Shades of purple

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Main article: Purple
PurpleHow to read this color infobox
Color icon purple.svg
Common connotations
royalty, nobility, Lent, Easter, Mardi Gras
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #800080
sRGBB  (rgb) (128, 0, 128)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (0, 100, 0, 50)
HSV       (h, s, v) (300°, 100%, 50%)
Source HTML
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

There are numerous variations of the color purple, a sampling of which are shown below.

In common English usage, purple is a range of hues of color occurring between red and blue.[1]

In color theory, purple colors are any colors on the line of purples on the CIE chromaticity diagram (or colors that can be derived from colors on the line of purples), i.e., any color between red and violet, not including either red or violet themselves.[2][3]

The first recorded use of purple as a color name in English was in 975.[4]

Historical development of purple[edit]

Tyrian purple: Classical antiquity[edit]

Main article: Tyrian purple

See also under Purple#In art and history the section "In prehistory and the ancient world: Tyrian purple"

Byzantine Emperor Justinian I clad in Tyrian purple, 6th-century mosaic at Basilica of San Vitale
Tyrian PurpleHow to read this color infobox
About these coordinates     Colour coordinates
Hex triplet #66023C
sRGBB  (rgb) (102, 2, 60)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (0, 98, 41, 0)
HSV       (h, s, v) (325°, 98%, 40[5]%)
Source Tyrian Purple
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

The actual color of Tyrian purple, the original color purple from which the name purple is derived, is the color of a dye extracted from a mollusk found on the shores of the city of Tyre in ancient Phoenicia (present day Lebanon) that in classical antiquity became a symbol of royalty because only the very wealthy could afford it. Therefore, Tyrian purple was also called imperial purple.

Tyrian purple may have been discovered as early as the time of the Minoan civilization. Alexander the Great (when giving imperial audiences as the Emperor of the Macedonian Empire), the emperor of the Seleucid Empire, and the kings of Ptolemaic Egypt all wore Tyrian purple. The imperial robes of Roman emperors were Tyrian purple trimmed in metallic gold thread. The badge of office of a Roman Senator was a stripe of Tyrian purple on their white toga.[6] Tyrian purple was continued in use by the emperors of the Eastern Roman Empire until its final collapse in 1453.

The tone of Tyrian purple shown above is that tone of Tyrian purple which was the color of clotted blood, which was considered the tone having the most prestige in Ancient Greece and Rome, as recorded by Pliny. The actual tone could vary depending on how it was formulated. Lesser royal houses that wanted to economize could mix the Tyrian purple dye with the much cheaper indigo to create a color closer to violet.

Han purple: Ancient China[edit]

Han purple and Han blue were synthetic colors made by artisans in China during the Han dynasty (206 BC to 220 AD) or even earlier.

Han purple is a type of artificial pigment found in China between 500 BC and AD 220. It was used in the decoration of the Terracotta Army.

Royal purple: 1600s[edit]

Royal PurpleHow to read this color infobox
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #7851A9
sRGBB  (rgb) (120, 81, 169)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (29, 52, 0, 34)
HSV       (h, s, v) (267°, 52%, 66[7]%)
Source Crayola
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

The color royal purple is shown at right. This tone of purple is bluer than the ancient Tyrian purple.

The first recorded use of royal purple as a color name in English was in 1661.[8]

In 1990, royal purple was formulated as one of the Crayola crayon colors.

Mauveine: 1860s-1890s[edit]

Main article: Mauveine
Professor Charles Rees—wearing bow tie dyed with original sample of mauveine—holding RSC journal named after Perkin

Mauveine was first named in 1856. Chemist Sir William Henry Perkin, then eighteen, was attempting to create artificial quinine. An unexpected residue caught his eye, which turned out to be the first aniline dye – specifically, Perkin's mauve or mauveineis sometimes called aniline purple. Perkin was so successful in recommending his discovery to the dyestuffs industry that his biography by Simon Garfield is titled Mauve.[9] As mauveine faded easily, our contemporary understanding of mauve is as a lighter, less saturated color than it was originally known.[10]

"Mauveine" was named after the mauve colored mallow flower, even though it is a much deeper tone of purple than mauve. The term "Mauve" in the late 19th century could refer to either the deep, rich color of the dye or the light color of the flower. Mauve (meaning Mauveine) came into great vogue when in 1862 Queen Victoria appeared at the Royal Exhibition in a mauve silk gown—dyed with mauveine. By 1890, this color had become so pervasive in fashion that author Thomas Beer used it in the title of his book about the 1890s, The Mauve Decade.[11]

Artists' pigment purple (red-violet): 1930s[edit]

Main article: Red-violet
Red-VioletHow to read this color infobox
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #C71585
sRGBB  (rgb) (199, 21, 133)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (0, 89, 33, 0)
HSV       (h, s, v) (322°, 89%, 78%)
Source X11
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

'Royal purple' (shown above) or the dark violet color known as generic purple is the common layman's idea of purple, but professional artists,[citation needed] following Munsell color system (introduced in 1905 and widely accepted by 1930), regard purple as being synonymous with the red-violet color shown at right, represented by the web color medium violet red, in order to clearly distinguish purple from violet and thus have access to a larger palette of colors[citation needed]. This red-violet color, called artist's purple by artists, is the pigment color that would be on a pigment color color wheel between pigment violet and pigment (process) magenta. In the Munsell color system, this color at its maximum chroma of 12 is called Red-Purple, or more specifically Munsell 5RP.

Artists' pigments and colored pencils labeled as purple are typically colored the red-violet color shown at right. On an RYB color wheel, red-violet is the color between red and violet.

Electric purple: 2000s[edit]

This color, electric purple, is precisely halfway between violet and magenta and thus fits the artistic definition of purple.[12]

Using additive colors such as those on computer screens, it is possible to create a much brighter purple than with pigments where the mixing subtracts frequencies from the component primary colors. The equivalent color on a computer to the pigment color red-violet shown above would be this electric purple, i.e. the much brighter purple you can see reproduced on the screen of a computer. This color is pure purple conceived as computer artists conceive it, as the color on the color wheel halfway between color wheel violet and electric magenta. Thus, electric purple is the purest and brightest purple that it is possible to display on a computer screen.

An old name for this color, used by Robert Ridgway in his 1912 book on color nomenclature, Color Standards and Color Nomenclature, is true purple.[13]

Computer web color purples[edit]

Purple (HTML/CSS color) (patriarch)[edit]

Purple (HTML/CSS color)How to read this color infobox
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #800080
sRGBB  (rgb) (128, 0, 128)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (66, 87, 0, 0)
HSV       (h, s, v) (300°, 100%, 50.2%)
Source HTML/CSS[14]
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

This purple used in HTML and CSS actually is deeper and has a more reddish hue (#800080) than the X11 color purple shown below as purple (X11 color) (#A020F0), which is bluer and brighter.

This color may be called HTML/CSS purple. It seems likely that this color was chosen as the web color purple because its hue is exactly halfway between red and blue and its value is exactly halfway between white and black.

A traditional name sometimes used for this tone of purple is patriarch. The first recorded use of patriarch as a color name in English was in 1925.[15]


Purple (X11 color) (veronica)[edit]

Purple (X11 color)How to read this color infobox
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #A020F0
sRGBB  (rgb) (160, 32, 240)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (9, 94, 0, 0)
HSV       (h, s, v) (276.92°, 86.67%, 94.12%)
Source X11
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

At right is displayed the color purple, as defined in the X11 color, which is a lot brighter and bluer than the HTML purple shown above.

See the chart Color names that clash between X11 and HTML/CSS in the X11 color names article to see those colors which are different in HTML and X11.

This color can be called X11 purple.

The traditional name for this tone of purple is veronica. The first recorded use of veronica as a color name in English was in 1919.[16]


Medium purple (X11)[edit]

Medium PurpleHow to read this color infobox
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #9370DB
sRGBB  (rgb) (147, 112, 219)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (56, 58, 0, 0)
HSV       (h, s, v) (270°, 68%, 72%)
Source X11
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

Displayed at right is the web color medium purple.

This color is a medium shade of the bright X11 purple shown above.

Additional definition of purple[edit]

Purple (Munsell)[edit]

Purple (Munsell)How to read this color infobox
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #9F00C5
sRGBB  (rgb) (159, 0, 197)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (19, 100, 0, 23)
HSV       (h, s, v) (288°, 100%, 77[17]%)
Source Munsell Color Wheel
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)
The hues of the Munsell color system, at varying values, and maximum chroma to stay in the sRGB gamut.

The color defined as purple in the Munsell color system (Munsell 5P) is shown at right. The Munsell color system is a color space that specifies colors based on three color dimensions: hue, value (lightness), and chroma (color purity), spaced uniformly in three dimensions in the elongated oval at an angle shaped Munsell color solid according to the logarithmic scale which governs human perception. In order for all the colors to be spaced uniformly, it was found necessary to use a color wheel with five primary colors—red, yellow, green, blue, and purple.

The Munsell colors displayed are only approximate as they have been adjusted to fit into the sRGB gamut.


Additional variations[edit]

Palatinate[edit]

Main article: Palatinate (colour)

Palatinate Purple #682860 (as associated with the University of Durham)

PalatinateHow to read this color infobox
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #682860
sRGBB  (rgb) (104, 40, 96)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (0, 62, 8, 59)
HSV       (h, s, v) (308°, 62%, 41%)
Source [Unsourced]
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

Palatinate is a color (a pale shade of violet) associated with the University of Durham (and with Newcastle University Medical School, this being the former medical school of Durham University.) A separate color, 'Palatinate Blue', is derived from the Coat of Arms of the County of Durham. The name 'Palatinate' in both instances alludes to the historic status of Durham as a County Palatine.

Thistle[edit]

Milk thistle flowerhead
ThistleHow to read this color infobox
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #D8BFD8
sRGBB  (rgb) (216, 191, 216)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (18, 27, 2, 1)
HSV       (h, s, v) (300°, 12%, 85%)
Source X11
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

Thistle is a pale purplish color resembling the thistle plant.

The first recorded use of Thistle as a color name in English was in 1892.[18]

The color thistle is associated with Scotland because the thistle is the national flower of Scotland and Scotland's highest state decoration is the Order of the Thistle.

Mauve[edit]

Main article: Mauve
Mallow wildflower
Mauve (Mallow)How to read this color infobox
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #E0B0FF
sRGBB  (rgb) (224, 176, 255)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (12, 31, 0, 0)
HSV       (h, s, v) (276°, 31%, 100%)
Source Maerz and Paul[19]
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

Mauve Listeni/ˈmv/[20] (rhymes with "grove"; from the French form of Malva "mallow") is a pale lavender-lilac color, one of many in the range of purples. Mauve is named after the mallow flower. Another name for the color is mallow[21] with the first recorded use of mallow as a color name in English in 1611.[22]


Orchid[edit]

Main article: Orchid (color)
OrchidHow to read this color infobox
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #DA70D6
sRGBB  (rgb) (218, 112, 214)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (0, 49, 2, 15)
HSV       (h, s, v) (302°, 49%, 85%)
Source X11
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

The color orchid is a light tone of purple. The name 'orchid' originates from the flowers of some species of the vast orchid flower family, such as Laelia furfuracea and Ascocentrum pusillum, which have petals of this color.

The first recorded use of orchid as a color name in English was in 1915.[23]

Heliotrope[edit]

Main article: Heliotrope (color)
HeliotropeHow to read this color infobox
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #DF73FF
sRGBB  (rgb) (223, 115, 255)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (13, 55, 0, 0)
HSV       (h, s, v) (286°, 55%, 100%)
Source Maerz and Paul[24]
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

The color heliotrope is a brilliant tone of purple; it is a pink-purple tint that is a representation of the color of the heliotrope flower.

The first recorded use of heliotrope as a color name in English was in 1882.[25]

Psychedelic purple (phlox)[edit]

Garden Phlox (Phlox paniculata)
PhloxHow to read this color infobox
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #DF00FF
sRGBB  (rgb) (223, 0, 255)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (13, 100, 0, 0)
HSV       (h, s, v) (292°, 100%, 100[26]%)
Source Maerz and Paul[27]
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

The pure essence of purple was approximated in pigment in the late 1960s by mixing fluorescent magenta and fluorescent blue pigments together to make fluorescent purple to use in psychedelic black light paintings. This tone of purple was very popular among hippies and was the favorite color of Jimi Hendrix. Thus it is called psychedelic purple. Psychedelic purple is the color halfway between electric purple and magenta.

In the 1980s there was a Jimi Hendrix Museum in a Victorian house on the east side of Central Ave. one half block south of Haight Street in the Haight-Ashbury neighborhood of San Francisco which was painted this color.

Another name for this color is phlox, as it is the color of the phlox flower. The first recorded use of phlox as a color name in English was in 1918.[28]

Purple pizzazz[edit]

Purple PizzazzHow to read this color infobox
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #FE4EDA
sRGBB  (rgb) (254, 78, 218)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (0, 69, 14, 0)
HSV       (h, s, v) (312°, 69%, 100[29]%)
Source Crayola
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

Displayed at right is the color purple pizzazz.

This color was formulated by Crayola in 1990.

Liseran purple[edit]

Liseran PurpleHow to read this color infobox
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #DE6FA1
sRGBB  (rgb) (223, 111, 161)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (0, 50, 28, 13)
HSV       (h, s, v) (333°, 50%, 87[30]%)
Source ISCC-NBS [31]
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

Displayed at right is the color liseran purple.

The first recorded use of liseran purple as a color name in English was in 1912.[32]

The source of this color is: ISCC-NBS Dictionary of Color Names (1955)--Color Sample of Liseran Purple (color sample #248)


Mulberry[edit]

Main article: Mulberry (color)
MulberryHow to read this color infobox
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #C54B8C
sRGBB  (rgb) (197, 75, 140)
HSV       (h, s, v) (285°, 67%, 70%)
Source Crayola
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)

The color mulberry is displayed at right. This color is a representation of the color of mulberry jam or pie. This was a Crayola crayon color from 1958 to 2003.

The first recorded use of mulberry as a color name in English was in 1776.[33]

Pearly purple[edit]

Pearly PurpleHow to read this color infobox
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #B768A2
sRGBB  (rgb) (183, 104, 162)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (0, 43, 12, 28)
HSV       (h, s, v) (316°, 43%, 72[34]%)
Source Crayola
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

At right is displayed the color pearly purple.

Pearly purple is one of the colors in the special set of metallic colored Crayola crayons called Silver Swirls, the colors of which were formulated by Crayola in 1990.

Purpureus[edit]

PurpureusHow to read this color infobox
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #9A4EAE
sRGBB  (rgb) (154, 78, 174)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (12, 55, 0, 32)
HSV       (h, s, v) (288°, 55%, 68[35]%)
Source ISCC-NBS
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

The color purpureus is displayed at right. Another name for this color is purpura.

The first recorded use of purpura as a color name in English was in 1382.[4]

KSU Purple[edit]

KSU PurpleHow to read this color infobox
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #512888
sRGBB  (rgb) (79, 38, 131)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (82, 100, 0, 12)
HSV       (h, s, v) (266°, 71%, 53%)
Source Brand Guide
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

Purple (Pantone #268)[36] is the official school color of Kansas State University, as shown at the right. Traditionally, the school has referred to this darker and bluer shade as Royal Purple.[37] [ compare with Royal purple: 1600s ]


Pomp and Power[edit]

Pomp and PowerHow to read this color infobox
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #86608E
sRGBB  (rgb) (134, 96, 142)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (56, 32, 0, 44)
HSV       (h, s, v) (290°, 32%, 56[38]%)
Source ISCC-NBS
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

The color pomp and power is displayed at right.

The color pomp and power is not found in the 1930 first edition of the Dictionary of Color by Maerz and Paul, but it is found in the second edition of 1950.[39]

Mardi Gras[edit]

Mardi GrasHow to read this color infobox
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #880085
sRGBB  (rgb) (136, 0, 137)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (0, 100, 0, 0)
HSV       (h, s, v) (301°, 100%, 53[40]%)
Source Xona.com Color List[41]
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

The color Mardi Gras is displayed at right.

The color name Mardi Gras has been in use since 2001 when the Xona.com Color List was first promulgated.


Eminence[edit]

EminenceHow to read this color infobox
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #6C3082
sRGBB  (rgb) (108, 48, 130)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (17, 63, 0, 49)
HSV       (h, s, v) (284°, 63%, 51[42]%)
Source Xona.com Color List
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

The color eminence is displayed at right.

The color name eminence has been in use since 2001 when the Xona.com Color List was first promulgated.


Byzantium[edit]

Main article: Byzantium (color)
ByzantiumHow to read this color infobox
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #702963
sRGBB  (rgb) (112, 41, 99)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (0, 63, 12, 56)
HSV       (h, s, v) (311°, 63%, 44[43]%)
Source ISCC-NBS
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

The color byzantium, a dark tone of purple, is displayed at right.

The first recorded use of byzantium as a color name in English was in 1926.[44]


Pansy purple[edit]

Pansy PurpleHow to read this color infobox
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #78184A
sRGBB  (rgb) (120, 24, 74)
HSV       (h, s, v) (287°, 36%, 27%)
Source ISCC-NBS
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)

The pansy flower has varieties that exhibit three different colors: pansy (a color between indigo and violet), pansy pink, and pansy purple.

The first recorded use of pansy purple as a color name in English was in 1814.[45]

Wrapping the spectrum into a color wheel[edit]

If the visible spectrum is wrapped to form a color wheel, purple appears midway between magenta and violet:

Linear visible spectrum.svg
Visible spectrum wrapped to join violet and magenta in an additive mixture of purple


See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Mish, Frederic C., Editor in Chief Webster's Ninth New Collegiate Dictionary Springfield, Massachusetts, U.S.A.:1984--Merriam-Webster Page 957
  2. ^ Charles A. Poynton (2003). Digital video and HDTV. Morgan Kaufmann. ISBN 1-55860-792-7. 
  3. ^ John Dakin and Robert G. W. Brown (2006). Handbook of Optoelectronics. CRC Press. ISBN 0-7503-0646-7. 
  4. ^ a b Maerz and Paul A Dictionary of Color New York:1930 McGraw-Hill Page 202
  5. ^ web.Forret.com Color Conversion Tool set to colour #66023C (Tyrian Purple):
  6. ^ "Tyrian Purple in Ancient Rome:". Mmdtkw.org. Retrieved 2012-12-29. 
  7. ^ "web.Forrett.com Color Conversion Tool set to color #7851A9 (Royal Purple):". Web.forret.com. Retrieved 2012-12-29. 
  8. ^ Maerz and Paul A Dictionary of Color New York:1930 McGraw-Hill Page 203; Color Sample of Royal Purple: Page 109 Plate 43 Color Sample K11
  9. ^ Garfield, S. (2000). Mauve: How One Man Invented a Colour That Changed the World. Faber and Faber, London, UK. ISBN 978-0-571-20197-6. 
  10. ^ http://www.straw.com/sig/dyehist.html
  11. ^ Thomas Beer: The mauve decade --American life at the end of the nineteenth century, 1926, at gaslight.mtroyal.ab.ca
  12. ^ Graham, Lanier F. (editor) The Rainbow Book Berkeley, California:1976 Shambala Publishing and The Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco (Handbook for the Summer 1976 exhibition The Rainbow Art Show which took place primarily at the De Young Museum but also at other museums) Portfolio of color wheels by famous theoreticians—see Rood color wheel (1879) Page 93 Purple is halfway between magenta and violet
  13. ^ Maerz and Paul A Dictionary of Color New York:1930 McGraw-Hill Discussion of the color Purple, Page 175; Color Sample of True Purple: Page 125 Plate 51 Color Sample A12--True Purple is shown on the Purple end of the Purple-Magenta-Rose axis on the bottom and right of the plate.
  14. ^ "W3C TR CSS3 Color Module, HTML4 color keywords". W3.org. Retrieved 2012-12-29. 
  15. ^ Maerz and Paul A Dictionary of Color New York:1930 McGraw-Hill Page 201; Color Sample of Patriarch: Page 109 Plate 43 Color Sample L9
  16. ^ Maerz and Paul A Dictionary of Color New York:1930 McGraw-Hill Page 201; Color Sample of Veronica: Page 109 Plate 43 Color Sample H9
  17. ^ "Color Conversion Tool set to hex code #9F00C5 (Purple (Munsell)):". Web.forret.com. Retrieved 2012-12-29. 
  18. ^ Maerz and Paul A Dictionary of Color New York:1930 McGraw-Hill Page 196; Color Sample of Thistle: Page 107 Plate 42 Color Sample J7
  19. ^ The color displayed in the color box above matches the color called mauve in the 1930 book by Maerz and Paul A Dictionary of Color New York:1930 McGraw-Hill; the color "mallow" is displayed on Page 125, Plate 51, Color Sample I3 Note: It is stated in A Dictionary of Color that mallow and mauve are two different names used in English to refer to exactly the same color--the name mallow came into use in 1611 and mauve came into use as its synonym in 1856--see under the entry for each name on page 198 in the Index. See also discussion of the color Mallow (Mauve) on page 166.
  20. ^ Brians, Paul. "Mauve". Common Errors in English. Washington State University. Retrieved 2008-02-26. 
  21. ^ Maerz and Paul A Dictionary of Color New York:1930 McGraw-Hill Page 198
  22. ^ Maerz and Paul A Dictionary of Color New York:1930 McGraw-Hill Page 198; Color Sample of Mallow: Page 125 Plate 51 Color Sample I3
  23. ^ Maerz and Paul A Dictionary of Color New York:1930 McGraw-Hill Page 200; Color Sample of Orchid: Page 105 Plate 41 Color Sample F5
  24. ^ The color displayed in the color box above matches the color called heliotrope in the 1930 book by Maerz and Paul A Dictionary of Color New York:1930 McGraw-Hill; the color heliotrope is displayed on page 131, Plate 54, Color Sample C10.
  25. ^ Maerz and Paul A Dictionary of Color New York:1930 McGraw-Hill Page 196; Color Sample of Heliotrope: Page 131 Plate 54 Color Sample C10
  26. ^ "Color Conversion Tool set to hex code #DF00FF (Psychedelic Purple (Phlox)):". Web.forret.com. Retrieved 2012-12-29. 
  27. ^ The color displayed in the color box above matches the color called phlox in the 1930 book by Maerz and Paul A Dictionary of Color New York:1930 McGraw-Hill; the color phlox is displayed on page 131, Plate 54, Color Sample H12.
  28. ^ A Dictionary of Color New York:1930 McGraw-Hill, Page 201; Color Sample of Phlox: Page 131 Plate 54 Color Sample H12—The color Phlox is shown lying halfway between magenta and purple.
  29. ^ "Color Conversion Tool set to hex code of color #FE4EDA (Purple Pizzaz):". Web.forret.com. Retrieved 2012-12-29. 
  30. ^ web.forret.com Color Conversion Tool set to hex code #DE6FA1 (Liseran Purple):
  31. ^ The color displayed in the color box above is the color in the array of tones of liseran purple displayed on the ISCC-NBS color list letter L web page that most closely matches the color called liseran purple in the 1930 book by Maerz and Paul A Dictionary of Color New York:1930 McGraw-Hill; the color liseran purple is displayed on page 123, Plate 50, Color Sample B9.
  32. ^ Maerz and Paul A Dictionary of Color New York:1930 McGraw-Hill Page 198; Color Sample of Liseran Purple: Page 123 Plate 50 Color Sample B9
  33. ^ Maerz and Paul A Dictionary of Color New York:1930 McGraw-Hill Page 199; Color Sample of Mulberry: Plate 48 Color Sample E9
  34. ^ "web.forrett.com Color Conversion Tool set to hex code #B768A2 (Pearly Purple):". Web.forret.com. Retrieved 2012-12-29. 
  35. ^ "Color Conversion Tool set to hex code of color #9A4EAE (Purpureus (Purpura)):". Web.forret.com. Retrieved 2013-04-22. 
  36. ^ "Brand Guide". Branding. Kansas State University Division of Communications and Marketing. Retrieved 28 January 2014. 
  37. ^ "Kansas State Traditions". K-State Athletics. Retrieved 29 January 2014. 
  38. ^ "Color Conversion Tool set to hex code of color #86608E (Pomp and Power):". Web.forret.com. Retrieved 2012-12-29. 
  39. ^ Maerz and Paul A Dictionary of Color New York:1950 (2nd edition) McGraw-Hill
  40. ^ "Color Conversion Tool set to hex code of color #880085 (Mardi Gras):". Web.forret.com. Retrieved 2012-12-29. 
  41. ^ Note: While for other Xona.com colors that have been entered into Wikipedia, the standard darker version of the two tones provided for each color has always been used, in this case the lighter version is used as this brighter and more saturated version seems more in tune with the spirit of Mardi Gras.
  42. ^ "Color Conversion Tool set to hex code of color #6C3082 (Eminence):". Web.forret.com. Retrieved 2013-04-26. 
  43. ^ web.forret.com Color Conversion Tool set to hex code of color #702963 (Byzantium):
  44. ^ Maerz and Paul A Dictionary of Color New York:1930 McGraw-Hill Page 191; Color Sample of Byzantium: Page 111 Plate 44 Color Sample K7
  45. ^ Maerz and Paul A Dictionary of Color New York:1930 McGraw-Hill Page 201; Color Sample of Pansy Purple: Page 131 Plate 54 Color Sample L8