 (aged 67–68)
Successor Victoria
Father Tanoa Visawaqa
Mother Adi Savusavu
Lithograph of the Vunivalu of Bau, c. 1858.

Ratu Seru Epenisa Cakobau (also spelled Cacobau or Thakombau) (c.1815 – 1 February 1883) was a Fijian Ratu and warlord (Vunivalu) who united part of Fiji's warring tribes under his leadership, establishing a united Fijian kingdom.[1]

Background[edit]

He was born to Ratu Tanoa Visawaqa, and one of his nine wives, Adi Savusavu.

The Vunivalu and the Roko Tui Bau (sacred chieftain) had had many power struggles during the course of nearly a century. These struggles led to the death of Seru's paternal uncle, the Vunivalu of Bau, Naulivou Ramatenikutu and the installation of Tanoa as Vunivalu. However, after he slew the Roko Tui Bau, Ratu Raiwalui, near Vanuabalavu, amongst other murders and reprisals, Tanoa was exiled in 1832.

Ratu Seru Cakobau was born in Nairai island and raised up in Gau island. In his early 20s he returned to Bau. He subsequently gained power in 1837 when he persuaded the Lasakau people to overthrow the Roko Tui Bau Vuani-ivi clan led by Ratu Ravulo Vakayaliyalo. Seru then reinstated his father as the ruling Vunivalu in Bau.

Seru was given the name Cikinovu ("Centipede"),[1] "because he moved silently and struck painfully". Later, he was called Cakobau ("destroyer of Bau"), because he had destroyed what was Bau; but Seru also built a new Bau, under the supremacy of the Vunivalu.

Rise to power[edit]

On 8 December 1852, Cakobau succeeded as Vunivalu of Bau.

Cakobau, a former cannibal, had himself converted to Christianity by the missionary James Calvert[2] and renounced cannibalism in 1854.

Claiming that Bau had suzerainty over the remainder of Fiji, he asserted that he was in fact the King of Fiji. However, Cakobau's claim was not accepted by other chiefs, who regarded him as, at best, the first among equals. Cakobau consequently engaged in constant warfare for almost nineteen years to unify the islands under his authority.

The last, brief rebellion of chiefs against Cakobau's rule culminated in the Battle of Kaba (a village in Bau Tikina, next to Bau Island). Cakobau crushed the rebellion with the aid of the king of Tonga. Having become a Christian, Cakobau on the battlefield pardoned all the captives; in accordance with pagan Fijian customs, the defeated men would have been ceremonially humiliated, killed, and eaten.

In 1865, a Confederacy of Independent Kingdoms of Viti was established, with Cakobau as Chairman of the General Assembly. Two years later, however, the confederacy split into the Kingdom of Bau and the Confederation of Lau, with Cakobau assuming kingship of the former.

Supported by foreign settlers, he finally succeeded in creating a united Fijian kingdom in 1871, and established Levuka as his capital. He decided to set up a constitutional monarchy, and the first legislative assembly met in November of that year. Both the legislature and the Cabinet were dominated by foreigners.

Cession of power[edit]

The United States government had recognised Cakobau's claim to kingship over a united Fijian nation, long before his claims were accepted by his fellow chiefs. In the long term, however, this was not to count in his favour. The American government held him responsible for an arson attack against the Nukulau Island home of John Brown William, the American Consul, in 1849 (before Cakobau was even the Vunivalu, let alone King), and demanded $44,000 compensation. Unable to pay the debt caused by the Rewan Chiefs, and fearing an American invasion and annexation, Cakobau decided to cede the islands to the United Kingdom. He was also motivated partly by the hope that British rule would bring civilisation and Christianity to Fiji.

Cakobau retained his position as Fiji's second most senior chief the title of Vunivalu of Bau, and formally ceded the highest and most precedent Chiefly title of Tui Viti or Paramount Chief of Fiji to the person of Her Majesty Queen Victoria which is currently held by her descendant Elizabeth II. He lived quietly until his death on 1 February 1883.[1]

Legacy[edit]

Several of Fiji's leading figures were direct descendants of Cakobau.

His great-grandson, Ratu Sir George Cakobau, served as Fiji's first native-born Governor-General from 1973 to 1983.

Ratu Epeli Nailatikau, the grandson of Cakobau's daughter Adi Litia Cakobau, became President of Fiji in 2009.

Ratu Sir Kamisese Mara, modern Fiji's founding father, is also a descendant of Cakobau's, though not through the male line.

Titles[edit]

Preceded by
Tanoa Visawaqa
Vunivalu of Bau
1852 - 1883
Succeeded by
Epeli Nailatikau I
Preceded by
none (new office)
Chairman, Viti Confederacy
1865 - 1867
Succeeded by
none (office abolished)
Preceded by
none (new throne)
Tui Bau (King of Bau)
2 May 1867 - 1869
Succeeded by
none (throne abolished)
Preceded by
none (new throne)
Tui Viti (King of Fiji)
1871 - 1874
Succeeded by
Queen Victoria

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Mennell, Philip (1892). "Wikisource link to Thakombau". The Dictionary of Australasian Biography. London: Hutchinson & Co. Wikisource
  2. ^ Mennell, Philip (1892). "Wikisource link to Calvert, Rev. James". The Dictionary of Australasian Biography. London: Hutchinson & Co. Wikisource