|Motto: NO8DO (It [Seville] has not abandoned me)|
|• Body||Ayuntamiento de Sevilla|
|• Mayor||Juan Ignacio Zoido Álvarez (PP)|
|• City||140 km2 (50 sq mi)|
|Elevation||7 m (23 ft)|
|Population (2011) (INE)|
|• Density||5,002.93/km2 (12,957.5/sq mi)|
sevillano (m), sevillana (f)
|Time zone||CET (UTC+1)|
|• Summer (DST)||CEST (UTC+2)|
Seville (//, Spanish: Sevilla [seˈβiʎa] ( listen), locally: [seˈβiʝa]) is the capital and largest city of the autonomous community of Andalusia and the province of Seville, Spain. It is situated on the plain of the River Guadalquivir. The inhabitants of the city are known as sevillanos (feminine form: sevillanas) or hispalenses, after the Roman name of the city, Hispalis. Seville has a municipal population of about 703,000 as of 2011, and a metropolitan population of about 1.5 million, making it the fourth-largest city in Spain and the 30th most populous municipality in the European Union. Its Old Town, the third largest in Europe with an area of 4 square kilometres (2 sq mi), contains three UNESCO World Heritage Sites: the Alcázar palace complex, the Cathedral and the General Archive of the Indies. The Seville harbour, located about 80 kilometres (50 miles) from the Atlantic Ocean, is the only river port in Spain. Seville is also the hottest major metropolitan area in Europe, with summer average high temperatures of above 35 °C.
Seville was founded as the Roman city of Hispalis, and was known as Ishbiliya (Arabic:إشبيلية) after the Muslim conquest in 712. During the Muslim rule in Spain, Seville came under the jurisdiction of the Caliphate of Córdoba before becoming the independent Taifa of Seville; later it was ruled by the Muslim Almoravids and the Almohads until finally being incorporated into the Christian Kingdom of Castile under Ferdinand III in 1248. After the discovery of the Americas, Seville became one of the economic centres of the Spanish Empire as its port monopolised the trans-oceanic trade and the Casa de Contratación (House of Trade) wielded its power, opening a Golden Age of arts and literature. In 1519, Ferdinand Magellan departed from Seville for the first circumnavigation of the Earth. Coinciding with the Baroque period of European history, the 17th century in Seville represented the most brilliant flowering of the city's culture; then began a gradual economic and demographic decline as silting in the Guadalquivir forced the trade monopoly to relocate to the nearby port of Cádiz.
The 20th century in Seville saw the horrors of the Spanish Civil War, decisive cultural milestones such as the Ibero-American Exposition of 1929 and Expo '92, and the city's election as the capital of the Autonomous Community of Andalusia.
- 1 Name
- 2 History
- 3 Geography
- 4 Government
- 5 Main sights
- 6 Culture
- 7 Economy
- 8 Transportation
- 9 Education
- 10 Famous natives
- 11 Sport
- 12 In fiction
- 13 Gallery
- 14 Twin towns and sister cities
- 15 Titles
- 16 See also
- 17 References
- 18 External links
Spal is the oldest known name for Seville. It appears to have originated during the Phoenician colonisation of the Tartessian culture in south-western Iberia and, according to Manuel Pellicer Catalán, meant "lowland" in the Phoenician language (similar to the Hebrew Shfela). During Roman rule, the name was Latinised as Hispalis. After the Moorish invasion, this name was adapted into Arabic as Ishbiliyya (Arabic أشبيليّة, from Greek Σεβίλλη, Sebílle); since "p" does not exist in Arabic, it was replaced by "b", the Latin place-name suffix -is was substituted for its direct Arabic equivalent -iyya, and stressed "a" /æ/ turned into "i" /i/, due to the phonetic phenomenon called imela.
"NO8DO" is the official motto of Seville. It is popularly believed to be a rebus signifying the Spanish "No me ha dejado", meaning "It [Seville] has not abandoned me", with the eight in the middle representing a madeja, or skein of wool. Legend states that the title was given by King Alfonso X, who was resident in the city's Alcazar and supported by the citizens when his son, later Sancho IV of Castille, tried to usurp him from the throne. The emblem is present on the municipal flag and features on city property such as manhole covers, and Christopher Columbus's tomb in the Cathedral.
Seville is approximately 2,200 years old. The passage of the various civilisations instrumental in its growth has left the city with a distinct personality, and a large and well-preserved historical centre.
The mythological founder of the city is Hercules (Heracles), commonly identified with the Phoenician god Melqart, who the myth says sailed through the Strait of Gibraltar to the Atlantic, and founded trading posts at the current sites of Cádiz and of Seville.
Existing Roman features in Seville include the remnants of an aqueduct, a temple in Mármoles Street, the columns of La Alameda de Hércules, the remains exposed in situ in the underground Antiquarium of the Metropol Parasol building and the remains in the Patio de Banderas square near of the Seville Cathedral. The walls surrounding the city were originally built during the rule of Julius Caesar, but their current course and design were the result of Moorish reconstructions.
Seville was taken by the Moors, Muslims from North of Africa, during the conquest of Hispalis in 712. It was the capital for the kings of the Umayyad Caliphate, the Almoravid dynasty first and after the Almohad dynasty (from Arabic الموحدون al-Muwahhidun, i.e., "the monotheists" or "the Unitarians"), from the 8th to 13th centuries.
The Moorish urban influences continued and are present in contemporary Seville, for instance in the custom of decorating with herbaje and small fountains the courtyards of the houses. However, most buildings of the Moorish aesthetic actually belong to the Mudéjar style of Islamic art, developed under Christian rule and inspired by the Arabic style. Original Moorish buildings are the Patio del Yeso in the Alcázar, the city walls, and the main section of the Giralda, bell tower of the Seville Cathedral.
In 1247, the Christian King Ferdinand III of Castile and Leon began the conquest of Andalusia. After conquering Jaén and Córdoba, he seized the villages surrounding the city, Carmona Lora del Rio and Alcalá del Rio, and kept a standing army in the vicinity, the siege lasting for fifteen months. The decisive action took place in May 1248 when Ramon Bonifaz sailed up the Guadalquivir and severed the Triana bridge that made the provisioning of the city from the farms of the Aljarafe possible. The city surrendered on 23 November 1248.
The city's development continued after the Castilian conquest in 1248. Public buildings constructed including churches, many of which were built in the Mudéjar style, and the Seville Cathedral, built during the 15th century with Gothic architecture. The Moors' Palace became the Castilian royal residence, and during Pedro I's rule it was replaced by the Alcázar (the upper levels are still used by the Royal Family as the official Seville residence).
In 1391, Archdeacon Ferrant Martinez closed all the synagogues in Seville, converting them to churches, as in the case of Santa María la Blanca, and also appropriated the Jewish quarter's land and shops (sited in modern-day 'Barrio Santa Cruz'). Thousands were killed during the pogrom, while others were forced to convert. The Plaza de San Francisco was the site of the 'autos de fé'. At first, the activity of the Inquisition was limited to the dioceses of Seville and Cordoba, where Alonso de Hojeda had detected converso activity. The first Auto de Fé took place in Seville on 6 February 1481, when six people were burned alive. Alonso de Hojeda himself gave the sermon. The Inquisition then grew rapidly. By 1492, tribunals existed in eight Castilian cities: Ávila, Córdoba, Jaén, Medina del Campo, Segovia, Sigüenza, Toledo and Valladolid; and by the Alhambra decree all Jews were forced to convert to Catholicism or ejected from Spain.
The Golden Age
Following the 1492 Christopher Columbus expedition to the New World (from the port of Palos de la Frontera), the results from his claiming territory and trade for the Crown of Castile (incipient Spain) in the West Indies began to profit the city, as all goods imported from the New World had to pass through the Casa de Contratacion before being distributed throughout the rest of Spain. A 'golden age of development' commenced in Seville, due to its being the only port awarded the royal monopoly for trade with the growing Spanish colonies in the Americas and the influx of riches from them. Since only sailing ships leaving from and returning to the inland port of Seville could engage in trade with the Spanish Americas, merchants from Europe and other trade centres needed to go to Seville to acquire New World trade goods. The city's population grew to nearly a million people.
In the late 16th century the monopoly was broken, with the port of Cádiz also authorised as a port of trade. The Great Plague of Seville in 1649 reduced the population by almost half, and it would not recover until the early 19th century. By the 18th century its international importance was in decline. After the silting up of the harbour by the Guadalquivir (river), upriver shipping ceased and the city went into relative economic decline.
The writer Miguel de Cervantes lived primarily in Seville between 1596 and 1600. Because of financial problems, Cervantes worked as a purveyor for the Spanish Armada, and later as a tax collector. In 1597, discrepancies in his accounts of the three years previous landed him in the Royal Prison of Seville for a short time. Rinconete y Cortadillo, a popular comedy among his works, features two young vagabonds who come to Seville, attracted by the riches and disorder that the 16th-century commerce with the Americas had brought to that metropolis.
During the 18th century Charles III of Spain promoted Seville's industries. Construction of the Real Fábrica de Tabacos (Royal Tobacco Factory) began in 1728, with additions to it over the next 30 years. It was the second largest building in Spain, after the royal residence El Escorial. Since the 1950s it has been the seat of the rectorate of the University of Seville, together with the Schools of Law, Philology, Geography and History.
Many operas have been set in the city, including those by such composers as Beethoven (Fidelio), Mozart (The Marriage of Figaro and Don Giovanni), Rossini (The Barber of Seville) and Bizet "(Carmen)".
Seville became the dean of the Spanish provincial press in 1758 with the publication of its first newspaper, the Hebdomario útil de Seville, the first to be printed in Spain outside Madrid.
19th and 20th centuries
Between 1825 and 1833, Melchor Cano acted as chief architect in Seville; most of the urban planning policy and architectural modifications of the city were made by him and his collaborator Jose Manuel Arjona y Cuba.
Industrial architecture surviving today from the first half of the 19th century includes the ceramics factory installed in the Carthusian monastery at La Cartuja in 1841 by the Pickman family, and now home to the El Centro Andaluz de Arte Contemporáneo (CAAC), which manages the collections of the Museo de Arte Contemporáneo de Sevilla. It also houses the rectory of the UNIA.
In the years that Queen Isabel II ruled directly, about 1843–1868, the Sevillian bourgeoisie invested in a construction boom unmatched in the city's history. The Isabel II bridge, better known as the Triana bridge, dates from this period; street lighting was expanded in the municipality and most of the streets were paved during this time as well.
By the second half of the 19th century Seville began an expansion supported by railway construction and the demolition of part of its ancient walls, allowing the urban space of the city to grow eastward and southward. The Sevillana de Electricidad Company was created in 1894 to provide electric power throughout the municipality, and in 1901 the Plaza de Armas railway station was inaugurated. The Museum of Fine Arts (Museo de Bellas Artes de Sevilla) opened in 1904.
In 1929 the city hosted the Ibero-American Exposition, which accelerated the southern expansion of the city and created new public spaces such as the Plaza de España and the Maria Luisa Park. Not long before the opening, the Spanish government began a modernisation of the city in order to prepare for the expected crowds by erecting new hotels and widening the mediaeval streets to allow for the movement of automobiles.
Seville fell very quickly at the beginning of the Spanish Civil War in 1936. General Queipo de Llano carried out a coup within the city, quickly capturing the city centre. Radio Seville opposed the uprising and called for the peasants to come to the city for arms, while workers' groups established barricades. De Llano then moved to capture Radio Seville, which he used to broadcast propaganda on behalf of the Franquist forces. After the initial takeover of the city, resistance continued among residents of the working-class neighbourhoods for some time, until a series of fierce reprisals took place.
Under Francisco Franco's rule Spain was officially neutral in World War II, and like the rest of the country, Seville remained largely economically and culturally isolated from the outside world. In 1953 the shipyard of Seville was opened, eventually employing more than 2,000 workers in the 1970s. Before the existence of wetlands regulation in the Guadalquivir basin, Seville suffered regular heavy flooding; perhaps worst of all were the floods that occurred in November 1961 when the river Tamarguillo overflowed as a result of a prodigious downpour of rain, and Seville was consequently declared a disaster zone.
Trade unionism in Seville began during the 1960s with the underground organisational activities of the Workers' Commissions or Comisiones Obreras (CCOO), in factories such as Hytasa, the Astilleros shipyards, Hispano Aviación, etc. Several of the movement's leaders were imprisoned in November 1973. On 3 April 1979 Spain held its first democratic municipal elections after the end of Franco's dictatorship; councillors representing four different political parties were elected in Seville. On 5 November 1982, Pope John Paul II arrived in Seville to officiate at a Mass before more than half a million people at the fairgrounds. He visited the city again 13 June 1993, for the International Eucharistic Congress.
In 1992, coinciding with the fifth centenary of the Discovery of the Americas, the Universal Exposition was held for six months in Seville, on the occasion of which the local communications network infrastructure was greatly improved: the SE-30 ring road around the city was completed and new highways were constructed; the new Santa Justa train station had opened in 1991, while the Spanish High Speed Rail system, the Alta Velocidad Española (AVE), began to operate between Madrid-Seville. The Seville Airport, (Aeropuerto de Sevilla), was expanded with a new terminal building designed by the architect Rafael Moneo, and various other improvements were made. The monumental Puente del Alamillo (Alamillo Bridge) over the Guadalquivir, designed by the architect Santiago Calatrava, was built to allow access to the island of La Cartuja, site of the massive exposition. Some of the installations remaining at the site after the exposition were converted into the Scientific and Technological Park Cartuja 93.
In 2004 the Metropol Parasol project was launched to revitalise the Plaza de la Encarnación, for years used as a car park and seen as a dead spot between more popular tourist destinations in the city. The Metropol Parasol was completed in March, 2011.
Seville has an area of 140 km2 (54 sq mi), according to the National Topographic Map (Mapa Topográfico Nacional) series from the Instituto Geográfico Nacional – Centro Nacional de Información Geográfica, the country's civilian survey organisation (pages 984, 985 and 1002). The city is situated in the fertile valley of the Guadalquivir River. The average height above sea level is 7 metres (23 feet). Most of the city is on the east side of the river, while Triana, La Cartuja and Los Remedios are on the west side. The Aljarafe region lies further west, and is considered part of the metropolitan area. The city has boundaries on the north with La Rinconada, La Algaba and Santiponce; on the east with Alcalá de Guadaira; on the south with Dos Hermanas and Gelves and on the west with San Juan de Aznalfarache, Tomares and Camas.
Seville is on the same parallel as United States west coast city San Francisco and the surrounding Bay Area. In addition to that São Miguel, the main island of the Azores archipelago lies on the same latitude. Further east from Seville in the Mediterranean Basin, it is on the same latitude as Catania of Sicily, Italy and just south of Athens, the capital of Greece. Even further east, it is located on the same parallel as South Korean capital of Seoul. Seville is located not many miles inland from the Andalusian coast, but still sees a much more continental climate than the nearest port cities Cádiz and Huelva for example - although it is way too mild in winter to be described as a 'proper' continental area. It is at a relative distance from the three larger cities in the country, as well as Lisbon in Portugal, making it by far the largest city in the south of the Iberian peninsula.
Seville has a subtropical Mediterranean climate (Köppen climate classification Csa). Like most Mediterranean climates, Seville has a drier summer and wet winter. The annual average temperature is 25 °C (77 °F) during the day and 13 °C (55 °F) at night.
After the city of Córdoba (also in Andalusia), Seville has the hottest summer in continental Europe among all cities with a population over 100,000 people, with average daily highs in July of 36.0 °C (97 °F). Average minimum temperatures in July are 20.3 °C (69 °F) and every year the temperature exceeds 40 °C (104 °F) on several occasions. The coldest temperature extreme of −5.5 °C (22 °F) was registered by the weather station at Seville Airport on 12 February 1956. A historical record high (disputed) of 50.0 °C (122 °F) was recorded on 4 August 1881, according to the NOAA Satellite and Information Service. There is a non-accredited record by the National Institute of Meteorology of 47.2 °C (117 °F) on 1 August during the 2003 heat wave, according to a weather station (83910 LEZL) located in the southern part of Seville Airport, near the abandoned military zone. This temperature would be one of the highest ever recorded in Spain and Europe after the European record of 48.0 °C (118 °F) recorded in Athens on 10 July 1977 and the 47.4 °C (117.4 °F) of Amareleja, Portugal on 1 August 2003.
- Winters are mild: January is the coolest month, with average maximum temperatures of 16.0 °C (61 °F) and minimum of 5.7 °C (42 °F).
- Precipitation varies from 400 to 800 mm (15.7 to 31.5 in) per year, concentrated in the period October to April. December is the wettest month, with an average rainfall of 99 millimetres (3.9 in). On average there are 66 days of rain.
|Climate data for Seville (1981-2010)|
|Record high °C (°F)||24.2
|Average high °C (°F)||16.0
|Daily mean °C (°F)||10.9
|Average low °C (°F)||5.7
|Record low °C (°F)||−4.4
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||66
|Avg. precipitation days (≥ 1 mm)||6.1||5.8||4.3||6.1||3.7||1.3||0.2||0.5||2.4||6.1||6.4||7.5||50.5|
|Average relative humidity (%)||71||67||59||57||53||48||44||48||54||62||70||74||59|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||183||189||220||238||293||317||354||328||244||217||181||154||2,918|
|Source: World Meteorological Organization Agencia Estatal de Meteorología|
Seville is the capital of the autonomous community of Andalusia. The historical edifice of the Palace of San Telmo is now the seat of the presidency of the Andalusian Autonomous Government. The administrative headquarters are in Torre Triana, in La Cartuja. The Hospital de las Cinco Llagas (literally, "Hospital of the Five Holy Wounds") is the current seat of the Parliament of Andalusia. Since 2012 the government of the autonomous community has been a coalition between the leftist Spanish Socialist Workers' Party or Partido Socialista Obrero Español (PSOE) and the United Left, or Izquierda Unida (IU); its president is Jose Antonio Griñán Martínez. Elections to the autonomous community are held every four years.
The Common Council of Seville has 33 councillors and a mayor, with elections every four years. Since 2011, the government of the city has been by the conservative People's Party or Partido Popular (PP), and Juan Ignacio Zoido Álvarez has been mayor. The City Hall is on the Plaza Nueva, in the El Arenal neighbourhood. The administration of the City is decentralized into 11 districts.
Districts and neighbourhoods
Seville has 11 districts, further divided into 108 neighbourhoods.
The Cathedral of St. Mary was built from 1401–1519 after the Reconquista on the former site of the city's mosque. It is among the largest of all medieval and Gothic cathedrals, in terms of both area and volume. The interior is the longest nave in Spain, and is lavishly decorated, with a large quantity of gold evident. La Giralda is a tower attached to the Cathedral that dates back to the twelfth century. It was originally built as part of a mosque when the Moors ruled in Spain and was later added onto by the Christians. Tourists today can climb the tower by walking up a series of ramps that were previously used by officials who rode their horses to the top of the tower. La Giralda gets its name from the weathervane attached to the very top of it, as "gira" means "turning one" in the Spanish language.
The Alcázar facing the cathedral was developed from a previous Moorish Palace. Construction was started in 1181 and continued for over 500 years, mainly in the Mudéjar style, but also in the Renaissance style.
The Palace of San Telmo, formerly the University of Sailors, and later the Seminary, is now the seat for the Andalusian Autonomous Government. It is one of the most emblematic buildings of baroque architecture, mainly to its world-renowned churrigueresque principal façade and the impressive chapel.
The Metropol Parasol, in La Encarnación square, is the world's largest wooden structure. A monumental umbrella-like building designed by the German architect Jürgen Mayer, finished in 2011. This modern architecture structure houses the central market and an underground archaeological complex. The terrace roof is a city viewpoint.
The General Archive of the Indies, is the repository of extremely valuable archival documents illustrating the history of the Spanish Empire in the Americas and the Philippines. The building itself, an unusually serene and Italianate example of Spanish Renaissance architecture, was designed by Juan de Herrera.
The Plaza de España, in Maria Luisa Park (Parque de Maria Luisa), was built by the architect Aníbal González for the 1929 Exposición Ibero-Americana. It is an outstanding example of Regionalist Revival Architecture, a bizarre and loftily conceived mixture of diverse historic styles, such as Art Deco and lavishly ornamented with typical glazed tiles.
On the other hand, La Macarena neighbourhood is located on the northern side of the city centre. It contains some important monuments and religious buildings, such as the Museum and Catholic Church of La Macarena or the Hospital de las Cinco Llagas.
The most important art collection of Seville is the Museum of Fine Arts of Seville. It was established in 1835 in the former Convent of La Merced. It holds many masterworks by Murillo, Pacheco, Zurbarán, Valdés Leal, and others masters of the Baroque Sevillian School, containing also Flemish paintings of the 15th and 16th centuries.
Other museums in Seville are:
- The Archaeological Museum, which contains collections from the Tartessian and Roman periods, located in América square at the María Luisa Park.
- The Museum of Arts and Traditions, also in América Square, in front of the Archaeological museum.
- The Andalusian Contemporary Art Center, situated in the neighbourhood of La Cartuja.
- The Naval Museum, housed in the golden Torre del Oro, next to the river Guadalquivir.
- The Carriages Museum, in the Los Remedios neighbourhood.
- The Flamenco Art Museum
- The Bullfighting Museum, in the La Maestranza bullring
- The Palace of the Countess of Lebrija, a private collection which contains many of the mosaic floors discovered in the nearby Roman town of Italica.
- The "Centro Velázquez" (Velázquez Centre) located at the Old Priests Hospital in the touristic Santa Cruz neighbourhood.
- The Antiquarium in Metropol Parasol, an underground museum which exhibits in situ Roman and Muslim remains.
- The Castillo de San Jorge (Castle of St. George) is situated near the Triana market, next to the Isabel II bridge. It was the last seat for the Spanish Inquisition.
- The Museum and Treasure of La Macarena, where the collection of the Macarena brotherhood is exhibited. This exhibition gives visitors an accurate impression of Seville's Seville Holy Week.
- La Casa de la Ciencia de Sevilla - Science Museum, opposite the María Luisa Park.
- Museo de la Cerámica de Triana.
- Pabellon de la Navegación (Pavilion of Navigation).
Parks and gardens
- The Parque de María Luisa (María Luisa Park), is a monumental park built for the 1929 World's Fair held in Seville, the Exposición Ibero-Americana. The so-called Jardines de las Delicias (literally, Delighting Gardens), closer to the river, are part of the Parque de María Luisa.
- The Alcázar Gardens, within the grounds of the Alcázar palace, consist of several sectors developed in different historical styles.
- The Gardens of Murillo and the Gardens of Catalina de Ribera, both along and outside the South wall of the Alcázar, lie next to the Santa Cruz quarter.
- The Parque del Alamillo y San Jerónimo, the largest park in Andalusia, was originally built for Seville Expo '92 to reproduce the Andalusian native flora. It lines both Guadalquivir shores around the San Jerónimo meander. The impressive 32-metres-high bronze sculpture, "The Birth of a New Man" (popularly known as Columbus's Egg, el Huevo de Colón), by the Georgian sculptor Zurab Tsereteli, is located in its northwestern sector.
- The American Garden, also completed for Expo '92, is in La Cartuja. It is a public botanical garden, with a representative collection of American plants donated by different countries on the occasion of the world exposition.
The Semana Santa (Holy Week) and the Feria de Sevilla (Seville Fair), also known as Feria de Abril (April Fair), are the two most well-known of Seville's festivals. Seville is internationally renowned for the solemn but decorative processions during Holy Week and the colourful and lively fair held two weeks after. During the Feria, families, businesses and organisations set up casetas (marquees) in which they spend the week dancing, drinking, and socialising. Traditionally, women wear elaborate flamenco dresses and men dress in their best suits. The marquees are set up on a permanent fairground in the district of Los Remedios, in which each street is named after a famous bullfighter.
The tapas scene is one of the main cultural attractions of the city: people go from one bar to another, enjoying small dishes called tapas (literally "lids" or "covers" in Spanish, referring to their probable origin as snacks served on small plates used to cover drinks). Local specialities include fried and grilled seafood (including squid, choco (cuttlefish), swordfish, marinated dogfish, and ortiguillas), grilled and stewed meat, spinach with chickpeas, Jamón ibérico, lamb kidneys in sherry sauce, snails, caldo de puchero, and gazpacho. A sandwich known as a serranito is the typical and popular version of fast food.
Typical desserts from Seville include pestiños, a honey-coated sweet fritter; torrijas, fried slices of bread with honey; roscos fritos, deep-fried sugar-coated ring doughnuts; magdalenas or fairy cakes; yemas de San Leandro, which provide the city's convents with a source of revenue; and tortas de aceite, a thin sugar-coated cake made with olive oil. Polvorones and mantecados are traditional Christmas products, whereas pestiños and torrijas are typically consumed during the Holy Week.
Bitter Seville oranges grow on trees lining the city streets. Formerly, large quantities were collected and exported to Britain to be used in marmalade. Today the fruit is used predominantly as compost locally, rather than as a foodstuff. According to legend, the Arabs brought the bitter orange to Seville from East Asia via Iraq around the 10th century to beautify and perfume their patios and gardens, as well as to provide shade. The flowers of the tree are a source of neroli oil, commonly used in perfumery and in skin lotions for massage.
Seville had a vibrant rock music scene in the 1970s and 1980s with bands like Triana, Alameda and Smash, who fused Andalusia's traditional flamenco music with British-style progressive rock. The punk rock group Reincidentes and indie band Sr Chinarro, as well as singer Kiko Veneno, rose to prominence in the early 1990s. The city's music scene now features rap acts such as SFDK, Mala Rodríguez, Dareysteel, Tote King, Dogma Crew, and Jesuly. Seville's diverse music scene is reflected in the variety of its club-centred nightlife.
The city is also home to many theatres and performance spaces where classical music is performed, including Teatro Lope de Vega, Teatro La Maestranza, Teatro Central, the Real Alcazar Gardens and the Sala Joaquín Turina.
Despite its name, the sevillana dance, commonly presented as flamenco, is not thought to be of Sevillan origin. However, the folksongs called sevillanas are authentically Sevillan, as is the four-part dance performed with them. Seville, and most significantly, the western district of Triana, was a major centre of the development of flamenco.
Seville is the most populated city in southern Spain, and has the largest GDP (Gross Domestic Product) of any in Andalusia, accounting for one quarter of its total GDP. All municipalities in the metropolitan area depend directly or indirectly on Seville's economy, while agriculture dominates the economy of the smaller villages, with some industrial activity localised in industrial parks. The Diputacion de Sevilla (Deputation of Seville), with provincial headquarters in the Antiguo Cuartel de Caballería (Old Cavalry Barracks) on Avenida Menendez Pelayo, provides public services to distant villages that they can not provide themselves. The University of Seville and the University Pablo de Olavide are important centres of learning in western Andalusia as they offer a wide range of academic courses; consequently the city has a large number of students from Huelva and Cádiz.
The economic activity of Seville cannot be detached from the geographical and urban context of the city; the capital of Andalusia is the centre of a growing metropolitan area. Aside from traditional neighbourhoods such as Santa Cruz, Triana and others, those further away from the centre, such as Nervión, Sevilla Este, and El Porvenir have seen recent economic growth. Until the economic crisis of 2007, this urban area saw significant population growth and the development of new industrial and commercial parks.
The 1990s saw massive growth in investment in infrastructure in Seville, largely due to its hosting of the Universal Exposition of Seville in 1992. This economic development of the city and its urban area is supported by good transportation links to other Spanish cities, including a high-speed AVE railway connection to Madrid, and a new international airport.
Seville has the only inland port in Spain, located 80 km (50 mi) from the mouth of the Guadalquivir River. This harbour complex offers access to the Atlantic and the Mediterranean, and allows trade in goods between the south of Spain (Andalusia, Extremadura) and Europe, the Middle East and North Africa. The port has undergone reorganisation. Annual tonnage rose to 5.3 million tonnes of goods in 2006.
Cartuja 93 is a research and development park. employing 15,000 persons. The Cajasol Tower skyscraper is under construction in the park for the Spanish bank Cajasol's headquarters and offices. The tower was started in March 2008 and is expected to be finished in early 2013. With a height of 180.5 metres (592 feet) and 40 floors, it will be the tallest building in Andalusia.
Seville has conference facilities, including the Congress Palace. Its Parque Tecnológico y Aeronáutico Aerópolis (Technological and Aeronautical Park) is focussed on the aircraft industry. Outside of Seville are nine PS20 solar power towers which use the city's sunny weather to provide most of it with clean and renewable energy.
Research and development
The Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas en Sevilla (CSIC) is based in the former Pavilion of Peru in the Maria Luisa Park. In April 2008 the city council of Seville provided a grant to renovate the building to create the Casa de la Ciencia (Science Center) to encourage popular interest in science. The internationally recognised company Neocodex has its headquarters in Seville; it maintains the first and largest DNA bank in Spain and has made significant contributions to scientific research in genetics. Seville is also considered an important technological and research centre for renewable energy and the aeronautics industry.
The output of the research centres in Sevillan universities working in tandem with city government, and the numerous local technology companies, have made Seville a leader among Spanish cities in technological research and development. The Parque Científico Tecnológico Cartuja 93 is a nexus of private and public investment in various fields of research.
Principal fields of innovation and research are: telecommunications, new technologies, biotechnology (with applications in local agricultural practices), environment and renewable energy.
Seville is served by the TUSSAM (Transportes Urbanos de Sevilla) bus network which runs buses throughout the city. The Consorcio de Transportes de Sevilla communicates by bus with all the satellite towns of Seville.
Two bus stations serve transportation between surrounding areas and other cities: Plaza de Armas Station, with destinations north and west, and Prado de San Sebastián Station, covering routes to the south and east. Plaza de Armas station has direct bus lines to many Spanish cities and with Lisbon, in Portugal.
The Seville metro ("Metro de Sevilla" in Spanish) is a light metro network serving the city of Seville and its metropolitan area. The system is totally independent of any other rail or street traffic. All stations were built with platform screen doors.
It was the sixth Metro system to be built in Spain, after those in Madrid, Barcelona, Valencia, Bilbao and Palma de Mallorca. Currently, it is the fifth biggest Metro company in Spain by number of passengers carried (more than 12,000,000 in 2009).
The service has just five stops: Plaza Nueva, Archivo de Indias, Puerta de Jerez, Prado de San Sebastián and San Bernardo, all as part of Phase I of the project. It is expected to be extended to Santa Justa AVE station, including four new stops: San Francisco Javier, Eduardo Dato, Luis de Morales and Santa Justa. This extension was postponed although the City Council had made expanding the metro lines a priority.
The Santa Justa Train Station is served by the AVE high-speed rail system, and is operated by the Spanish formerly state-owned rail company Renfe. A five-line commuter rail service (Cercanías) joins the city with the Metropolitan area. Seville is on the Red Ciudades AVE, a net created with Seville next to 17 major cities of Spain with high-speed rail.
The Sevici community bicycle programme has integrated bicycles into the public transport network. Bicycles are available for hire around the city at low cost and green bicycle lanes can be seen on most major streets. The number of people using bicycles as a mean of transport in Seville has increased substantially in recent years, multiplying tenfold from 2006 to 2011. As of 2013, an estimated 8.9 percent of all mechanized trips in the city (and 5.6 percent of all trips including those on foot) are made by bicycle.
The city council signed a contract with the multinational corporation JCDecaux, an outdoor advertising company. The public bicycle rental system is financed by a local advertising operator in return for the city signing over a 10-year licence to exploit city-wide billboards. The overall scheme is called Cyclocity by JCDecaux, but each city's system is branded under an individual name.
San Pablo Airport is the main airport for Seville and is Andalusia’s second busiest airport, after Malaga. The airport handled 4,051,392 passengers and just under 5,000 tonnes of cargo in 2009. It has one terminal and one runway.
Seville is the only commercial river port of Spain, and the only inland city in the country where cruise ships can arrive in the historical centre. On 21 August 2012, the Muelle de las Delicias, controlled by the Port Authority of Seville, hosted the cruise ship Azamara Journey for two days, the largest ship ever to visit the town. This vessel belongs to the shipping company Royal Caribbean and can accommodate up to 700 passengers.
Seville has one ring road, the SE-30, which connects with the dual carriageway of the south, the A-4, that directly communicates the city with Cádiz, Cordoba and Madrid. Also there is another dual carriageway, the A-92, linking the city with Estepa, Antequera, Granada, Guadix and Almeria. The A-49 links Seville with Huelva and the Algarve in the south of Portugal.
Seville is home to three public universities: the University of Seville, founded in 1505, originally was a tobacco factory and the one in which Carmen worked in the opera Carmen, the Pablo de Olavide University, founded in 1997 and the International University of Andalusia, founded in 1994.
- Maria Antonietta of Spain, Queen consort of Sardinia (1729–1785)
- Physician Avenzoar
- The family of the Arabic historian and sociologist Ibn Khaldun
- 13th-century poet Ibn Sahl of Seville
- Renaissance composer Cristóbal de Morales, Francisco Guerrero
- 16th-century novelist Mateo Alemán
- Playwrights Lope de Rueda and Hermanos Alvarez Quintero
- Historian of New Spain Bartolomé de Las Casas
- Baroque painters Diego Velázquez, Valdés Leal and Murillo
- Explorer and astronomer Antonio de Ulloa
- Renaissance poets Fernando de Herrera and Gutierre de Cetina
- Romantic poet Gustavo Adolfo Bécquer
- Bullfighters Juan Belmonte, Curro Romero, Ignacio Sánchez Mejías and Joselito el Gallo
- 20th-century poets:
- Composer Joaquín Turina
- Cartoonist William Haselden
- Actors Juan Diego, Paco León
- Actresses Soledad Miranda, Verónica Sánchez, Carmen Sevilla, Paz Vega, Azucena Hernández
- Singers Isabel Pantoja, Juanita Reina, Lole y Manuel, Paquita Rico, El Caracol, Falete, Pastora Soler, and Mala Rodríguez
- Comedian Manuel Summers
- Navy officer Miguel Buiza Fernández-Palacios who became Captain General of the Spanish Republican Navy
- Association footballers José Antonio Reyes, Fernando "Nando" Muñoz, Ricardo Serna, Sergio Ramos, Jesús Navas, Antonio Puerta, Carlos Marchena, Jesús Capitán "Capi"
- Olympic swimmer Fátima Madrid
- Politicians Felipe González, President of the Government of Spain from 1982 to 1996, and Alfonso Guerra, vice-president from 1982 to 1991
Seville is the hometown of two rival association football teams: Sevilla Fútbol Club and Real Betis Balompié, Sevilla playing in the Liga BBVA with Betis recently relegated to the Liga Adelante in the 2013/14 season. Both teams have only won the league once each: Betis in 1935 and Sevilla in 1946. Only Sevilla has won European competitions, winning consecutive UEFA Cup finals in 2006 and 2007 and the UEFA Europa League in 2014. Sevilla's stadium, the Ramón Sánchez Pizjuán, was a venue during the 1982 FIFA World Cup and four years later hosted the 1986 European Cup Final. Seville's Olympic Stadium on the Isla de La Cartuja was the venue for the 2003 UEFA Cup Final.
Seville housed the tennis Davis Cup final in 2004 and 2011, and the 7th Athletics World Championships. The city unsuccessfully bid for the 2004 and 2008 Summer Olympics, for which the 60,000-seat Estadio de La Cartuja was designed to stage. Seville has one important basketball club, the CB Sevilla, that plays in ACB League. Seville's Guadalquivir river is one of only three FISA approved international training centres for rowing (sport) and the only one in Spain; the 2002 World Rowing Championships and the 2013 European Rowing Championships were held there.
- The picaresque novel Rinconete y Cortadillo by Miguel de Cervantes takes place in the city of Seville.
- The novel La Femme et le pantin, ("The Woman and the Puppet") (1898) by Pierre Louÿs, adapted for film several times, is set mainly in Seville.
- Seville is the setting for the legend of Don Juan (inspired by the real aristocrat Don Miguel de Mañara) on the Paseo Alcalde Marqués de Contadero
- Seville is the primary setting of many operas, the best known of which are Bizet's Carmen (based on Mérimée's novella), Rossini's The Barber of Seville, Verdi's La forza del destino, Beethoven's Fidelio, Mozart's Don Giovanni and The Marriage of Figaro, and Prokofiev's Betrothal in a Monastery.
- Seville is the setting of the novel "The Seville Communion" by Arturo Pérez-Reverte.
- Seville is both the location and setting for much of the 1985 Doctor Who television serial The Two Doctors.
- Seville is also used as one of the locations in Dan Brown's "Digital Fortress".
- Seville is one of the settings in Jostein Gaarder's book "The Orange Girl" ("Appelsinpiken").
- Arthur Koestler's book Spanish Testament is based on the writer's experiences while held in the Seville prison, under a sentence of death, during the Spanish Civil War.
- Robert Wilson's police novel The Hidden Assassins (2006) concerns a terrorist incident in Seville and the political context thereof, with much local colour. Note also his title The Blind Man of Seville (2004).
- The Plaza de España in the Parque de María Luisa appears in George Lucas' Star Wars Episode II: Attack of the Clones as well as in Lawrence of Arabia as the British Army HQ in Cairo, while the courtyard was the King Alfonso XIII Hotel.
- The Plaza of the Americas also appeared in Lawrence, substituting for Jerusalem, and in Anthony Mann's El Cid. It would also serve as the Palace of Vladek Sheybal's Bashaw in The Wind and the Lion (1975) (including the memorable attack scene by the US Marines.)
- The Plaza de España in the Parque de María Luisa appears in the movie The Dictator, starring Sacha Baron Cohen, as the palace of the dictator Aladeen.
- The Alcázar and other sites appear in the television serie Game of Thrones, as the city of Dorne.
Interior of the Alcázar
The tomb of Christopher Columbus, inside the Cathedral of Seville
Plaza del Altozano in Triana
Torre Triana in La Cartuja
Carriage at the Seville Fair
Street in the Jewish Quarter
Casa de los Pinelos in Jewish Quarter
South façade of the Cathedral of St. Mary of Seville.
Hall of Ambassadors in the Alcázar of Seville.
Twin towns and sister cities
Seville has been given titles by Spanish monarchs and heads of state throughout its history.
- Very Noble, by King Ferdinand III of Castile after his reconquest of the city.
- Very Loyal, by King Alfonso X of Castile for supporting him against a rebellion. See also the Motto "NO8DO".
- Very Heroic, by King Ferdinand VII of Spain by Royal Document on 13 October 1817 for support against the French invasion.
- Invictus (Invincible in Latin), by Queen Isabella II of Spain for the city's resistance against General Van Halen's asedium and bombing in 1843.
- Mariana, by General Francisco Franco in 1946 for the city's devotion to the Virgin Mary.
- Demographia: World Urban Areas - Demographia, 2015
- Salma Khadra Jayyusi; Manuela Marín (1992). The Legacy of Muslim Spain. BRILL. p. 136. ISBN 978-90-04-09599-1. Retrieved 7 February 2013.
- Christian-Muslim Relations. A Bibliographical History. Volume 4 (1200–1350). BRILL. 3 August 2012. p. 9. ISBN 978-90-04-22854-2. Retrieved 7 February 2013.
- SPAL: Revista de prehistoria y arqueología de la Universidad de Sevilla. Secretariado de Publicaciones de la Universidad de Sevilla. 1998. p. 93. Retrieved 8 February 2013.
La presencia de fenicios en la antigua Sevilla parece constatada por el topónimo Spal que en diversas lenguas semíticas significa "zona baja", "llanura verde" o "valle profundo"
- "La Emergencia de Sevilla" (PDF). Universidad de Sevilla. Retrieved 2011-05-11.
- "La invasión árabe. Los árabes y el elemento árabe en español" (PDF). Retrieved 2011-05-11.
- "Leyendas de Sevilla – 5 Hércules y la fundación de Sevilla". aznalfarache.blogspot.com. Retrieved 2012-02-29.
- "Antiguas Murallas y Puertas de Sevilla". Degelo.com. Retrieved 2012-03-12.
- "Ruiz, Hernán. 'Blueprints of Seville's Cathedral and Giralda'". Fidas.es. Retrieved 2011-04-10.
- Joseph F. O'Callaghan (1975). A History of Medieval Spain. Cornell University Press. p. 353. ISBN 978-0-8014-9264-8. Retrieved 6 February 2013.
- John Julius Norwich (1 April 2001). Great Architecture of the World. Da Capo Press, Incorporated. p. 271. ISBN 978-0-306-81042-8. Retrieved 15 May 2013.
- A. MacKay: "POPULAR MOVEMENTS AND POGROMS IN FIFTEENTH-CENTURY CASTILE", Past and Present (1972) 55 (1): 33–67. doi:10.1093/past/55.1.33. Oxford University Press
- Levine Melammed, Renee. "Women in Medieval Jewish Societies." Women and Judaism: New Insights and Scholarship. Ed. Frederick E. Greenspahn. New York: New York University Press, 2009. 105-106.
- "Demografía de Sevilla en el siglo XVI". Seville University. Retrieved 2012-07-23.
- "99.06.01: Human-Environment Relations: A Case Study of Donana National Park, Andalucia, Spain and the Los Frailes Mine Toxic Spill of 1998". Yale.edu. Retrieved 2011-04-10.
- "Un campus, una ciudad.". Universidad de Sevilla.
- María Serrera, Ramón María (2009-02-21). "¿200 óperas sevillanas?". El Correo de Andalucía. Retrieved 2012-07-23.
- Antigüedad del Castillo-Olivares, María Dolores (1990). "El arquitecto Melchor Cano y la teoría de la ciudad. Espacio, Tiempo y Forma". Historia del Arte. VII (Madrid: UNED) 3: 417–439.
- Santiago Cirugeda et al. Collectives Architectures. Vibok Works. ISBN 978-84-939058-2-8. Retrieved 2 February 2013.
- "La UNIA acoge en Sevilla unas jornadas de arteypensamiento sobre Capital y Territorio". Universidad Internacional de Andalucía. Retrieved 2 February 2013.
- Diego A. Cardoso Bueno: Sevilla. El Casco Antiguo. Historia, Arte y Urbanismo. Ediciones Guadalquivir (2006). ISBN 84-8093-154-X . Consultado el 24-3-2010
- Fernández Paradas, Mercedes; La implantación del alumbrado público de electricidad en la Andalucía del primer del tercio del S. XX, Universidad de Málaga, España [04-09-2012].
- Henry Robinson Luce (January 1929). Time 13. Time Incorporated. p. 25. Retrieved 6 February 2013.
- The Spanish Civil War, Hugh Thomas, Penguin, 1961, p. 221–3, ISBN 0-14-013593-6
- Lonely Planet Andalucia. Books.google.com. 2007-01-01. ISBN 9781740599733. Retrieved 2011-04-10.
- M. Kottek; J. Grieser; C. Beck; B. Rudolf; F. Rubel (2006). "World Map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification updated". Meteorol. Z. 15 (3): 259–263. doi:10.1127/0941-2948/2006/0130. Retrieved April 22, 2009.
- "Highest Temperature Extremes". NOAA Satellite and Information Service. Retrieved 29 August 2012.
- "World Weather Information Service - Sevilla". Worldweather.org. 2006-10-05. Retrieved 2011-04-10.
- "Valores climatológicos normales: Sevilla Aeropuerto – Agencia Estatal de Meteorología – AEMET. Gobierno de España" (in Spanish).
- "Metropol Parasol: The World’s Largest Wooden Structure Opens in Seville| Inhabitat – Green Design Will Save the World". inhabitat.com. Retrieved 2012-02-29.
- "Ordenación Urbana – Metropol Parasol". Sevilla21.com. Retrieved 2011-04-10.
- "Plaza De Espańa And Maria Luisa Park Sevilla – Seville". Sevilla5.com. Retrieved 2011-04-10.
- Quintero, Josephine. "The City of Sevilla, the Maria Luisa Park in Sevilla, Andalucia, Spain". Andalucia.com. Retrieved 2011-04-10.
- "ABC Hemeroteca". Hemeroteca.abc.es. Retrieved 2012-03-12.
- "Feria de Abril, Seville". Exploreseville.com. Retrieved 2013-03-12.
- Elizabeth Nash (13 October 2005). Seville, Cordoba, and Granada:A Cultural History: A Cultural History. Oxford University Press. p. 14. ISBN 978-0-19-518204-0. Retrieved 8 February 2013.
- "Sevilla aporta la cuarta parte del PIB y es la capital económica de Andalucía". ABC de Sevilla. 2005-02-20.
- "Rodríguez Villalobos afirma que los pequeños municipios necesitan una figura supramunicipal para poder prestar servicios públicos". Diputacion de Sevilla. Retrieved 2012-07-24.
- "Atlas de la provincia de Sevilla". Map:Innovación tecnológica. Diputación de Sevilla, Junta de Andalucía.
- "Atlas de la provincia de Sevilla". Map:Empleo en el sector terciario. Diputación de Sevilla, Junta de Andalucía.
- "Atlas de la provincia de Sevilla" (PDF). Map:Industrial actividad. Diputación de Sevilla, Junta de Andalucía.
- Port Authority of Seville, Retrieved 2013-09-30 http://portal.apsevilla.com/wps/portal/estadistica
- Note http://www.cartuja93.es.
- Guadalupe Trigueros Gordillo (1998). La Universidad de Sevilla Durante El Sexenio Revolucionario. Universidad de Sevilla. p. 96. ISBN 978-84-472-0417-5. Retrieved 8 February 2013.
- Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology News: GEN. GEN Pub. 2007. p. 15. Retrieved 8 February 2013.
- "Planta Solar 10". Concentrating Solar Power Projects. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), U.S. Dept. of Energy (DOE). 21 April 2009. Retrieved 20 March 2012.
- Marchese, Marco, and Jonathan Potter. Entrepreneurship, SMEs and Local Development in Andalusia, Spain. No. 2011/3. LEED Working Paper Series, LEED programme, OECD Publishing, 2011. "...others in the region are rather sector-oriented (e.g. Seville's Aerópolis specialised in the aeronautics industry or Granada's based on health sciences.)"
- Francisco Javier Monclús; Francisco Javier Monclús Fraga (2006). Exposiciones internacionales y urbanismo: El proyecto Expo Zaragoza 2008. Univ. Politèc. de Catalunya. p. 106. ISBN 978-84-8301-893-4. Retrieved 6 February 2013.
- "Seville goes Dutch". London Cycling Campaign. Retrieved 22 May 2014.
- "Research on the use of bicycles in the city of Seville, 2013". SIBUS. Retrieved 22 May 2014.
- "The self-service bicycle sheme by JCDecaux". JCDecaux. 20 December 2012. Retrieved 9 February 2013.
- "AENA – airport statistics". Aena.es. Retrieved 2012-03-12.
- "Ryanair anuncia su base número 44 en Sevilla". Ryanair.com. 2010-07-23.
- El Puerto de Sevilla acogerá el mayor crucero de su historia Tuttocruceros.com 6/25/2012
- "Inicio en Sede de Sevilla". Uimp.es. 2011-03-22. Retrieved 2011-04-10.
- "La Liga Champions". Topendsports.com. Retrieved 2013-03-12.
- "Uefa Cup". Rsssf.com. 2012-05-31. Retrieved 2013-03-12.
- "Sevilla win Europa final after penalties". aljazeera.com. Retrieved 2014-05-15.
- Jan Alsos. "1982 – Match Schedule". Planet World Cup. Retrieved 2013-03-12.
- "1986 European Cup Final : FC Barcelona v Steaua Bucharest – Complete Game Film | BETWEEN THE STICKS - ZWISCHEN DEN STOECKEN : Weil Jemand Es Tun Muss". Lvironpigs.wordpress.com. Retrieved 2013-03-12.
- "BBC SPORT | Football | Other European | Porto end Celtic's Uefa dream". BBC News. 2003-05-21. Retrieved 2013-03-12.
- Wilkins, Luke (1996-01-11). "Olympic Games: 11 cities bid to stage 2004 Games – Sport". The Independent. Retrieved 2013-03-12.
- "CNN/SI – Olympics – Seville seeking 2008 Olympic bid – Wednesday May 05, 1999 12:37 PM". Sportsillustrated.cnn.com. 1999-05-05. Retrieved 2013-03-12.
- "Seville Information". DB-City. Retrieved 2013-08-04.
- "Noticias - Sevilla Y Barcelona Colaborarán Estrechamente Para Difundir Los Valores Del Fórum". Noticias.info. Retrieved 2011-04-10.
- Hermanamientos con Latinoamérica (102,91 kB). [29-9-2008]
- "Columbus - Sister Cities". Columbus Sister Cities International, Inc. Retrieved 2013-08-04.
- "Nos Visitó El Poder Popular De Ciudad De La Habana " Comité Local Pca-Sevilla". Pcasevilla.wordpress.com. Retrieved 2011-04-10.
- "Sister Cities, Public Relations". Guadalajara municipal government. Archived from the original on March 2, 2012. Retrieved March 12, 2013.
- "Kansas City - Sister Cities". Sister City Association of Kansas City, MO. Archived from the original on 2012-09-12. Retrieved 2013-08-04.
- "Seville, Spain « Kansas City Sister Cities". Kcsistercities.org. Retrieved 2012-03-12.
- "Red de Hermanamientos entre Ciudades Marroquies y Andaluzas - Convenios y hermanamientas". An-mar.org. 2006-05-01. Retrieved 2011-04-10.
- "Kraków otwarty na świat". www.krakow.pl. Retrieved 2009-07-19.
- "De los títulos de la Ciudad de Sevilla.". Degelo.com.
- This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Smith, William, ed. (1854–1857). "article name needed". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. London: John Murray.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Seville.|
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Seville.|