Shades of blue

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For other uses, see Shades of Blue (disambiguation).
"Shade of Blue" redirects here. For the song by Black Rebel Motorcycle Club, see Take Them On, On Your Own.
Main article: Blue
BlueHow to read this color infobox
Color icon blue.svg
Wavelength 440–490 nm
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #0000FF
sRGBB  (rgb) (0, 0, 255)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (100, 100, 0, 0)
HSV       (h, s, v) (240°, 100%, 100[1]%)
Source X11
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

Varieties of the color blue may differ in hue, chroma (also called saturation, intensity, or colorfulness), or lightness (or value, tone, or brightness), or in two or three of these qualities. Variations in value are also called tints and shades, a tint being a blue or other hue mixed with white, a shade being mixed with black. A large selection of these various colors is shown below.

Tints of blue[edit]

In this section, the term tint is used in its technical sense as used in color theory, meaning a blueish color mixed with white or light gray.

Periwinkle[edit]

Main article: Periwinkle (color)
PeriwinkleHow to read this color infobox
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #CCCCFF
sRGBB  (rgb) (204, 204, 255)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (20, 20, 0, 0)
HSV       (h, s, v) (240°, 20%, 100%)
Source Maerz & Paul
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

Shown in the right is the color periwinkle, or periwinkle blue. Another name for this color is lavender blue. The color is a mixture of white and blue. It is named after the Periwinkle flower and is also commonly referred to as a tone of light blue.

Cobalt[edit]

Main article: Powder blue
CobaltHow to read this color infobox
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #B0E0E6
sRGBB  (rgb) (176, 224, 230)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (24, 3, 0, 10)
HSV       (h, s, v) (187°, 23%, 90%)
Source X11[1]
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

The web color powder blue is shown on the right.

The first recorded use of powder blue as a color name in English was in 1774.[2]

Light blue[edit]

Main article: Light blue
Light BlueHow to read this color infobox
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #ADD8E6
sRGBB  (rgb) (173, 216, 230)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (25, 6, 0, 10)
HSV       (h, s, v) (195°, 25%, 90%)
Source X11
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

The web color light blue is displayed in the color box at right. Variations of this color are known as sky blue, baby blue, or angel blue. Within the X11 color system, with a hue code of 194, this color is closer to cyan than to blue.

The first recorded use of "light blue" as a color term in English is in the year 1915.[3]

Baby blue[edit]

Main article: Baby blue
Baby blueHow to read this color infobox
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #89CFF0
sRGBB  (rgb) (137, 207, 240)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (43, 14, 0, 6)
HSV       (h, s, v) (199°, 43%, 94%)
Source Maerz and Paul[4]
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

Baby blue is known as one of the pastel colors. With a hue code of 199, this color is a tone of azure.

The first recorded use of baby blue as a color name in English was in 1892.[5]

Computer web color blue[edit]

Blue (RGB) (X11 blue)[edit]

Blue (RGB) (X11 blue)How to read this color infobox
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #0000FF
sRGBB  (rgb) (0, 0, 255)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (Not, possible, in, CMYK)
HSV       (h, s, v) (240°, 100%, 100%)
Source X11 color names[6]
HTML/CSS[1]
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)
Red, green, and blue lights, representing the three basic additive primary colors of the RGB color system, red, green, and blue

The color defined as blue in the RGB color model, X11 blue, is shown at right. This color is the brightest possible blue that can be reproduced on a computer screen, and is the color named blue in X11. It is one of the three primary colors used on the RGB color space, along with red and green. The three additive primaries in the RGB color system are the three colors of light chosen such as to provide the maximum gamut of colors that are capable of being represented on a computer or television set.

This color is also called color wheel blue. It is at precisely 240 degrees on the HSV color wheel, also known as the RGB color wheel. It is a spectral color which lies at, or near, the short-wave (violet) end of the traditional "blue" and possibly was classified as "indigo" by Newton.[7] Its complementary color is yellow.


Additional definitions of blue[edit]

Blue (CMYK) (pigment blue)[edit]

Blue (CMYK) (Pigment Blue)How to read this color infobox
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #333399
sRGBB  (rgb) (51, 51, 153)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (67, 67, 0, 40)
HSV       (h, s, v) (240°, 67%, 60%)
Source CMYK
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)
Cyan, magenta, and yellow are the three subtractive primary colors used in printing

The color defined as blue in the CMYK color system used in printing, also known as pigment blue, is the tone of blue that is achieved by mixing process (printer's) cyan and process (printer's) magenta in equal proportions. It is displayed at right.

The purpose of the CMYK color system is to provide the maximum possible gamut of color reproducible in printing by the use of only three primaries.

The color indicated is only approximate as the colors of printing inks may vary.

Blue (NCS) (psychological primary blue)[edit]

Blue (NCS)How to read this color infobox
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #0087BD
sRGBB  (rgb) (0, 135, 189)
HSV       (h, s, v) (197°, 100%, 74%)
Source sRGB approximation to NCS 2060-B[8]
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
Approximations within the sRGB gamut to the primary colors of the Natural Color System, a model based on the opponent process theory of color vision

The color defined as blue in the NCS or Natural Color System is an azure-like color shown at right (NCS 2060-B). The Natural Color System is a color system based on the four unique hues or psychological primary colors red, yellow, green, and blue. The NCS is based on the opponent process theory of vision.

The “Natural Color System” is widely used in Scandinavia.


Blue (Munsell)[edit]

Blue (Munsell)How to read this color infobox
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #0093AF
sRGBB  (rgb) (0, 147, 175)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (100, 16, 0, 31)
HSV       (h, s, v) (190°, 100%, 69%)
Source Munsell Color Wheel
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)
The hues of the Munsell color system, at varying values, and maximum chroma to stay in the sRGB gamut

The color defined as blue in the Munsell color system (Munsell 5B) is shown at right. The Munsell color system is a color space that specifies colors based on three color dimensions: hue, value (lightness), and chroma (color purity), spaced uniformly in three dimensions in the elongated oval at an angle shaped Munsell color solid according to the logarithmic scale which governs human perception. In order for all the colors to be spaced uniformly, it was found necessary to use a color wheel with five primary colors: red, yellow, green, blue, and purple.

The Munsell color displayed is only approximate as this spectral color have been adjusted to fit into the sRGB gamut. In the 21st century, this hue is classified as an intermediate between azure and cyan.


Blue (Pantone)[edit]

Blue (Pantone)How to read this color infobox
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #0018A8
sRGBB  (rgb) (0, 24, 168)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (100, 80, 0, 34)
HSV       (h, s, v) (231°, 100%, 66[9]%)
Source Pantone TPX[10]
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

Blue (Pantone) is the color that is called blue in Pantone.

The source of this color is the "Pantone Textile Paper eXtended (TPX)" color list, color # Blue C, EC, HC, M, PC, U, or UP—Blue.[11]


Blue (Crayola)[edit]

Blue (Crayola)How to read this color infobox
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #1F75FE
sRGBB  (rgb) (31, 117, 254)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (88, 54, 0, 0)
HSV       (h, s, v) (217°, 88%, 100[12]%)
Source Crayola
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

Blue (Crayola) is the color called blue in Crayola crayons.

"Blue" was one of the original Crayola crayons formulated in 1903.


Shades of blue[edit]

In this section, the term shade is used in its technical sense as used in color theory, meaning a blueish color mixed with black or dark gray. The colors arranged in order of their value (brightness) (V in the HSV code), the brighter colors toward the top and the darker colors toward the bottom.

Medium blue[edit]

Medium BlueHow to read this color infobox
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #0000CD
sRGBB  (rgb) (0, 0, 205)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (100, 100, 0, 20)
HSV       (h, s, v) (240°, 100%, 80%)
Source X11
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

Displayed at right is the web color medium blue. It is a shade of the standard (h = 240°) blue.

Spanish blue[edit]

Blue (G&S)How to read this color infobox
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #0070BB
sRGBB  (rgb) (0, 112, 184)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (100, 45, 0, 0)
HSV       (h, s, v) (203°, 100%, 72%)
Source Gallego and Sanz[13]
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

Spanish blue is the color that is called Azul (the Spanish word for "blue") in the Guía de coloraciones (Guide to colorations) by Rosa Gallego and Juan Carlos Sanz, a color dictionary published in 2005 that is widely popular in the Hispanophone realm. It is a shade of azure.

Liberty[edit]

LibertyHow to read this color infobox
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #545AA7
sRGBB  (rgb) (84, 90`, 167)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (50, 46, 0, 35)
HSV       (h, s, v) (236°, 50%, 66[14]%)
Source ISCC-NBS[15]
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

At right is displayed the color liberty.

The first recorded use of liberty as a color name in English was in 1918.[16]

The source of this color is: ISCC-NBS Dictionary of Color Names (1955)--Color Sample of Liberty (color sample #196)


Egyptian blue[edit]

Main article: Egyptian blue
Egyptian BlueHow to read this color infobox
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #1034A6
sRGBB  (rgb) (16, 52, 166)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (90, 69, 0, 35)
HSV       (h, s, v) (226°, 90%, 65%)
Source Internet
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

Egyptian blue is a pigment that was used in Ancient Egypt.

Ultramarine[edit]

UltramarineHow to read this color infobox
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #3F00FF
sRGBB  (rgb) (63, 0, 255)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (75.3, 100, 0, 0)
HSV       (h, s, v) (254.8°, 1%, 1%)
Source [Unsourced]
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)
Main article: Ultramarine

Ultramarine is a blue pigment in use since medieval times.

Dark blue[edit]

Dark BlueHow to read this color infobox
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #00008B
sRGBB  (rgb) (0, 0, 139)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (100, 100, 0, 46)
HSV       (h, s, v) (240°, 100%, 55%)
Source X11
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

Dark blue is a shade of the standard (h = 240°) blue. The name comes from the word "Dark" (which originated from Old English dark, derk, deork; Anglo-Saxon dearc, and Gaelic and Irish dorch, dorcha) and "Blue" (taken from French and originated from the Indo-European root bhlewos).

Resolution blue[edit]

Resolution BlueHow to read this color infobox
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #002387
sRGBB  (rgb) (0, 35, 185)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (100, 74, 0, 47)
HSV       (h, s, v) (224°, 100%, 53%)
Source Xona.com Color List
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

At right is displayed the color resolution blue.

This color name first came into use in 2001 when it was formulated as one of the colors on the Xona.com Color List.


Navy blue[edit]

Main article: Navy blue
Navy BlueHow to read this color infobox
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #000080
sRGBB  (rgb) (0, 0, 128)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (100, 100, 0, 50)
HSV       (h, s, v) (240°, 100%, 50%)
Source HTML/CSS[1]
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

Navy blue is a shade of the standard (h = 240°) blue. Navy blue got its name from the dark blue (contrasted with white) worn by officers in the British Royal Navy since 1748 (originally called marine blue before 1840) and subsequently adopted by other navies around the world.

The first recorded use of navy blue as a color name in English was in 1840.[17]

Catalina blue[edit]

Catalina BlueHow to read this color infobox
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #062A78
sRGBB  (rgb) (6, 42, 120)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (95, 65, 0, 53)
HSV       (h, s, v) (221°, 95%, 47%)
Source Xona.com Color List
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

At right is displayed the color Catalina blue.

This color name first came into use in 2001 when it was formulated as one of the colors on the Xona.com Color List.


Midnight blue[edit]

Main article: Midnight blue
Midnight BlueHow to read this color infobox
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #191970
sRGBB  (rgb) (25, 25, 112)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (97, 78, 39, 29)
HSV       (h, s, v) (240°, 78%, 44%)
Source X11
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

At right is displayed the color midnight blue.

This is the X11 web color midnight blue.

This color was originally called midnight. The first recorded use of midnight as a color name in English was in 1915.[18]


Independence[edit]

IndependenceHow to read this color infobox
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #4C516D
sRGBB  (rgb) (76, 81, 109)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (30, 26, 0, 57)
HSV       (h, s, v) (231°, 30%, 43[19]%)
Source ISCC NBS
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

At right is displayed the color independence.

The first recorded use of independence as a color name in English was in 1927.[20]

The source of this color is: ISCC-NBS Dictionary of Color Names (1955)--Color Sample of Independence (color sample #204).


Space cadet[edit]

Space CadetHow to read this color infobox
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #1D2951
sRGBB  (rgb) (29, 41, 81)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (64, 49, 0, 68)
HSV       (h, s, v) (226°, 64%, 32[21]%)
Source Resene
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

Displayed at right is the color space cadet.

Space cadet is one of the colors on the Resene Color List, a color list widely popular in Australia and New Zealand. The color "space cadet" was formulated in 2007.

This color is apparently a formulation of an impression of the color that cadets in space navy training would wear.


Variations of blue in culture[edit]

Note: For blue in general in culture, please go to the main article on the color blue

Cartography

Fashion

  • Dark clothing for males such as black, brown, or dark blue business suits have become much more popular since the mid-1990s, as opposed to the pastel colored business suits worn in the 1970s by major leaders in such institutions as the United States Congress (the vast difference in the clothing worn in the 1970s as opposed to the 2000s (decade) can be readily seen by looking at a videotape of the Watergate hearings).

Law Enforcement

  • In many parts of the world, police wear dark blue uniforms.

Sexuality

Sociology

Wrapping the spectrum into a color wheel[edit]

If the visible spectrum is wrapped to form a color wheel, magenta (additive primary) appears midway between green and violet:

Linear visible spectrum.svg
Visible spectrum wrapped to join cyan and magenta in an additive mixture of blue


See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d W3C TR CSS3 Color Module, HTML4 color keywords
  2. ^ Maerz and Paul A Dictionary of Color New York:1930 McGraw-Hill Page 202. See color sample of powder blue, Page 95--Plate 36 Color Sample H2
  3. ^ Maerz and Paul A Dictionary of Color New York:1930 McGraw-Hill Page 190
  4. ^ The color displayed in the color box above matches the color called baby blue in the 1930 book by Maerz and Paul A Dictionary of Color New York:1930 McGraw-Hill; the color baby blue is displayed on page 93, Plate 35, Color Sample E2.
  5. ^ Maerz and Paul A Dictionary of Color New York:1930 McGraw-Hill Page 190; Color Sample of Baby Blue: Page 93 Plate 35 Color Sample E2
  6. ^ "X11 rgb.txt". Retrieved 2008-02-05. 
  7. ^ Waldman, Gary (2002). Introduction to light : the physics of light, vision, and color (Dover ed. ed.). Mineola: Dover Publications. p. 193. ISBN 978-0-486-42118-6. 
  8. ^ The sRGB values are taken by converting the NCS color 2060-B using the “NCS Navigator” tool at the NCS website.
  9. ^ web.Forret.com Color Conversion Tool set to color #0018A8 (Blue (Pantone)):
  10. ^ Type the word "Blue" into the indicated window on the Pantone Color Finder and the color will appear. There are seven versions, all with the same color codes—C, EC, HC, M, PC, U, and UP.
  11. ^ Pantone TPX Pantone Color Finder--Type the word "Blue" into the indicated window on the Pantone Color Finder and the color will appear. There are seven versions, all with the same color codes—C, EC, HC, M, PC, U, and UP.:
  12. ^ web.forret.com Color Conversion Tool set to hex code #1F75FE (Blue (Crayola)):
  13. ^ Gallego, Rosa; Sanz, Juan Carlos (2005). Guía de coloraciones (Gallego, Rosa; Sanz, Juan Carlos (2005). Guide to Colorations) Madrid: H. Blume. ISBN 84-89840-31-8
  14. ^ web.forret.com Color Conversion Tool set to hex code #545AA7 (Liberty):
  15. ^ Color sample #196 on the ISCC-NBS color list is the color sample that matches the color in the book by Maerz and Paul A Dictionary of Color New York:1930 McGraw-Hill--Color Sample of Liberty: Page 109 Plate 43 Color Sample C12
  16. ^ Maerz and Paul A Dictionary of Color New York:1930 McGraw-Hill Page 197; Color Sample of Liberty: Page 109 Plate 43 Color Sample C12
  17. ^ Maerz and Paul A Dictionary of Color New York:1930 McGraw-Hill Page 103; Color Sample of Navy blue: Page 131 Plate 40 Color Sample E11
  18. ^ Maerz and Paul A Dictionary of Color New York: 1930 McGraw-Hill Page 199; Color Sample of Midnight: Page 103 Plate 40 Color Sample A8
  19. ^ web.forret.com Color Conversion Tool set to hex code of color #4C516D (Independence):
  20. ^ Maerz and Paul A Dictionary of Color New York:1930 McGraw-Hill Page 196; color sample of Independence: Page 117 Plate 47 Color Sample H12
  21. ^ web.Forret.com Color Conversion Tool set to color #1D2951 (Space Cadet):
  22. ^ See the Grosshistoricher Weltatlas, 1965 edition (Other German historical atlases use these same colors.)
  23. ^ "Gay.ru". Gay.ru. Retrieved 2009-04-14. 
  24. ^ The Cuckoo's Egg: Tracking a Spy Through the Maze of Computer Espionage, Clifford Stoll, 1989, ISBN 0-7434-1146-3
  25. ^ Shatner, William (with Chris Kreski) Star Trek Memories New York:1993 HarperCollins
  26. ^ The Wordsworth Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. Wordsworth Editions. 2001. p. 149.