Sex strike

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Ukrainian group Femen calling for a sex strike to protest against sexual exploitation of women.

A sex strike, sometimes called a sex boycott, is a strike, a method of non-violent resistance in which one or multiple persons refrain from sex with their partner(s) to achieve certain goals. It is a form of temporary sexual abstinence. Sex strikes have been used to protest many issues, from water resources to employment equity.

Historical[edit]

Ancient Greece[edit]

The most famous example of a sex strike in the arts is the Greek playwright Aristophanes' work Lysistrata,[1] an anti-war comedy. The female characters in the play, led by the eponymous Lysistrata, withhold sex from their husbands as part of their strategy to secure peace and end the Peloponnesian War.

Nigeria[edit]

Among the Igbo people of Nigeria, in pre-colonial times, the community of women periodically formed themselves into a Council, a kind of women's trade union. This was headed by the Agba Ekwe, 'the favoured one of the goddess Idemili and her earthly manifestation'. She carried her staff of authority and had the final word in public gatherings and assemblies. Central among her tasks was to ensure men's good behaviour, punishing male attempts at harassment or abuse. What men most feared was the Council's power of strike action. According to Ifi Amadiume, an Igbo anthropologist: 'The strongest weapon the Council had and used against the men was the right to order mass strikes and demonstrations by all women. When ordered to strike, women refused to perform their expected duties and roles, including all domestic, sexual and maternal services. They would leave the town en masse, carrying only suckling babies. If angry enough, they were known to attack any men they met'.[2]

World history and prehistory[edit]

Citing similar examples of women's strike action in hunter-gatherer and other precolonial traditions around the world, some anthropologists argue that it was thanks to solidarity of this kind—especially collective resistance to the possibility of rape—that language, culture, and religion became established in our species in the first instance. This controversial hypothesis is known as the "Female Cosmetic Coalitions", "Lysistrata",[3] or "sex strike"[4][5][6][7] theory of human origins.

Modern times[edit]

Colombia[edit]

In October 1997, the chief of the Military of Colombia, General Manuel Bonnet publicly called for a sex strike among the wives and girlfriends of the Colombian left-wing guerrillas, drug traffickers, and paramilitaries as part of a strategy—along with diplomacy—to achieve a ceasefire. Also the mayor of Bogota, Antanas Mockus, declared the capital a women-only zone for one night, suggesting men to stay at home to reflect on violence. The guerrillas ridiculed the initiatives, pointing at the fact that there were more than 2,000 women in their army. In the end the ceasefire was achieved, but lasted only a short time.

In September 2006 dozens of wives and girlfriends of gang members from Pereira, Colombia, started a sex strike called La huelga de las piernas cruzadas ("the strike of crossed legs") to curb gang violence, in response to 480 deaths due to gang violence in the coffee region. According to spokeswoman Jennifer Bayer, the specific target of the strike was to force gang members to turn in their weapons in compliance with the law. According to them, many gang members were involved in violent crime for status and sexual attractiveness, and the strike sent the message that refusing to turn in the guns was not sexy.[8] In 2010 the city's murder rate saw the steepest decline in Colombia, down by 26.5%.[9]

In June 2011, Barbacoas a secluded town in southwestern Colombia started a sex strike to pave a new, safe, functioning road connecting the Barbacoas to neighboring towns and cities. After a 112 days of the strike the women finally got what they wanted and work for the new road finally began.

Kenya[edit]

In April 2009 a group of Kenyan women organised a week-long sex strike aimed at politicians, encouraging the wives of the president and prime minister to join in too, and offering to pay prostitutes for lost earnings if they joined in.[10]

Liberia[edit]

In 2003 Leymah Gbowee and the Women of Liberia Mass Action for Peace organized nonviolence protests that included a sex strike. Their actions led to peace in Liberia after a 14‑year civil war and the election of the country's first female head of state, Ellen Johnson Sirleaf.[11]

Naples, Italy[edit]

In the build-up to New Year's Eve in 2008, hundreds of Neapolitan women pledged to make their husbands and lovers "sleep on the sofa" unless they took action to prevent fireworks from causing serious injuries.[12]

The Philippines[edit]

During the summer of 2011, women in rural Mindanao imposed a several-week-long sex strike in an attempt to end fighting between their two villages.[13][14]

Togo[edit]

In 2012 inspired by the 2003 Liberian sex strike, the Togolese opposition coalition "Let's Save Togo" asked women to abstain from sex for a week as a protest against President Faure Gnassingbé, whose family has been in power for more than 45 years. The strike aimed to "motivate men who are not involved in the political movement to pursue its goals".[15] Opposition leader Isabelle Ameganvi views it as a possible "weapon of the battle" to achieve political change.[16]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Lucy Burns, Sex strikes through the ages amrep.org
  2. ^ Amadiume, I. 1987. Male Daughters, Female Husbands. Gender and sex in an African society. London and New Jersey: Zed Books, pp. 66-67.
  3. ^ Camilla Power, 1990. Lysistrata, the ritual logic of the sex strike. University of East London (Anthropology) Occasional Papers.
  4. ^ Knight, C. 1991. "The Sex Strike". In Blood Relations. Menstruation and the origins of culture. New Haven and London: Yale University Press, pp. 122-153.
  5. ^ Power, C. and I. Watts 1996. Female strategies and collective behaviour: the archaeology of earliest Homo sapiens sapiens. In J. Steele and S. Shennan (eds), The Archaeology of Human Ancestry. London and New York: Routledge, pp. 306-330.
  6. ^ Power, C. and L. C. Aiello 1997. "Female Proto-symbolic Strategies". In L. D. Hager (ed.), Women in Human Evolution. New York and London: Routledge, pp. 153-171.
  7. ^ Power, C. 1999. "Beauty magic: the origins of art". In R. Dunbar, C. Knight and C. Power (eds), The Evolution of Culture. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, pp. 92-112.
  8. ^ "Colombian gangsters face sex ban". BBC News. 2006-09-13. Retrieved 2010-05-23. 
  9. ^ "Do sex strikes ever work?". The Guardian. 2011-02-09. Retrieved 2011-02-10. 
  10. ^ "Kenyan women hit men with sex ban". BBC News. 29 April 2009. Retrieved 2011. 
  11. ^ Bill Moyers Journal, PBS. June 19, 2009
  12. ^ Naples sex strike over fireworks, BBC News, Wednesday 31 Dec 2008.
  13. ^ "Philippines: Sex Strike Brings Peace", UNHCR.
  14. ^ Karen Smith, "Sex strike brings peace to Filipino village". CNN. September 19, 2011.
  15. ^ "Togo women call sex strike against President Gnassingbe", BBC, 27 August 2012. Retrieved 27 August 2012.
  16. ^ Stanglin, Douglas (27 August 2012). "Togo Women Call Sex Strike to Force President's Resignation". USA Today. 

External links[edit]

The Lysistrata project [1] [2]