Sf9 cells, a clonal isolate of Spodoptera frugiperda Sf21 cells (IPLB-SF21-AE), are commonly used for recombinant protein production using baculovirus. They were originally established from ovarian tissue. They can be grown in the absence of serum, and can be cultured attached or in suspension.
- Vaughn JL, Goodwin RH, Tompkins GJ, McCawley P (1977). "The establishment of two cell lines from the insect Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera; Noctuidae)". In Vitro 13 (4): 213–217. doi:10.1007/BF02615077. PMID 68913.
- Invitrogen (03/08/2010). "Cell Lines" (PDF). Growth and Maintenance of Insect cell lines. Rev. Date - 8 March 2010. Invitrogen. Manual part no. 25-0127, MAN0000030. Retrieved 02/23/2012.