Setúbal (Portuguese pronunciation: [sɨˈtubaɫ] or [sɨˈtubɐɫ]) is the main city in Setúbal Municipality in Portugal with a total area of 172.0 km² and a total population of 118,696 inhabitants in the municipality. The city proper has 89,303 inhabitants.
City information 
The seat of the municipality is the city of Setúbal, located on the northern bank of the Sado River estuary, approximately 40 km south of Portugal's capital, Lisbon. It is also the seat of the Setúbal District.
In the beginning of the 20th century, Setúbal was the most important center of Portugal's fishing industry, particularly sardines. None of the many factories then created are operating today. However, the existing maritime ports, either traditional, commercial and the new marines, keep the city links to the ocean and water well alive and vibrant. Tourism, based on the beautiful existing natural conditions plus excellent hotels, resorts and infrastructures, is one of the city's most appreciated resources, due to its interconnection location with Sado (river) on one side and Atlantic Ocean on another, having a coast line with both. Also connected with the nearby coast of the Arrábida hills natural park - which offers an unspoiled nature and beautiful beaches to the Atlantic Ocean. A dolphin colony inhabits the Sado River. Across the river on the south bank lies the peninsula of Tróia, a place with vast white/golden sand beaches where several luxury hotels and resorts were recently built. The Tróia peninsula can be sighted from the city, across the river. Albarquel, Figueirinha, Galápos, Galapinhos and Portinho da Arrábida are some of the city's many beaches, located in the north bank of the estuary, at the very beginning of the Arrábida hills.
The main historical monument of the city of Setúbal is the Monastery of Jesus, with a 15th- and 16th-centuries church that represents one of the first buildings in the Portuguese late Gothic style known as Manueline.
Also of interest are the São Julião Church, also with Manueline portals. The Castelo de São Filipe, is a 16th- and 17th-centuries fortress on the north bank of the Sado river, overseeing the city. The fortress was converted into a luxury hotel (pousada).
Teatro Animação de Setúbal is based in Setúbal.
The city's main sports club is Vitória de Setúbal, established on November 20, 1910.
Notable residents and citizens 
- Diogo Fernandes Pereira, sometimes called simply Diogo Fernandes, was a 16th-century navigator. Diogo Fernandes was the first known European captain to visit the island of Socotra in 1503 and the discoverer of the Mascarenes archipelago ( Réunion, Mauritius, and Rodrigues) in 1507. He may also have been the first European to sail east of Madagascar island ('outer route' to the East Indies);
- Manuel Maria Barbosa du Bocage (1765–1805) : notable satirical and classical poet.
- Luisa Todi (1753–1833) : classical singer.
- José Mourinho : football manager.
- José Travassos Valdez, 1st Count of Bonfim (1787–1862) : soldier, politician, Prime Minister of Portugal
- José Vítor Moreira Semedo : footballer.
- Sabrina : represented Portugal at the Eurovision Song Contest 2007.
- Lima de Freitas (1927–1998) : Portuguese painter, illustrator, ceramicist and writer. He studied at the Escola Superior de Belas Artes de Lisboa. He illustrated over 100 books. Amongst his work on ceramic tiles, 14 Lisbon myths and legends tile panels are displayed at the Rossio Railway Station located at Rossio, Lisbon;
- Zeca Afonso (1929-1987) : singer and songwriter, lived and worked in the city in later life and died there.
- Mazgani : Luso-Iranian singer-songwriter.
- Sofia Vitória : singer.
- Luís Buchinho : fashion designer.
- Rui David : singer of Hands on Approach.
- Rogério Chora : Painter (a watercolor artist)
- Roy Campbell : poet, died nearby in a car accident.
International relations 
Twin towns — Sister cities 
Setúbal is twinned with:
- Leiria, Portugal, since May 1982
- Beauvais, France, since June 1982
- Pau, France, since September 1991
- Tordesillas, Spain, since September 1994
- Porto Seguro, Brazil, since March 2000
- Quelimane, Mozambique, since July 2000
- Debrecen, Hungary, since November 2000
- Safi, Morocco, since April 2001
Setúbal has international cooperation protocols with:
São Julião Church in central Setúbal.
Monastery of Jesus of Setúbal (15th and 16th centuries).
Main entrance to the Gothic-Manueline Monastery of Jesus of Setúbal.
- UMA POPULAÇÃO QUE SE URBANIZA, Uma avaliação recente – Cidades, 2004 Nuno Pires Soares, Instituto Geográfico Português (Geographic Institute of Portugal)
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