Shabbir Ahmad Usmani
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|Shabbir Ahmad Usmani
شبير أحمد عثماني
October 6, 1886|
Bijnor, British India
|Died||13 December 1949
Baghdad al-Jadid, Bahawalpur State
|Resting place||Islamia Science College
|Occupation||Islamic scholar, Teacher, Politician|
|Main interest(s)||Tafsir, Hadith, Shari'a|
|Notable idea(s)||Objectives Resolution|
|Alma mater||Darul Uloom Deoband|
|Disciple of||Mahmud al-Hasan|
Darul Uloom Deoband, India
Shabbir Ahmad Usmani (Urdu: شبير أحمد عثماني, Shabbīr Aḥmad ‘Usmānī; 6 October 1886 – 13 December 1949) was an Islamic scholar who supported the creation of Pakistan in 1947. He was a theologian, writer, orator, politician, and expert in tafsir and hadith. He was also a student and khalifa of Shaikhul Hind Mahmud ul Hasan.
Born on October 6, 1886 in Bijnor, a city in Uttar Pradesh, India, Usmani's father, Maulana Fadhlur Rahman, was the deputy inspector of schools and had been sent to Bareilly when his son was born. He was educated at Darul Ulum Deoband, where he became a disciple of Mahmud ul Hasan, and graduated with distinction in 1908. After his graduation, he was appointed as a mudarris (teacher) at Darul Ulum Deoband.
In 1915, when Mahmud ul Hasan travelled to Hijaz, Usmani filled his position as the teacher of Sahih Muslim. In 1925, Sultan Ibn Saud of Saudi Arabia scheduled a conference for prominent ulama from all over the world. A deputation of a number of 'ulama from India participated in this conference, with Usmani among them. Sultan Abdul Aziz bin Sa'ud was impressed by Usmani's eloquent and scholarly lectures and instituted a number of reforms in his administration. In 1926, he moved to Dabhel and became a teacher at Jami'a Islamiyyah Dabhel. In 1933, when Allama Anwar Shah Kashmiri died, Usmani became the teacher of Sahih al-Bukhari.
Usmani's greatest literary work is Tafsir-e-Usmani. This is an Urdu translation of the tafsir of the Quran written by his shaikh, Mahmud ul Hasan. In this work, Usmani derived extracts from 13 or 14 other works. His next most renowned literary work is Fathul Mulhim Sharh Sahih Muslim, which is a commentary on Sahih Muslim. He completed three volumes, and his work was complemented by a six-volume work, Takmila Fathul Mulhim, published by Mufti Muhammad Taqi Usmani. Another of Usmani's notable works is Tark-e-Muvalaat Par Mufassal Tabsera, a pamphlet written in 1921 requesting that the 'ulama lead the Muslims of India against the British. This pamphlet was banned by the British government. Usmani's other literary works include Hamara Pakistan (a pamphlet written in 1942), Hamara Islam, and Khutbat-e-Usmani.
During the Balkan War, Usmani held a prominent position collecting donations for the Hilal-e-Ahmar Fund. In 1944, he became a member of the Muslim League and was one of the few Deobandis who supported the creation of Pakistan. Usmani also founded the Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam in 1945, to counteract the anti-Pakistan propaganda and activities of the Jamiat Ulema-e-Hind. He served as JUI's president until his death.
After the Partition of India, Usmani became a member of the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan, and remained a member until his death. He is remembered for having spearheaded the Qarardad-i-Maqasid Objectives Resolution, which was passed by the constituent assembly on March 12, 1949. It may be added here that most non-Muslim members of the constituent assembly opposed the Objectives Resolution. Usmani was given the honor of inaugurating and flying the flag of Pakistan[dubious ]. However, despite his prominence he was not given a cabinet position.
- Deoband Movement (1866-1947) at Storyofpakistan.com
- Rizwan Hussain. Pakistan and the emergence of Islamic militancy in Afghanistan. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2005