Sevdalinka (pronounced [seʋdǎliːŋka]) is a traditional genre of folk music from Bosnia and Herzegovina. Sevdalinka is part of the Bosniak culture, but is also popular across the ex-Yugoslavia region, especially in Croatia, Macedonia, Montenegro and Serbia. The actual composers of many Sevdalinkas are unknown.
In musical sense, sevdalinka is characterized by a slow or moderate tempo and intense, emotional melodies. Sevdalinka songs are very elaborate, emotionally charged and are traditionally sung with passion and fervor. The combination of Oriental, European and Sephardic elements make this type of music stand out among other types of folk music from the Balkans. Like a lot of Balkan folk music, Sevdalinka features very sombre, minor sounding modes, but unlike other types of Balkan folklore it more intensely features minor second intervals, thus hinting to oriental Makams and Phrygian mode. As a result, the melodies are noted for leaving a strong melancholic feeling with the listener.
The singer will often impose the rhythm and tempo of the song, both of which can vary throughout the song. Traditionally, Sevdalinkas are women's songs, most addressing the issue of love and longing, unfulfilled and unfortunate love, some touch on a woman's physical desire for her loved one, and some have comic elements. Currently they are often performed by men as well. Traditionally, they were played without any instruments, hence the elaborate melody. As with most old folk styles, it is pure assumption what the sound of original melodies were like, as in modern day their interpretations are fully aligned to western chromatic system due to instruments used for accompaniment (whereas old oriental modes often use steps smaller than a semitone). Modern interpretations are followed by a small orchestra containing accordion (the most prominent), violin, nylon-string guitars and/or other string instruments occasionally (such as oud, saz or šargija), flute or clarinet (occasionally), upright bass, snare drum. In modern interpretations, between the verses, an accordion or violin solo can almost always be heard.
Origins and history
The origins of sevdalinka are not known for certain, though it is known to date from sometime after the arrival of the Ottomans in medieval Balkans, but melodies and the venerable "Aman, aman" lyrical figure hint at strong Sephardic and Andalusian influence which can be explained by arrival of Sephardic refugees in Ottoman Bosnia. The word itself comes from the Turkish sevda which derives from the Arabic word sawda (meaning black bile, from the root s-w-d, "black"), which in earlier times was used by doctors to denote one of the four humors purported to control human feelings and emotions. In Ottoman Turkish sevda doesn't simply mean black bile; it also refers to a state of being in love, and more specifically to the intense and forlorn longing associated with lovesickness and unrequited love. This is connected with the related Persian word (سودازده) meaning both "melancholic" and "enamored". It was these associations that came with the word when it was brought to Bosnia by the Ottomans. Today it is a richly evocative Bosnian word, meaning pining or a longing (for a loved one, a place, a time) that is both joyous and painful, being the main theme of sevdalinka lyrics. Thus the people of Bosnia employ the words "sevdalinka" and "sevdah" interchangeably as the name of this music, although the word sevdah can also be used in other meanings. Saudade, the central term in Portuguese Fado, is of the same origin, likewise emerging from the Arabic language medical discourse used for centuries in both Al-Andalus and the Ottoman empire. N.B., the term melancholy is of similar origin, stemming from original Greek medical term for black bile - melan kholé.
The first historically mentioned sevdalinka is considered to be "Bolest Muje carevića" (The Illness of Mujo Carević), which is believed to have been written around the year 1475. Another early written document that notes sevdalinka was from the year 1574 when an Italian man was passing through the Bosnian city of Visoko and heard what he described as "sad songs sung by the locals" that made him feel melancholic. In the early 16th century, a Duke from Split mentioned a song about the forbidden love of a Christian girl named Mara Vornić and Muslim boy named Fadil or Adel/Adil (accounts vary).
In the early 19th century, Bosniak poetess Umihana Čuvidina contributed greatly to sevdalinka with her poems about her lost love, which she sang.
A couple significant singers of sevdalinka in the 1920s, 1930s and 1940s were Rešad Bešlagić and Vuka Šeherović. Near the end of World War II, Radio Sarajevo was founded and signed some of the most prominent sevdalije (sevdalinka performers) among them were Zaim Imamović in 1945, Himzo Polovina in 1953, Beba Selimović in 1954, Safet Isović in 1955 and Zehra Deović in 1960. Nada Mamula was signed to Radio Beograd in 1946. Others like Silvana Armenulić, Emina Zečaj, Hanka Paldum and Meho Puzić were signed to record production companies Jugoton, Diskoton or other Yugoslav labels.
Although sang mainly by traditional Bosniak singers, sevdalinka made its way to many "mainstream" musicians. Sevdalinkas were covered by Josipa Lisac, Željko Bebek, Ibrica Jusić, Jadranka Stojaković, Toše Proeski, and Zdravko Čolić.
In 1990s a band Mostar Sevdah Reunion was assembled in Mostar and in early 2000s they became widely popular on world music scene receiving high awards for their lively interpretations of sevdalinkas (that fuse sevdalinka with contemporary musical styles like jazz, rock and funk) and introducing many people outside Bosnia to the genre of sevdalinka. Equally popular today is Amira Medunjanin, who music journalist and author Garth Wainwright dubbed "Bosnia's Billy Holiday."
- Some famous sevdalinka songs
- Ah što ćemo ljubav kriti (Why Should We Hide Our Love)
- Da sam ptica (If I Were a Bird)
- Grana od bora, pala kraj mora (A Branch of Pine, Fell by the Sea)
- Karanfile cvijeće moje (Carnation, My Flower)
- Kraj potoka bistre vode (By a Stream of Crystal Clear Water)
- Omer-beže na kuli sjeđaše (Bey Omer Sits on the Tower)
- Razbolje se lijepa Hajrija (Beautiful Hajrija Became Ill)
- Razbolje se Sultan Sulejman (The Sultan Suleiman Became Ill)
- Sejdefu majka buđaše (Sejdefa's Mother Wakes Her)
- Snijeg pade na behar na voće (Snow Fell on the Blossom, on the Fruit)
- Što te nema (Why Aren't You Here)
- Sve behara i sve cvjeta (Everything Blossoms and Everything Blooms)
- Tekla rijeka potokom i jazom (The River Flowed Through the Stream and Divide)
- Teško meni jadnoj u Saraj'vu samoj (It's Difficult for Me, a Poor Girl Alone in Sarajevo)
- U Stambolu Na Bosforu (In Istanbul on the Bosphorous)
- Zapjevala sojka ptica (The Blue Jay Bird Sang)
- Zaplakala šećer Đula (The Sweet Rose Wept)
- Zaplakala stara majka (The Elderly Mother Wept)
- Zmaj od Bosne (Dragon of Bosnia)
- Zvijezda tjera mjeseca (The Star Chases the Moon)
- Other Bosnian folk songs often mentioned as sevdalinkas
- Crven fesić (Little Red Fez)
- Čudna jada od Mostara grada (Strange Wretch from the Town of Mostar)
- Djevojka sokolu zulum učinila (The Girl Perpetrated Cruelty on the Falcon)
- Došla voda od brijega do brijega (The Water Came from Hill to Hill)
- Karanfil se na put sprema (Karanfil Prepares for a Journey)
- Ko se ono brijegom šeće? (Who Is Walking on the Hill?)
- Lijepi li su Mostarski dućani (Mostar's Shops Are Beautiful)
- Mila majko, šalji me na vodu (Dear Mother, Send Me to the Water)
- Moj dilbere (My Darling)
- Mujo kuje konja po mjesecu (Mujo Shoes the Horse in the Moonlight)
- Sinoć ja i moja kona (Last Night, My Neighbor and I)
- Tamburalo momče uz tamburu (The Boy Played the Tamburica)
- U lijepom starom gradu Višegradu (In the Beautiful Old Town of Višegrad)
- Vino piju Age Sarajlije (The Aghas of Sarajevo Drink Wine)
- Kad ja pođoh
- Ne klepeći nanulama
- U Stambolu na Bosforu
- Žute dunje
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