Sagittal section of right knee-joint.
Sesamoid bones at the distal end of the first metatarsal bone of the foot.
|Anatomical terms of bone|
Sesamoid bones can be found on joints throughout the body, including:
- In the knee — the patella (within the quadriceps tendon).
- In the hand — two sesamoid bones are commonly found in the distal portions of the first metacarpal bone (within the tendons of adductor pollicis and flexor pollicis brevis). There is also commonly a sesamoid bone in distal portions of the second metacarpal bone.
- In the wrist - The pisiform of the wrist is a sesamoid bone (within the tendon of flexor carpi ulnaris).
- In the foot - the first metatarsal bone usually has two sesamoid bones at its connection to the big toe (both within the tendon of flexor hallucis brevis). In some people, only a single sesamoid is found on the first MTP.
- In the neck - The hyoid bone, found in the anterior neck which is responsible for muscle attachment, stability of the mandible, tongue and has uses is voice and sound production. Unlike other sesamoids, this bone is not found within the tendons of a muscle, but held between muscles (mainly the suprahyoids and infrahyoids).
- A common foot ailment in dancers is sesamoiditis.
- A bi-partite sesamoid bone is when the sesamoids are in 2 separate entities — usually congenital, but may be related to a history of trauma.
- Sesamoid bones have a very limited blood supply. They are very difficult to heal when not treated early and often lead to Avascular Necrosis which is bone death caused by lack of blood supply.
In equine anatomy, the term sesamoid bone usually refers to the two sesamoid bones found at the back of the fetlock or metacarpophalangeal/metatarsophalangeal joints in both hindlimbs and forelimbs. Strictly these should be termed the proximal sesamoid bones whereas the navicular bone should be referred to as the distal sesamoid bone. The patella is also a form of sesamoid bone in the horse.
In both the giant panda and the red panda, the radial sesamoid is larger than the same bone in counterparts such as bears. It is primarily a bony support for the pad above it, allowing the panda's other digits to grasp bamboo while eating it. The panda's thumb is often cited as a classical example of exaptation, where a trait evolved for one purpose is commandeered for another.
- OED 2nd edition, 1989 as /sεsəmɔɪd/.
- Entry "sesamoid" in Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary.
- Tim D. White, Human Osteology, 2nd edition (San Diego: Academic Press, 2000), 199, 205.
- White, Human Osteology, 2nd edition, 257-261.
- Arthro.com: The Panda's Thumb
- Evidence of a false thumb in a fossil carnivore clarifies the evolution of pandas PNAS December 30, 2005
- The Panda's Peculiar Thumb, Nature Magazine Vol. LXXXVII No. 9, Nov. 1978, by Stephen J. Gould
- Gray's Anatomy (1918) (Bartleby)