Sex differences in medicine

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Sex differences in medicine include sex-specific diseases, which are diseases that occur only in people of one sex; and sex-related diseases, which are diseases that are more common to one sex, or which manifest differently in each sex. For example, certain autoimmune diseases may occur predominantly in one sex. Women account for 90% of primary biliary cirrhosis cases, whereas primary sclerosing cholangitis is more common in men. Gender-based medicine, also called "gender medicine", is the field of medicine that studies the biological and psychosocial differences between the human sexes and how that affects diseases.[1] Traditionally, medical research has mostly been conducted using the male body as the basis for clinical studies. The findings of these studies have often been applied across the sexes and healthcare providers have assumed a uniform approach in treating both male and female patients. More recently, medical research has started to understand the importance of taking the sex into account as the symptoms and responses to medical treatment may be very different between sexes.[2]

Neither concept should be confused with sexually transmitted diseases, which are diseases that have a significant probability of transmission through sexual contact.

Sex-related illnesses have various causes:

  • Sex-linked genetic illnesses
  • Parts of the reproductive system that are specific to one sex
  • Social causes that relate to the gender role expected of that sex in a particular society.
  • Different levels of prevention, reporting, diagnosis or treatment in each gender.


Examples of sex-related illnesses and disorders in female humans:


Examples of sex-related illnesses and disorders in male humans:

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Glezerman, Marek. "Website of The International Society for Gender Medicine". The International Society for Gender Medicine. Retrieved 2014-08-07. 
  2. ^ Cuozzo, Karen; Bratman, Steven (reviewer) (2005, September (last reviewed)). "Women, Men, and Medicine: We're Not Equal". EBSCO Publishing.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  3. ^ Everyday Health > Women and Autoimmune Disorders By Krisha McCoy. Medically reviewed by Lindsey Marcellin, MD, MPH. Last Updated: 12/02/2009
  4. ^ Gender Differences in Alzheimer's Disease by Brian R. Ott, M.D., and Deborah A. Cahn-Weiner, Ph.D.. Geriatric Times. November/December 2001. Vol. II. Issue 6
  5. ^
  6. ^ Newschaffer CJ, Croen LA, Daniels J et al. The epidemiology of autism spectrum disorders [PDF]. Annu Rev Public Health. 2007;28:235–58. doi:10.1146/annurev.publhealth.28.021406.144007. PMID 17367287.