Servant leadership is both a leadership philosophy and set of leadership practices. Traditional leadership generally involves the accumulation and exercise of power by one at the “top of the pyramid.” By comparison, the servant-leader shares power, puts the needs of others first and helps people develop and perform as highly as possible.
History before Robert Greenleaf
Servant leadership is an ancient philosophy - one that existed long before Robert Greenleaf coined the phrase in modern times. There are passages that relate to servant leadership in the Tao Te Ching, attributed to Lao-Tzu, who is believed to have lived in China sometime between 570 BCE and 490 BCE:
The highest type of ruler is one of whose existence the people are barely aware. Next comes one whom they love and praise. Next comes one whom they fear. Next comes one whom they despise and defy.
When you are lacking in faith, Others will be unfaithful to you.
The Sage is self-effacing and scanty of words. When his task is accomplished and things have been completed, All the people say, ‘We ourselves have achieved it!’
"the king [leader] shall consider as good, not what pleases himself but what pleases his subjects [followers]" "the king [leader] is a paid servant and enjoys the resources of the state together with the people."
Servant leadership can be found in many religious texts, though the philosophy itself transcends any particular religious tradition. In the Christian tradition, this passage from the Gospel of Mark is often quoted in discussions of servant leadership:
"42 Jesus called them together and said, “You know that those who are regarded as rulers of the Gentiles lord it over them, and their high officials exercise authority over them. 43 Not so with you. Instead, whoever wants to become great among you must be your servant, 44 and whoever wants to be first must be servant of all. 45 For even the Son of Man did not come to be served, but to serve, and to give his life as a ransom for many.” Mark 10:42-45 
Islam ("the leader of a people is their servant") and other world religions have long embraced the philosophy of servant leadership.
Robert K. Greenleaf and the modern movement
While servant leadership is a timeless concept, the phrase “servant leadership” was coined by Robert K. Greenleaf in "The Servant as Leader", an essay that he first published in 1970. In that essay, Greenleaf said:
“The servant-leader is servant first… It begins with the natural feeling that one wants to serve, to serve first. Then conscious choice brings one to aspire to lead. That person is sharply different from one who is leader first, perhaps because of the need to assuage an unusual power drive or to acquire material possessions…The leader-first and the servant-first are two extreme types. Between them there are shadings and blends that are part of the infinite variety of human nature.”
“The difference manifests itself in the care taken by the servant-first to make sure that other people’s highest priority needs are being served. The best test, and difficult to administer, is: Do those served grow as persons? Do they, while being served, become healthier, wiser, freer, more autonomous, more likely themselves to become servants? And, what is the effect on the least privileged in society? Will they benefit or at least not be further deprived?“
Robert Greenleaf recognized that organizations as well as individuals could be servant-leaders. Indeed, he had great faith that servant-leader organizations could change the world. In his second major essay, "The Institution as Servant" (1972), Greenleaf articulated what is often called the “credo.” There he said:
“This is my thesis: caring for persons, the more able and the less able serving each other, is the rock upon which a good society is built. Whereas, until recently, caring was largely person to person, now most of it is mediated through institutions – often large, complex, powerful, impersonal; not always competent; sometimes corrupt. If a better society is to be built, one that is more just and more loving, one that provides greater creative opportunity for its people, then the most open course is to raise both the capacity to serve and the very performance as servant of existing major institutions by new regenerative forces operating within them.” 
In the context of leadership styles
The most common division of leadership styles is the distinction between autocratic, participative and laissez-faire leadership styles. The authoritarian style of leadership requires clearly defined tasks and monitoring their execution and results. The decision-making responsibility rests with the executive. In contrast to the autocratic, the practice of a participative leadership style involves employees in decision-making. More extensive tasks are delegated. The employees influence and responsibility increases. The laissez-faire style of leadership is negligible in practice.
Servant leadership can be most likely associated with the participative leadership style. The authoritarian leadership style does not correspond to the guiding principle. The highest priority of a servant leader is to encourage, support and enable subordinates to unfold their full potential and abilities. This leads to an obligation to delegate responsibility and engage in participative decision-making. In the managerial grid model of Blake and Mouton, the participative style of leadership is presented as the approach with the greatest possible performance and employee satisfaction. However, there is the question whether a leadership style can be declared as universal and universally applicable. Situational contexts are not considered.
The servant leadership approach goes beyond employee-related behavior and calls for a rethinking of the hierarchical relationship between leader and subordinates. This does not mean that the ideal of a participative style in any situation is to be enforced, but that the focus of leadership responsibilities is the promotion of performance and satisfaction of employees.
Scholars[who?] generally agree that these characteristics are central to the development of a servant-leader:
- Listening: A servant leader puts the emphasis upon listening effectively to others.
- Empathy: A servant leader needs to understand others' feelings and perspectives.
- Healing: A servant leader helps foster each person's emotional and spiritual health and wholeness.
- Awareness: A servant leader understands his or her own values and feelings, strengths and weaknesses.
- Persuasion: A servant leader influences others through their persuasiveness.
- Conceptualization: A servant leader needs to integrate present realities and future possibilities.
- Foresight: A servant leader needs to have a well developed sense of intuition about how the past, present, and future are connected.
- Stewardship: A servant leader is a steward who holds an organization's resources in trust for the greater good.
- Commitment to the growth of people: A servant leader is responsible for serving the need of others.
- Building community: A servant leader is to help create a sense of community among people.
As a result it has to be emphasized that these 10 characteristics are by no means exhaustive. They should not be interpreted as a certain manner to behave and they do not represent the best method to gain aims. Rather every person shall reflect, if these characteristics can be useful for his personal development.
Most writers see servant leadership as an underlying philosophy of leadership, demonstrated through specific characteristics and practices. The foundational concepts are found in Greenleaf’s first three major essays, "The Servant as Leader", "The Institution as Servant", and "Trustees as Servants."
Larry Spears identified ten characteristic of servant leaders in the writings of Greenleaf. The ten characteristics are listening, empathy, healing, awareness, persuasion, conceptualization, foresight, stewardship, commitment to the growth of others, and building community. Leadership experts such as Bolman, Deal, Covey, Fullan, Sergiovanni, and Heifitz also reference these characteristics as essential components of effective leadership.
The Center for Servant Leadership at the Pastoral Institute in Georgia defines servant leadership as a lifelong journey that includes discovery of one’s self, a desire to serve others, and a commitment to lead. Servant-leaders continually strive to be trustworthy, self-aware, humble, caring, visionary, empowering, relational, competent, good stewards, and community builders.
Kent Keith, author of The Case for Servant Leadership, states that servant leadership is ethical, practical, and meaningful. He identifies seven key practices of servant leaders: self-awareness, listening, changing the pyramid, developing your colleagues, coaching not controlling, unleashing the energy and intelligence of others, and foresight.'
James Sipe and Don Frick, in their book The Seven Pillars of Servant Leadership, state that servant-leaders are individuals of character, put people first, are skilled communicators, are compassionate collaborators, use foresight, are systems thinkers, and exercise moral authority.
Unlike leadership approaches with a top-down hierarchical style, servant leadership instead emphasizes collaboration, trust, empathy, and the ethical use of power. At heart, the individual is a servant first, making the conscious decision to lead in order to better serve others, not to increase their own power. The objective is to enhance the growth of individuals in the organization and increase teamwork and personal involvement. A recent behavioral economics experiment demonstrates the group benefits of servant leadership. Teams of players coordinated their actions better with a servant leader resulting in improved outcomes for the followers (but not for the selfless leaders).
Link with leadership theory
Some[who?] see a difference between a leadership philosophy (e.g. “servant leadership” or “ethical leadership”) and a leadership theory (e.g. functional and situational leadership theories). The former is a values-based view of how leaders should act whereas the latter is usually a way of teaching leaders how to be more effective.
For decades, the older leadership theories (e.g. traits, behavioral/styles, situational and functional) did not explicitly support or address the philosophy of servant leadership. However, this changed with the emergence of integrated psychological leadership theory – as represented by James Scouller’s three levels of leadership model (2011). Scouller’s model – which attempts to integrate the older theories while addressing their limitations by focusing on the leader’s psychology – emphasizes the idea that leaders should care as much about their followers’ needs as their own and view leadership as an act of service. Thus, the link between the philosophy of servant leadership and modern leadership theory has strengthened in the 21st century.
- This concept is seen as a long-term concept to live and work and therefore has the potential to influence the society in a positive way.
- The exemplary treatment of employees leads to an excellent treatment of customers by employees of the company and a high loyalty of the customers.
- Servant Leaders engender trust, which catalyzes higher levels of worker engagement, the offering of the workers' discretionary effort and ideas, and greater speed in change and innovation. 
- There is a high employee identification with the enterprise.
- An excellent corporate culture is developed.
- Leaders of a company define themselves by their significance to the people.
- Servant leadership can be used as a principle to improve the return on investment of staff, in all economic sectors. Managers who empower and respect their staff get better performance in return.
- Servant leadership is seen as a long-term application and therefore needs time for applying.
- Deborah Eicher-Catt wrote an extensive critique of servant-leadership 'The myth of servant-leadership: a feminist perspective' <http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-133864711.html>
- Lao Tzu, Tao Teh Ching, trans. John C. H. Wu (Boston, Massachusetts: Shambhala, 2006),35.
- Staehle, W.H.: Management, p. 842
- Neuberger, O.: Führen und führen lassen, S.515
- "The Understanding and Practice of ServantLeadership". Regent University. August 2005. Retrieved 2012-08-09.
- Schnorrenberg, Leonhard J. (2007): Servant Leadership – Die Führungskultur für das 21. Jahrhundert, in: Hinterhuber, Hans H.(Editor): Servant Leadership – Prinzipien dienender Unternehmensführung, Berlin 2007, S.17-40
- Gillet, J., Cartwright, E., & Van Vugt, M. (2010). Selfish or servant leadership: Testing evolutionary predictions about leadership in coordination games. Personality and Individual Differences. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2010.06.003
- Businessballs management information website: Leadership Theories page – see “leadership terminology definitions – models, philosophies, styles” section: http://www.businessballs.com/leadership-theories.htm2012-02-24. Retrieved 2012-08-03
- Scouller, J. (2011). The Three Levels of Leadership: How to Develop Your Leadership Presence, Knowhow and Skill. Cirencester: Management Books 2000., ISBN 9781852526818
- ©2008 12manage B.V. "Dienende Führung (Robert K. Greenleaf)". 12manage.com. Retrieved 2012-08-09.
- "Throw Out the Script: Improvisation, Innovation, and Servant Leadership". servantleadershipinstitute.com. Retrieved 2013-10-13.
- "10 Ways to Improve Employee Satisfaction". Retrieved 2012-08-09.
- "Five Steps To Increasing Employee Motivation". Jpmaroney.com. Retrieved 2012-08-09.
- Trevor M. Hall, ed. Becoming Authentic: The Search for Wholeness and Calling as a Servant Leader (2007) ISBN 978-1-929569-36-6
- Robert Greenleaf. Servant Leadership ISBN 0-8091-0554-3
- Peter Block. Stewardship ISBN 1-881052-86-9
- Michael Parsons & David J. Cohen, eds. On Eagles' Wings. An Exploration of Strength in the Midst of Weakness (2008) ISBN 978-0-7188-9195-4
- James Autry. The Servant Leader ISBN 1-4000-5473-7
- Larry Spears, ed. Reflections on Leadership ISBN 0-471-03686-2
- Larry Spears, ed. Insights on Leadership ISBN 0-471-17634-6
- Larry Spears, ed. Focus on Leadership ISBN 0-471-41162-0
- Larry Spears & Michele Lawrence, ed. Practicing Servant-Leadership ISBN 0-7879-7455-2
- James Hunter. the Servant ISBN 0-7615-1369-8
- James Hunter. The World's Most Powerful Leadership Principle ISBN 1-57856-975-3
- John J. Sullivan, Servant First! Leadership for the New Millennium ISBN 1-59467-227-X
- Kent Halstead, Servant Leadership for Congregations
- Max DePree, Leadership is an Art ISBN 0-440-50324-8
- Dr. Kent M. Keith. The Case For Servant Leadership
- James W. Sipe & Don M. Frick. Seven Pillars of Servant Leadership ISBN 978-0-8091-4560-7
- Ken Blanchard, Leading at a Higher Level (Chapter 12), ISBN 0-13-234772-5
- Denny Gunderson, The Leadership Paradox: A Challenge to Servant Leadership in a Power-Hungry World ISBN 978-1-57658-379-1
- Jerry Glashagel, Servant-Institutions in Business, ISBN 978-0-9822012-3-7
- Ken Jennings and John Stahl-Wert, The Serving Leader, ISBN 1-57675-265-8
- Jim Boyd, A Servant Leader’s Journey, ISBN 978-0-8091-4568-3
- George SanFacon, A Conscious Person’s Guide to the Workplace, ISBN 978-1-4251-6680-9
- Ward, Scott, Servant Leadership Practice: 40 Days to Transform Your Leadership and Your Organization, BNID 2940012590022, ASIN B005KLY8SY *