Severus ibn al-Muqaffaʿ (in Arabic ساويرس بن المقفع) or Severus of El Ashmunein (in Arabic ساويرس الأشمونين) (died 987) was a Coptic Orthodox Bishop, author and historian. In Arabic, his name is spelled Sawires ساويرس. Severus is sometimes confused with Abdullah Ibn al-Muqaffa.
He was bishop of Hermopolis Magna (Ashmunein), in Upper Egypt, around the end of the tenth century. In this period, Egypt was ruled by the Fatimid dynasty, an Isma'iliShi'ite family, which had taken Egypt from the Abbasids in 969 CE. Fatimid rule slowly but surely changed Coptic Christian culture, especially in the realm of language. Complaining that the Coptic Orthodox Christians of Egypt no longer knew the Coptic language (related to late Egyptian), Severus composed a theological text in Arabic—the first Coptic text written in that language.
^; known as Severus of Al-Ushmunain, Severus, Bishop of Al-Ushmunain, Severus of Al'Ashmunein, Severus of Ashmunein, Severus of El-Eschmounein, Severus Ben al-Moqaffa, Severus Aschmoniensis, Sawires Ibn Al-Muqafah, Sawiris etc.
^Petry, Carl (1998). The Cambridge History of Egypt. p. 170.More than one of |author= and |last= specified (help)
^One scholar, Johannes den Heijer, contests its attribution to Severus ibn al-Mukaffa. Johannes den Heijer, Coptic historiography in the Fatimid, Ayyubid and early Mamluk Periods, Medieval Encounters 2 (1996), pp. 67–98.