Shah Mir

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Shams-ud-Din Shah Mir Swati (reigned 1339–42) was a ruler of Kashmir and the founder of the Shah Miri dynasty named after him. Sams'd-Din (ruled 1339-1342) also Dhams-ud-din and Shah Mir, was the first Muslim ruler of Kashmir of Afghan origin[1] and founder of the Shah Mir Dynasty.[2]

Jonaraja, in his Dvitīyā Rājataraṅginī mentioned him as Sahamera. He came from Swat according to some sources. However, Jonaraja a credible historian informs us that Shahmir was not from Swat so some historians say he was not from Swat but was a Kshatriya descended from Arjuna whose ancestors had taken up Islam.

Shah Mir arrived in Kashmir in 1313 along with his family, during the reign of Suhadeva (1301-1320), whose service he entered. In subsequent years, through his tact and ability Shah Mir rose to prominence and became one of the most important personalities of his time. Later after the death in 1338 of Udayanadeva, the brother of Suhedeva he was able to assume the kingship himself, Rinchan (d. 1323), a commander from Ladakh region who had entered Kashmir as a fugitive seized the throne of Kashmir, started his personal quest for religion, was not accepted into Hinduism by the Brahmins due to his race, happened to watch Sayyid Bilal (d.1327) at prayer, was enchanted by the simplicity of the Sayyid's faith and embraced it with fervour.[3]

Rinchan from Ladakh, and Lankar Chak from Dard territory near Gilgit came to Kashmir, and played a notable role in the subsequent political history of the valley. All the three men were granted Jagirs by the King Rinchan for three years became the ruler of Kashmir, Shah Mir was the first rular of Shah mir dynasty, which had established in 1339.

Early life[edit]

During the reign of Sehadeva (1301-?), a Tatar chief Dulucha invaded Kashmir and ravaged it. King Sehadeva fled the country and his general Ramachandra occupied the throne. In the confusion Rinchan (reigned 1320–23),[4][5] the Ladhaki prince,organised an internal rising and seized the throne. He married Kota Rani, the daughter of Ramachandra. The Hindu religious leaders of the time refused to admit into their fold. Rinchan embraced Islam and took Muslim name of Sultan Sadruddin. He was attacked by rebels and was badly wounded and died in 1323 A.D. Just before his death Sultan Sadruddin (Rinchan) summoned his trusted minister, Shah Mir, and entrusted his son, Hyder, and wife, Kotarani, to his care. He had a son, Haidar by his queen Kota Rani. After the death of Rinchan, who was assassinated, Kotarani married Udayana Deva, the brother of Sehadava.

The last Hindu ruler of Kashmir was Udyana Deva. It was his chief Queen Kotarani, who practically governed the state. She was a very brave lady, shrewd and an able ruler. Though she tried her best to save her Kingdom, odds were too heavy for her. The valley was again invaded by a Mongol and Turk invader Achalla, and Udayana Deva fled to Tibet. But the Queen defeated (killed) Achalla and drove away all the foreign troops.

Finally another rising was led by Shah Mir, who defeated the queen at Jayapur (modern Sumbal). The defeat upset her and seeing the indifference of the Hindu grandees and general public, she stabbed herself to death, because Shah Mir wanted to marry her. Her death in 1339 paved the way for the establishment of Shah miri dynasty rule in Kashmir.

The descent of Shahmiri dynasty is well documented from Hindu (Jonaraja) Kshatriyas. After the fall of their empire the descendants disseminated to various areas in the valley like the saffron town in Pampore (Numlabal) while others settled in Srinagar. Shahmiris are still looked at as royal elites and generally live in palatial houses in Srinagar that were built in Victorian style architecture back in the 19th century.

The first Sufi saint who reached Kashmir, during the time of King Sehdev, was Sayed Sharafuddin Bulbul Shah from Turkey. That very time a rebel prince from Tibet, Rinchan, and a Muslim Warlord Shah Mir, arrived in Kashmir.[citation needed]

Descendants[edit]

As listed in the Rajataranginis he was succeeded by Jamshed 1342-1344, Alau-ud-Din 1344-1355, Shahab-ud-Din 1355-1373, Qutub-ud-Din 1373-1389, Sikandar Butshikan the book-burner 1389-1413, Alishah 1413-1419, Zain-ul-Abdin 1420-1470, Haidershah 1470-1472, Hassanshah 1472-1484, Mohammadshah 1484-1486, Fatehshah 1486-1495 Mohammadshah 1495-1496, Fatehshah 1496-1497, Mohammadshah 1497-1509, Ibrahimshah (s/o Mohammadshah) 1509 Nazukshah (s/o Fatehshah) 1529 (one year), Mohammadshah 1530-1535.[6]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Concise Encyclopeida Of World History By Carlos Ramirez-Faria, page 412
  2. ^ The Pearson Indian History Manual for the UPSC Civil Services Page 104 "However, the situation changed with the ending of the Hindu rule and founding of the Shahmiri dynasty by Shahmir or Dhams-ud-din (1339-1342). The devastating attack on Kashmir in 1320 by the Mongol leader, Dalucha, was a prelude to it. It is said ... The Sultan was himself a learned man, and composed poetry. He was ..."
  3. ^ History of Civilizations of Central Asia Volume IV By M.S. Asimov C E Bosworth Page 307
  4. ^ Majumdar, R.C. (2006). The Delhi Sultanate, Mumbai: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, pp.372-80
  5. ^ Kashmīr Under the Sultānsby Mohibbul Hasan, Aakar Books, 2005
  6. ^ Rājānaka Jonarāja, Jogesh Chandra Dutt, Shyam Lal Sadhu Medieval Kashmir - being a reprint of the Rajataranginis 1993 Volume 3 - Page 330/Page 331 Jamshed 1342-1344 3. Alau-ud-Din 1344-1355 4. Shahab-ud-Din 1355-1373 5. Qutub-ud-Din 1373-1389 6. Sikandar 1389-1413 7. Alishah 1413-1419 8. Zain-ul-Abdin 1420-1470 9. Haidershah 1470-1472 10. Hassanshah 1472-1484 11. Mohammadshah Apr.1484-Oct.1486, .....12. Fatehshah 1486-1495 13. Mohammadshah 1495-1496 14. Fatehshah 1496-1497 15. Mohammadshah 1497-1509 16. Ibrahimshah (s/o Mohammadshah) 1509 17. Nazukshah (s/o Fatehshah) 1529 (one year) 18. Mohammadshah 1530-1535 .

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