Sextus Julius Caesar
Sextus Julius Caesar was the name of several ancient Roman men of the Julii Caesares family. Sextus was one of the three most common praenomina (first names) used by the Julii Caesares, the others being Lucius and Gaius, which was the praenomen of the most famous Julius Caesar.
- Sextus Julius Caesar was a praetor in Sicily in 208 BC, commanding the legiones Cannenses, the legions formed from the survivors of Cannae. Although command of the Cannenses was usually considered a punishment or disciplinary action, he was sent as an envoy (legatus) to the consul Titus Quinctius Crispinus when he was wounded.
- Sextus Julius Caesar, also known after his adoption in adulthood as Sextus Julius Catulus Caesar, was a military tribune in 181 BC under Lucius Aemilius Paullus in Liguria. In 170–169, he served as a diplomatic legate for restoring the liberty of Abdera, Thrace, and helped lead the search for those who had been unjustly sold into slavery. As curule aedile in 165, he and his colleague Gnaeus Cornelius Dolabella presented games (ludi) at which Terence's Hecyra was first performed, with a notorious lack of success. He held the praetorship no later than 160, and was elected as consul for 157 BC. In 147, he was sent to rebuke the Achaean League for their treatment of Roman allies and to caution them against engaging in hostilities against Rome. Critolaos, a leader of the Achaeans, blocked Caesar's efforts to arbitrate in the dispute between the League and Sparta, and war was declared the following year.
- Sextus Julius Caesar was a monetalis (moneyer) around 125–120 BC. He may have been either the consul of 157, or more likely the praetor of 123.
- Sextus Julius Caesar was a praetor by 94 BC and consul in 91. In 90, he was proconsul and won a military victory, probably over the Paeligni. He died while laying siege to Asculum.
- Sextus Julius Caesar served under his kinsman Julius Caesar in Spain during the civil war in 49, probably as a military tribune. He continued his service in 48, most likely as quaestor. He was appointed to a command in Syria around July 47, either as a legate or more likely proquaestor pro praetore. He remained as promagistrate for 46 in Syria, where he was killed in a revolt led by a Caecilius Bassus, a supporter of Pompeius Magnus ("Pompey the Great"). His command was given to Quintus Cornificius, tentatively identified as a praetor of 45, who at the time was promagistrate in Cilicia. A list given by Cicero indicates that he was inaugurated as Flamen Quirinalis, a lifetime office, around 60–58 BC; less likely, the priesthood was held by this man's father, the son of the consul of 91.
- Sextus Julius Frontinus, better known as Frontinus, author of treatises on aqueducts and military tactics
- Sextus Julius Major, proconsul of Africa 141–142
- Sextus Julius Severus, a Roman governor in the 2nd century AD
- Sextus Julius Saturninus, praenomen possibly Gaius, one of the usurpers of Gallienus
- Sextus Julius Africanus, a Christian traveller and historian of the late 2nd and early 3rd century AD
- T.R.S. Broughton, The Magistrates of the Roman Republic (American Philological Association, 1951, 1986), vol. 1, p. 290.
- Livy 40.27.4–6; Broughton, MRR1, p. 285.
- Livy 43.4.12–13; Broughton, MRR1, p. 421.
- Broughton, MRR1, p. 438.
- Broughton, MRR1, p. 445.
- Polybius 38.9–11; Cassius Dio, frg. 72; Broughton, MRR1, p. 464; Cambridge Ancient History VIII2 322
- Rhetorica ad Herennium 2.19 (though the passage less likely could refer to the consul of 91); Cicero, De domo sua 136; Broughton, MRR1, pp. 513, 515 (note 2).
- Broughton, The Magistrates of the Roman Republic (American Philological Association, 1952), vol. 2, p. 442.
- Broughton, The Magistrates of the Roman Republic (American Philological Association, 1986), vol. 3, p. 443.
- Broughton, MRR2, p. 12.
- Broughton, MRR2, p. 20.
- Appian, Bellum Civile 1.48; Broughton, MRR2, p. 27.
- Caesar, Bellum Civile 2.20.7; Broughton, MRR2, p. 264.
- Cassius Dio 47.26.3; Broughton, MRR2, pp. 274 and 285 (note 5).
- De Bello Alexandrino 66.1; Livy, Periochae 114; Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews 14.160, 170, 178, 180, and The Jewish War 1.205, 211–213, 216; Appian, Bellum Civile 3.77, 4.58; Cassius Dio 47.26.3; Broughton, MRR2, pp. 285 (note 5), 289, 297.
- Cicero, De Haruspicum Responsis 12; Broughton, MRR2, p. 199.
- Sextus Julius Caesar at Livius.org