Severo-Kurilsk

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Severo-Kurilsk (English)
Северо-Курильск (Russian)
-  Town[1]  -
214 1426 Sev Kur main street wiki.jpg
Main street of Severo-Kurilsk
Map of Russia - Sakhalin Oblast (2008-03).svg
Location of Sakhalin Oblast in Russia
Severo-Kurilsk is located in Sakhalin Oblast
Severo-Kurilsk
Severo-Kurilsk
Location of Severo-Kurilsk in Sakhalin Oblast
Coordinates: 50°41′N 156°07′E / 50.683°N 156.117°E / 50.683; 156.117Coordinates: 50°41′N 156°07′E / 50.683°N 156.117°E / 50.683; 156.117
Coat of Arms of Severo-Kurilsk rayon (Sakhalin oblast).png
Flag of Severo-Kurilsk (Sakhalin oblast).png
Coat of arms
Flag
Administrative status (as of December 2011)
Country Russia
Federal subject Sakhalin Oblast[1]
Administrative district Severo-Kurilsky District[1]
Administrative center of Severo-Kurilsky District[1]
Municipal status (as of July 2012)
Urban okrug Severo-Kurilsky Urban Okrug[2]
Administrative center of Severo-Kurilsky Urban Okrug[2]
Statistics
Population (2010 Census) 2,536 inhabitants[3]
Time zone MAGT (UTC+12:00)[4]
Postal code(s)[5] 694550
Dialing code(s) +7 42453[citation needed]
Severo-Kurilsk on WikiCommons

Severo-Kurilsk (Russian: Се́веро-Кури́льск; Japanese: 柏原, Kashiwabara) is a town and the administrative center of Severo-Kurilsky District of Sakhalin Oblast, Russia, located in the northern part of the Kuril Islands, on the island of Paramushir. Population: 2,536 (2010 Census);[3] 2,592 (2002 Census);[6] 5,180 (1989 Census).[7]

History[edit]

The Ainu are the original inhabitants of Paramushir, which came under the control of the Russian Empire in the mid-18th century. Russian sovereignty was initially confirmed under the terms of the Treaty of Shimoda in 1855, but the island was transferred to the Empire of Japan per the Treaty of Saint Petersburg in 1875. The Japanese established a settlement, Kashiwabara, on the site of the largest Ainu village, which became the major port on the island, and a center for the commercial fishing industry, particularly for herring. The village was named for the captain of the survey vessel Iwaki, which charted the coasts of the island in 1875. The village had the northernmost post office in Japan. During World War II Kashiwabara was strongly garrisoned by the Imperial Japanese Army and served as the headquarters of the IJA 91st Infantry Division. Kashiwabara Airfield was established in the outskirts of the village, and numerous fortifications and gun emplacements were built. The area was subject to sporadic air raids from the US Army Air Force and US Navy based in the Aleutian Islands from 1943 until the end of the war.

During the Invasion of the Kuril Islands, Soviet landed on Paramushir on August 18, 1945, and combat operations continued through August 23, ending with the surrender of the surviving members of the Japanese garrison. The Soviets forcibly deported the remaining Japanese civilian inhabitants and sent the prisoners of war to labor camps. Kashiwabara was renamed Severo-Kurilsk (Northern Kuril Town) and the island annexed by the Soviet Union in 1946.

On November 5, 1952 the town was completely destroyed by the 1952 Severo-Kurilsk tsunami, with at least 2,336 of the town's 6,000 inhabitants killed. Severo-Kurilsk was rebuilt on higher ground, and the population soon rose above its original level, however in the years since the dissolution of the Soviet Union and the associated economic crisis of the 1990s, the town's population has again sunk.

The surrounding area has some remaining Japanese fortifications visible.

Administrative and municipal status[edit]

Within the framework of administrative divisions, Severo-Kurilsk serves as the administrative center of Severo-Kurilsky District and is subordinated to it.[1] As a municipal division, the town of Severo-Kurilsk and one rural locality of Severo-Kurilsky District are incorporated as Severo-Kurilsky Urban Okrug.[2]

Economy[edit]

Commercial fishing is virtually the only industry in the town.

Climate[edit]

Climate data for Severo-Kurilsk
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 5.2
(41.4)
6.0
(42.8)
7.4
(45.3)
13.2
(55.8)
19.0
(66.2)
24.3
(75.7)
26.4
(79.5)
25.1
(77.2)
22.9
(73.2)
16.9
(62.4)
12.2
(54)
7.0
(44.6)
26.4
(79.5)
Average high °C (°F) −2.2
(28)
−2.8
(27)
−1.1
(30)
1.8
(35.2)
5.4
(41.7)
10.5
(50.9)
13.2
(55.8)
14.8
(58.6)
13.2
(55.8)
8.7
(47.7)
3.1
(37.6)
−0.5
(31.1)
5.3
(41.5)
Daily mean °C (°F) −4.1
(24.6)
−4.9
(23.2)
−3.3
(26.1)
−0.4
(31.3)
2.7
(36.9)
6.8
(44.2)
9.8
(49.6)
11.5
(52.7)
10.2
(50.4)
6.1
(43)
1.0
(33.8)
−2.3
(27.9)
2.8
(37)
Average low °C (°F) −6.2
(20.8)
−7
(19)
−5.5
(22.1)
−2.3
(27.9)
0.5
(32.9)
3.9
(39)
7.1
(44.8)
8.7
(47.7)
7.3
(45.1)
3.4
(38.1)
−1.2
(29.8)
−4.5
(23.9)
0.4
(32.7)
Record low °C (°F) −21
(−6)
−18.9
(−2)
−17.6
(0.3)
−11
(12)
−7
(19)
−1.9
(28.6)
1.0
(33.8)
2.0
(35.6)
−1
(30)
−4
(25)
−12.2
(10)
−12.8
(9)
−21
(−6)
Precipitation mm (inches) 134
(5.28)
117
(4.61)
128
(5.04)
112
(4.41)
111
(4.37)
107
(4.21)
144
(5.67)
162
(6.38)
166
(6.54)
247
(9.72)
230
(9.06)
184
(7.24)
1,842
(72.52)
Avg. rainy days 1 0.3 1 6 15 16 17 19 21 24 12 4 136.3
Avg. snowy days 30 29 29 23 11 0.5 0.2 0 0.1 6 24 30 182.8
 % humidity 75 77 77 79 82 85 89 87 80 76 74 74 79
Source: Pogoda.ru.net[8]

Sister city[edit]

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e Law #25-ZO
  2. ^ a b c Law #524
  3. ^ a b Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved June 29, 2012. 
  4. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Постановление №725 от 31 августа 2011 г. «О составе территорий, образующих каждую часовую зону, и порядке исчисления времени в часовых зонах, а также о признании утратившими силу отдельных Постановлений Правительства Российской Федерации». Вступил в силу по истечении 7 дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Российская Газета", №197, 6 сентября 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Resolution #725 of August 31, 2011 On the Composition of the Territories Included into Each Time Zone and on the Procedures of Timekeeping in the Time Zones, as Well as on Abrogation of Several Resolutions of the Government of the Russian Federation. Effective as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication.).
  5. ^ Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (Russian)
  6. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian). Retrieved August 9, 2014. 
  7. ^ Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года[All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. Retrieved August 9, 2014. 
  8. ^ "Pogoda.ru.net" (in Russian). Retrieved September 8, 2007. 
  9. ^ Sister relations with Hokkaido

Sources[edit]

  • Сахалинская областная Дума. Закон №25-ЗО от 23 марта 2011 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Сахалинской области», в ред. Закона №62-ЗО от 27 июня 2013 г. «О внесении изменения в статью 10 Закона Сахалинской области "Об административно-территориальном устройстве Сахалинской области"». Вступил в силу 9 апреля 2011 г.. Опубликован: "Губернские ведомости", №55(3742), 29 марта 2011 г. (Sakhalin Oblast Duma. Law #25-ZO of March 23, 2011 On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Sakhalin Oblast, as amended by the Law #62-ZO of June 27, 2013 On Amending Article 10 of the Law of Sakhalin Oblast "On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Sakhalin Oblast". Effective as of April 9, 2011.).
  • Сахалинская областная Дума. Закон №524 от 21 июля 2004 г. «О границах и статусе муниципальных образований в Сахалинской области», в ред. Закона №45-ЗО от 27 мая 2013 г. «О внесении изменения в Закон Сахалинской области "О границах и статусе муниципальных образований в Сахалинской области"». Вступил в силу 1 января 2005 г. Опубликован: "Губернские ведомости", №175–176(2111–2112), 31 июля 2004 г. (Sakhalin Oblast Duma. Law #524 of July 21, 2004 On the Borders and Status of the Municipal Formations in Sakhalin Oblast, as amended by the Law #45-ZO of May 27, 2013 On Amending the Law of Sakhalin Oblast "On the Borders and Status of the Municipal Formations in Sakhalin Oblast". Effective as of January 1, 2005.).

Further reading[edit]

  • Krasheninnikov, Stepan Petrovich, and James Greive. The History of Kamtschatka and the Kurilski Islands, with the Countries Adjacent. Chicago: Quadrangle Books, 1963.
  • Rees, David. The Soviet Seizure of the Kuriles. New York: Praeger, 1985. ISBN 0-03-002552-4

External links[edit]