Sex after pregnancy

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Sex after pregnancy is often delayed for several weeks or months, and may be difficult and painful for women. Injury to the perineum or surgical cuts (episiotomy) to the vagina during childbirth can cause sexual dysfunction. Sexual activity other than sexual intercourse is possible sooner, but some women experience a prolonged loss of sexual desire after giving birth, which may be associated with postnatal depression. Common issues that may last more than a year after birth are greater desire by the man than the woman, and a worsening of the woman's body image.[1][2]

Birth method and injuries[edit]

Women with damage or tears to their perineum resume sex later than women with an intact perineum,[3] and women who needed perineal sutures report poorer sexual relations.[4] Perineal damage is also associated with painful sex.[5] Women who have an anal tear are less likely to have resumed sex after six months[6] and one year,[7] but they have normal sexual function 18 months later.[8]

Assisted vaginal delivery using suction or forceps is correlated with increases in the frequency or severity of painful sex,[5] the delay in resuming sex, and sexual problems.[9] Cesarean section may result in less painful sex during the first 3 months,[10][11] or there may be no difference,[9] and there is no difference in sexual function or symptoms by six months,[10][11][12] although women who delivered by cesarean report greater sexual satisfaction relating to vaginal tone six years on.[13]

Delay before resuming sex[edit]

Many doctors recommend waiting four to six weeks before resuming sex, to allow the cervix to close, bleeding (known as lochia) to stop, and tears to heal.[14] A study of women in Turkey found that 42% resumed sexual intercourse within six weeks of giving birth.[15] American and British studies found that at six weeks, 57% of women had resumed sexual intercourse,[16] 82–85% had by three months,[4][16] and 89–90% had by six months.[6][11][16] Sexual intercourse was resumed by two-thirds of Ugandan women within six months of childbirth,[17] and among Chinese women 52% had resumed sex by two months and 95% had by six months.[12]

Sexual dysfunction[edit]

About half the men and women questioned eight months after childbirth in one British study described their sex life as ‘poor’ or ‘not very good’,[18] though another found that 70% of British women and 89% of Taiwanese women were satisfied with their sex life during the postnatal period.[19] Six months after giving birth, one quarter of American women said they had lower sexual sensation, satisfaction, and ability to reach orgasm, and 22% said that sex was painful. More than 80% of British women experienced sexual problems three months after giving birth, and nearly two-thirds at six months, compared to pre-pregnancy levels of 38%.[11] Of Ugandan women who had resumed sex within six months of giving birth, nearly two-thirds experienced vaginal pain and about a third had discharge or bleeding.[17]

Vaginal dryness may occur following giving birth for about three months due to hormonal changes. Women who breast-feed are much more likely to report painful sex[5][11][16] as well as reduced libido, both due to hormonal changes such as a reduction in levels of estrogen.[20] Women with major trauma reported less desire to be held, touched, or stroked by their partner.[4]

Risks[edit]

A fatal air embolism, when air enters the bloodstream, can occur due to sex shortly after childbirth before the placental bed has healed, particularly if the woman's knees are pressed against her chest, but this is rare.[21][22] More common complications of having sex early after pregnancy are tears to incisions and infection of the uterus.[22]

Reduced libido[edit]

Having given birth within the previous year is associated with persistent low sexual desire.[23] More than a third of first-time mothers report a loss of libido at eight months, though only 1 in 7 of experienced mothers have a loss of libido.[18] Women often have a poor body image after giving birth.[2][24] Women are often uncomfortable with their physical changes after birth, and often want sleep or to have time for themselves, which leads to a changed sexual pattern. Discordance of sexual desire with their partner is frequent.[2][19] Another potential cause of low libido is postpartum depression; depressed women are less likely to have resumed sex at six months and more likely to report more sexual health problems.[25]

Dissatisfaction with the sexual relationship a year after childbirth is associated with a lack of sex early in pregnancy as well as older ages of women, but not with factors relating to pregnancy or birth.[7]

Treatment[edit]

Only 15% of London women who had a postnatal sexual problem reported discussing it with a health professional,[11] whereas 59.4% of Ugandan women who had resumed sex and had a sexual problem sought medical assistance.[17] Performing pelvic floor muscle exercise appears to improve sexual function,[13] and painful sex and vaginal dryness can be reduced using different sexual positions and lubricants.[14] 83% of British and 60% of Taiwanese women thought they had sufficient information about sex during the postnatal period.[19]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Pastore, L; Owens A; Raymond C (2007). "Postpartum sexuality concerns among first-time parents from one U.S. academic hospital". J Sex Med (Wiley-Blackwell/International Society for Sexual Medicine) 4 (1): 115–23. doi:10.1111/j.1743-6109.2006.00379.x. PMID 17087807. 
  2. ^ a b c Olsson, Ann; Martina Lundqvist; Elisabeth Faxelid; Eva Nissen (2005). "Women's thoughts about sexual life after childbirth: focus group discussions with women after childbirth". Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences (Wiley-Blackwell/Nordic College of Caring Science) 19 (4): 381–7. doi:10.1111/j.1471-6712.2005.00357.x. PMID 16324063. 
  3. ^ Williams, A; Herron-Marx S; Carolyn H (2007). "The prevalence of enduring postnatal perineal morbidity and its relationship to perineal trauma". Midwifery (Elsevier) 23 (4): 392–403. doi:10.1016/j.midw.2005.12.006. PMID 17196714. 
  4. ^ a b c Rogers, RG; Borders N; Leeman LM; Albers LL (2009). "Does spontaneous genital tract trauma impact postpartum sexual function?". J Midwifery Women's Health (Elsevier) 54 (2): 98–103. doi:10.1016/j.jmwh.2008.09.001. PMC 2730880. PMID 19249654. 
  5. ^ a b c Signorello, LB; Harlow BL; Chekos AK; Repke JT (2001). "Postpartum sexual functioning and its relationship to perineal trauma: a retrospective cohort study of primiparous women". Am J Obstet Gynecol 184 (5): 881–8. doi:10.1067/mob.2001.113855. PMID 11303195. 
  6. ^ a b Brubaker, L; Handa VL, Bradley CS, Connolly A, Moalli P, Brown MB, Weber A; Pelvic Floor Disorders Network (2008). "Sexual Function 6 Months After First Delivery". Obstet Gynecol 11 (5): 1040–4. doi:10.1097/AOG.0b013e318169cdee. PMC 2593132. PMID 18448733. 
  7. ^ a b van Brummen, HJ; Bruinse HW; van de Pol G; Heintz AP; van der Vaart CH (2006). "Which factors determine the sexual function 1 year after childbirth?". BJOG (Wiley-Blackwell/Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists) 113 (8): 914–8. doi:10.1111/j.1471-0528.2006.01017.x. PMID 16907937. 
  8. ^ Otero, M; Boulvain M; Bianchi-Demicheli F; Floris LA; Sangalli MR; Weil A; Irion O; Faltin DL. (2006). "Women's health 18 years after rupture of the anal sphincter during childbirth: II. Urinary incontinence, sexual function, and physical and mental health". Am J Obstet Gynecol (Elsevier) 194 (5): 1260–5. doi:10.1016/j.ajog.2005.10.796. PMID 16579926. 
  9. ^ a b Hicks, TL; Goodall SF; Quattrone EM; Lydon-Rochelle MT (2004). "Postpartum sexual functioning and method of delivery: summary of the evidence". J Midwifery Women's Health (Elsevier/American College of Nurse-Midwives) 49 (5): 430–6. doi:10.1016/j.jmwh.2004.04.007. PMID 15351333. 
  10. ^ a b Barrett, G; Peacock J; Victor CR; Manyonda I (2005). "Cesarean section and postnatal sexual health". Birth (Wiley Periodicals, Inc.) 32 (4): 306–11. doi:10.1111/j.0730-7659.2005.00388.x. PMID 16336372. 
  11. ^ a b c d e f Barrett, G; Pendry E; Peacock J; Victor C; Thakar R; Manyonda I (2000). "Women's sexual health after childbirth". BJOG (Wiley-Blackwell/Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists) 107 (2): 186–95. doi:10.1111/j.1471-0528.2000.tb11689.x. PMID 10688502. 
  12. ^ a b Wang, Huan-ying; Xiao-yang Xu, Zhen-wei Yao, Qin Zhou (2003). "Impact of Delivery Types on Women's Postpartum Sexual Health". Reproduction & Contraception 14 (4): 237–242. 
  13. ^ a b Dean, N; Wilson D; Herbison P; Glazener C; Aung T; Macarthur C (2008). "Sexual function, delivery mode history, pelvic floor muscle exercises and incontinence: a cross-sectional study six years post-partum". Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol (Wiley-Blackwell/The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists) 48 (3): 302–11. doi:10.1111/j.1479-828X.2008.00854.x. PMID 18532963. 
  14. ^ a b "Sex after pregnancy: Let your body set the pace". Mayo Clinic. 30 May 2008. Retrieved 2009-08-07. 
  15. ^ Geçkil, E; Sahin T; Ege E (2009). "Traditional postpartum practices of women and infants and the factors influencing such practices in South Eastern Turkey". Midwifery (Elsevier) 25 (1): 62–71. doi:10.1016/j.midw.2006.12.007. PMID 17335945. 
  16. ^ a b c d Connolly, AnnaMarie; John Thorp and Laurie Pahel (2005). "Effects of pregnancy and childbirth on postpartum sexual function: a longitudinal prospective study". International Urogynecology Journal (Springer London) 16 (4): 263–7. doi:10.1007/s00192-005-1293-6. ISSN 1433-3023. PMID 15838587. 
  17. ^ a b c Odar, E; Wandabwa J; Kiondo P (2003). "Sexual practices of women within six months of childbirth in Mulago hospital, Uganda". Afr Health Sci 3 (3): 117–23. PMC 2141612. PMID 14676716. 
  18. ^ a b Dixon, M; Booth N; Powell R (2000). "Sex and relationships following childbirth: a first report from general practice of 131 couples". British Journal of General Practice 50 (452): 223–4. PMC 1313658. PMID 10750236. 
  19. ^ a b c Huang, Y.C.; Mathers, N. J. (2006). "A comparison of sexual satisfaction and post-natal depression in the UK and Taiwan". International Nursing Review (Blackwell Publishing Ltd.) 53 (3): 197–204. doi:10.1111/j.1466-7657.2006.00459.x. PMID 16879182. 
  20. ^ LaMarre, Amanda K.; Laurel Q. Paterson; Boris B. Gorzalka (2003). "Breastfeeding and postpartum maternal sexual functioning: A review". The Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality 12 (3–4): 151–168. 
  21. ^ Batman, PA; Thomlinson J; Moore VC; Sykes R (1998). "Death due to air embolism during sexual intercourse in the puerperium". Postgrad Med J 74 (876): 612–3. doi:10.1136/pgmj.74.876.612. PMC 2361003. PMID 10211360. 
  22. ^ a b Gilbert, Susan (6 October 1998). "Deaths Linked to Sex After Childbirth". New York Times. Retrieved 2009-08-06. 
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  24. ^ Pauls, RN; Occhino JA; Dryfhout VL (2008). "Effects of pregnancy on female sexual function and body image: a prospective study". J Sex Med (Wiley-Blackwell/International Society for Sexual Medicine) 5 (8): 1915–22. doi:10.1111/j.1743-6109.2008.00884.x. PMID 18547388. 
  25. ^ Morof, D; Barrett G; Peacock J; Victor CR; Manyonda I (2003). "Postnatal depression and sexual health after childbirth". Obstet Gynecol (Elsevier) 102 (6): 1318–25. doi:10.1016/j.obstetgynecol.2003.08.020. PMID 14662221. 

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