In mathematics, a set function is a function whose input is a set. The output is usually a number. Often the input is a set of real numbers, a set of points in Euclidean space, or a set of points in some measure space.
Examples of set functions include:
- The function that assigns to each set its cardinality, i.e. the number of members of the set, is a set function.
- The function
- The Lebesgue measure is a set function that assigns a non-negative real number to each set of real numbers. (Kolmogorov and Fomin 1975)
- A probability measure assigns a probability to each set in a σ-algebra. Specifically, the probability of the empty set is zero and the probability of the sample space is 1, with other sets given probabilities between 0 and 1.
- A possibility measure assigns a number between zero and one to each set in the powerset of some given set. See Possibility theory.
- A Random set is a set-valued random variable. See Random compact set.
- A.N. Kolmogorov and S.V. Fomin (1975), Introductory Real Analysis, Dover. ISBN 0-486-61226-0
- Sobolev, V.I. (2001), "Set function", in Hazewinkel, Michiel, Encyclopedia of Mathematics, Springer, ISBN 978-1-55608-010-4
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