Shades of cyan

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Main article: Cyan
CyanHow to read this color infobox
CyanIcon.png
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #00FFFF
sRGBB  (rgb) (0, 255, 255)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (100, 0, 0, 0)
HSV       (h, s, v) (180°, 100%, 100%)
Source CSS Color Module Level 3
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

The first recorded use of cyan blue ("cyan blue" was the name used for the color "cyan" in the 19th century) as a color name in English was in 1879.[1] This article is about notable tints and shades of the color, which are shown below.

Cyan in printing and the web colors cyan and aqua[edit]

Process cyan[edit]

Cyan (subtractive primary)How to read this color infobox
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #00B7EB
sRGBB  (rgb) (0, 183, 235)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (100, 22, 0, 8)
HSV       (h, s, v) (193°, 100%, 92[2]%)
Source CMYK[3]
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)
Cyan, magenta, and yellow are the three subtractive primary colors used in printing.

In color printing, the shade of cyan called process cyan or pigment cyan is one of the three primary pigment colors which, along with yellow and magenta, constitute the three subtractive primary colors of pigment. (The secondary colors of pigment are blue, green, and red.) As such, the CMYK printing process was invented in the 1890s, when newspapers began to publish color comic strips.

Process cyan is not an RGB color, and there is no fixed conversion from CMYK primaries to RGB. Different formulations are used for printer's ink, so there can be variations in the printed color that is pure cyan ink. A typical formulation of process cyan is shown in the color box at right. The source of the color shown at right is the color magenta that is shown in the diagram located at the bottom of the following website offering tintbooks for CMYK printing: [1].


The web color cyan (aqua)[edit]

Cyan (additive secondary)How to read this color infobox
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #00FFFF
sRGBB  (rgb) (0, 255, 255)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (100, 0, 0, 0)
HSV       (h, s, v) (180°, 100%, 100%)
Source X11
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)
Red, green and blue lights, representing the three basic additive primary colors of the RGB color system, red, green, and blue. Cyan light is composed of equal amounts of green and blue light.

The web color cyan, shown at the right, is one of the three secondary colors in the RGB color model, used for creating all colors on a computer or television display by mixing various combinations of red, green and blue light. The X11 name for this color is cyan; the HTML name for the same color is aqua. They are both composed of the same mixture of blue and green light, and are exactly the same color.

Additional variations of cyan[edit]

Aero blue[edit]

See also Air Force blue#Aero

Aero BlueHow to read this color infobox
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #C9FFE5
sRGBB  (rgb) (201, 255, 229)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (21.2, 0, 0, 0)
HSV       (h, s, v) (151°, 21%, 100%)
Source Sharpie
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

Aero blue is a fluorescent cyan color. Aero blue was used as rainshower in one of the Sharpie (marker) permanent markers but not as bright on the marker.

However, there is no mechanism for showing fluorescence on a computer screen.

Aquamarine[edit]

Main article: aquamarine (color)
AquamarineHow to read this color infobox
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #7FFFD4
sRGBB  (rgb) (127, 255, 212)
HSV       (h, s, v) (160°, 50%, 100[4]%)
Source X11[5]
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)

Aquamarine is a color that is a bluish tint of cerulean toned toward cyan. It is named after the mineral aquamarine, a gemstone mainly found in granite rocks. The first recorded use of aquamarine as a color name in English was in 1598.[6]

Blue-green[edit]

Main article: Blue-green
Blue-GreenHow to read this color infobox
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #0D98BA
sRGBB  (rgb) (13, 152, 186)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (93, 18, 0, 27)
HSV       (h, s, v) (192°, 93%, 72[7]%)
Source Crayola
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

Blue-green has been a Crayola color since 1949.

Celeste[edit]

Main article: Sky blue § Celeste
CelesteHow to read this color infobox
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #B2FFFF
sRGBB  (rgb) (178, 255, 255)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (30, 0, 0, 0)
HSV       (h, s, v) (180°, 30%, 100%)
Source Il dizionario dei colori[8]
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

At right is displayed the color celeste.

Bleu celeste ("sky blue") is a rarely occurring tincture in heraldry (not being one of the seven main colours or metals or the three "staynard colours"). This tincture is sometimes also called ciel or simply celeste. It is depicted in a lighter shade than the range of shades of the more traditional tincture azure, which is the standard blue used in heraldry.[9] It has been used rarely since the 17th century,[10] gaining popularity after the First World War.

Cerulean[edit]

Main article: Cerulean
CeruleanHow to read this color infobox
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #007BA7
sRGBB  (rgb) (0, 123, 167)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (100, 26, 0, 35)
HSV       (h, s, v) (196°, 100%, 65[11]%)
Source [Unsourced]
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

The first recorded use of cerulean as a color name in English was in 1590.[12]

The word is probably derived from the Latin word caeruleus, "dark blue, blue or blue-green", which in turn probably derives from caelulum, diminutive of caelum, "heaven, sky".[13]


Charleston green[edit]

Charleston GreenHow to read this color infobox
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #232B2B
sRGBB  (rgb) (35, 43, 43)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (18, 0, 0, 83)
HSV       (h, s, v) (180°, 19%, 17[14]%)
Source Internet
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

Charleston green is an extremely dark shade of cyan. The color Charleston green originated after the American Civil War, approximately 1865, when during reconstruction, it was widely used to paint homes in Charleston, South Carolina.

Dark cyan[edit]

Dark CyanHow to read this color infobox
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #008B8B
sRGBB  (rgb) (0, 139, 139)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (100, 0, 46, 46)
HSV       (h, s, v) (180°, 100%, 54[15]%)
Source X11
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

At right is displayed the web color dark cyan.

Electric blue[edit]

Main article: Electric blue (color)

Electric blue (#7DF9FF)

Electric blue is a color close to cyan that is a representation of the color of lightning, an electric spark, and argon signs; it is named after the ionized air glow produced during electrical discharges.

The first recorded use of electric blue as a color name in English was in 1884.[16]

Green-blue[edit]

Green-BlueHow to read this color infobox
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #1164B4
sRGBB  (rgb) (17, 100, 180)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (91, 44, 0, 29)
HSV       (h, s, v) (209°, 90.6%, 70.6[17]%)
Source Crayola
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

Green-blue has been a Crayola color since 1949.

Keppel[edit]

KeppelHow to read this color infobox
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #3AB09E
sRGBB  (rgb) (58, 176, 158)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (67, 0, 10, 31)
HSV       (h, s, v) (171°, 67%, 69[18]%)
Source Xona.com Color List
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

At right is displayed the color keppel.

The color name keppel has been in use since 2001, when it was promulgated as one of the colors on the Xona.com Color List.

Light cyan[edit]

Light CyanHow to read this color infobox
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #E0FFFF
sRGBB  (rgb) (224, 255, 255)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (12, 0, 0, 0)
HSV       (h, s, v) (180°, 97%, 97%)
Source X11
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

At right is displayed the web color light cyan.

Light sea green[edit]

Light Sea GreenHow to read this color infobox
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #20B2AA
sRGBB  (rgb) (32, 178, 170)
HSV       (h, s, v) (175°, 40%, 75%)
Source X11
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)

At right is displayed the web color light sea green.

Midnight green[edit]

Main article: Midnight green
Midnight GreenHow to read this color infobox
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #004953
sRGBB  (rgb) (0, 73, 83)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (100, 15, 26, 70)
HSV       (h, s, v) (187°, 100%, 33%)
Source [19]
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

Midnight green (sometimes called Eagle green) has been the official primary color of the Philadelphia Eagles of the National Football League since 1996.

Robin's egg blue[edit]

Main article: Robin's egg blue
Robin's Egg BlueHow to read this color infobox
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #00CCCC
sRGBB  (rgb) (0, 204, 204)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (67, 0, 27, 0)
HSV       (h, s, v) (180°, 100%, 80%)
Source Crayola
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

The color robin's egg blue is displayed at right.

The first recorded use of robin's egg blue as a color name in English was in 1873.[20]

Sky Blue (Crayola)[edit]

Sky Blue (Crayola)How to read this color infobox
About these coordinates     Colour coordinates
Hex triplet #80DAEB
sRGBB  (rgb) (128, 218, 235)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (46, 7, 0, 8)
HSV       (h, s, v) (190°, 46%, 92[21]%)
Source Crayola
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

Displayed at right is the colour medium sky blue. This is the colour that is called sky blue in Crayola crayons. This colour was formulated by Crayola in 1958. "Sky blue" appears in the 32, 48, 64, 96 and 120 packs of crayons.

Teal[edit]

Main article: Teal (color)
TealHow to read this color infobox
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #008080
sRGBB  (rgb) (0, 128, 128)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (100, 0, 0, 50)
HSV       (h, s, v) (180°, 100%, 50[22]%)
Source HTML/CSS[23]
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

At right is displayed the web color teal.

The first recorded use of teal as a color name in English was in 1917.[24]

Tiffany Blue[edit]

Main article: tiffany blue
Tiffany BlueHow to read this color infobox
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #81D8D0
sRGBB  (rgb) (129, 216, 208)
HSV       (h, s, v) (174°, 40%, 85%)
Source Tiffany.com
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)

Tiffany Blue is the colloquial name for the light medium robin egg blue color associated with Tiffany & Co., the New York City jewelry company. The color was used on the cover of Tiffany's Blue Book, first published in 1845.[25] Since then Tiffany & Co. has used the color extensively on promotional materials, including boxes and bags. The Tiffany Blue color is protected as a color trademark by Tiffany & Co. in some jurisdictions including the U.S.[26][27]

Turquoise[edit]

Main article: Turquoise (color)
TurquoiseHow to read this color infobox
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #40E0D0
sRGBB  (rgb) (64, 224, 208)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (71, 0, 7, 12)
HSV       (h, s, v) (174°, 71%, 88[28]%)
Source X11
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

At right is displayed the X11 color named turquoise.

Turquoise is the name of a greenish blue color, based on the gem of the same name. The word turquoise comes from the French for Turkish, as the gem was originally imported from Turkey.[29][30]

The first recorded use of turquoise as a color name in English was in 1573.[31] Turquoise is currently the most common term for a cyan-like color in English.[32]

Verdigris[edit]

Main article: Verdigris
VerdigrisHow to read this color infobox
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #43b3ae
sRGBB  (rgb) (26, 70, 68)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (63, 0, 3, 30)
HSV       (h, s, v) (177°, 46%, 48%)
Source Encycolorpedia [33]
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

Verdigris is the common name for a green pigment obtained through the application of acetic acid to copper plates[34] or the natural patina formed when copper, brass or bronze is weathered and exposed to air or seawater over a period of time. The name verdigris comes from the Middle English vertegrez, from the Old French verte grez, an alteration of vert-de-Grèce ("green of Greece"). Used as a pigment in paintings and other art objects (as green color) since ancient Greece, it was originally made by hanging copper plates over hot vinegar in a sealed pot until a green crust formed on the copper. The vivid green color of copper(II) acetate made this form of verdigris a much used pigment. Until the 19th century, verdigris was the most vibrant green pigment available and was frequently used in painting. Verdigris was sometimes used to illustrate cyan colors in early color wheels.[35]

Viridian[edit]

Main article: Viridian
ViridianHow to read this color infobox
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #40826D
sRGBB  (rgb) (64, 130, 109)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (76, 30, 63, 11)
HSV       (h, s, v) (161°, 51%, 51%)
Source Maerz and Paul[36]
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

Viridian is a blue-green pigment, a hydrated chromium(III) oxide, of medium saturation and relatively dark in value. It is composed more of green than blue. Specifically, it is a dark shade of spring green, the color between green and cyan on the color wheel, or, in paint, a tertiary blue–green color. Viridian takes its name from the Latin viridis, meaning "green".[37]

The first recorded use of viridian as a color name in English was in the 1860s (exact year uncertain).[38]

Cyan in human culture[edit]

See Cyan in human culture in the main article on Cyan.

Wrapping the spectrum into a color wheel[edit]

If the visible spectrum is wrapped to form a color wheel, cyan (subtractive primary) appears midway between blue and green:

Linear visible spectrum.svg
Visible spectrum wrapped to join blue and greenin an additive mixture of cyan


See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Maerz and Paul A Dictionary of Color New York:1930 McGraw-Hill page 194
  2. ^ Using HSL color space#Conversion from RGB to HSL or HSV, v=247/255
  3. ^ Tintbooks - Get Accurate CMYK Color Results For Your Printing Projects CMYK color tintbook:
  4. ^ web.forret.com Color Conversion Tool set to hex code of color #7FFFD4 (Aquamarine):
  5. ^ W3C TR CSS3 Color Module, SVG color keywords. W3C. (May 2003). Retrieved on 2008-01-31.
  6. ^ Maerz and Paul A Dictionary of Color New York:1930 McGraw-Hill Page 190; Color Sample of Aquamarine: Page 93 Plate 35 Color Sample I3
  7. ^ web.forret.com Color Conversion Tool set to hex code of color #0D98BA (Blue-Green):
  8. ^ S. Fantetti; C. Petracchi (2001). Il dizionario dei colori: nomi e valori in quadricromia. Bologna: Zanichelli. ISBN 88-08-07995-3. 
  9. ^ Scott-Giles, C. W. (1958). Boutell's Heraldry (rev. ed.). London & New York: Frederick Warne & Co.
  10. ^ http://www.modaruniversity.org/Newcomer-Packet-11-Heraldry.pdf
  11. ^ web.forrett.com Color Conversion Tool set to hex code #007BA7 (Cerulean):
  12. ^ Maerz and Paul A Dictionary of Color New York:1930 McGraw-Hill Page 190; Color Sample of Cerulean: Page 89 Plate 33 Color Sample E6
  13. ^ Cerulean, Online Etymology Dictionary
  14. ^ web.forret.com Color Conversion Tool set to hex code of color #232B2B (Charleston Green):
  15. ^ web.forret.com Color Conversion Tool set to hex code #008B8B (Dark Cyan):
  16. ^ Maerz and Paul A Dictionary of Color New York:1930 McGraw-Hill, p.194; Color Sample of Electric Blue [fabric 1890s]: Page 97 Plate 37 Color Sample I7
  17. ^ web.forret.com Color Conversion Tool set to hex code of color #1164B4 (Green-Blue):
  18. ^ web.forret.com Color Conversion Tool set to hex code #3AB09E (Kepple):
  19. ^ "Team Colors – NFL". Ssur.org. Retrieved 2011-06-13. 
  20. ^ Maerz and Paul A Dictionary of Color New York:1930 McGraw-Hill Page 203; Color Sample of Robin's Egg Blue Page 77 Plate 27 Color Sample H3
  21. ^ web.forret.com Color Conversion Tool set to hex code of color #80DAEB (Medium Sky Blue):
  22. ^ Web.forret.com, Color Conversion Tool set to hex code of color #008080 (Teal):
  23. ^ W3.org, W3C TR CSS3 Color Module, HTML4 color keywords
  24. ^ Maerz and Paul A Dictionary of Color New York:1930 McGraw-Hill Page 205; color sample of Teal: Page 101 Plate 39 Color Sample L7
  25. ^ About Tiffany & Co.: Tiffany Blue
  26. ^ Seeing The Future In All Its Hues - New York Times
  27. ^ Brief of Amicus Curiae Tiffany (NJ) LLC (2011, p. 8-9)
  28. ^ web.forret.com Color Conversion Tool set to hex code of color 40E0D0 (Turquoise):
  29. ^ "Turquoise:turquoise mineral information and data". mindat.org. Retrieved 2006-10-04. 
  30. ^ http://rruff.geo.arizona.edu/doclib/hom/turquoise.pdf Handbook of Mineralogy
  31. ^ Maerz and Paul A Dictionary of Color New York: 1930 McGraw-Hill Page 206; Color Sample of Turquoise [green]: Page 73 Plate 25 Color Sample I5
  32. ^ "Google Ngram Viewer". 
  33. ^ http://encycolorpedia.com/43b3ae Encycolorpedia page on veridgris
  34. ^ "Verdigris" Oxford English Dictionary
  35. ^ https://archive.org/details/principlesscien00bensgoog Principles in the Science of Colour Concisely Stated by William Benson, 1868
  36. ^ The color displayed in the color box above matches the color called viridian in the 1930 book by Maerz and Paul A Dictionary of Color New York:1930 McGraw-Hill; the color viridian is displayed on page 79, Plate 28, Color Sample K11.
  37. ^ Maerz and Paul A Dictionary of Color New York:1930 McGraw-Hill Page 18 See: "Table--Polyglot Table of Principle Color Names" Pages 18-19
  38. ^ Maerz and Paul A Dictionary of Color New York:1930 McGraw-Hill Page 206; Color Sample of Viridian: Page 93 Plate 79 Color Sample K11