|Shaheen-I / Hatf-IV|
|Type||Short-range Ballistic Missile|
|Place of origin||Pakistan|
|In service||6 March 2003|
|Used by||Army Strategic Command|
|Manufacturer||National Defence Complex (NDC)|
|Produced||Shaheen I (1999)
Shaheen IA (2012)
|Weight||Shaheen I (9,500 kg)
Shaheen IA (10,000 kg)
|Warhead||1000 kg single warhead
|Shaheen I (750km)
Shaheen IA (1500km)
|Transporter erector launcher (TEL)|
The Shaheen-I (Urdu: 'شاهين), is a codename of a missile system programme that was developed by the joint venture of NESCOM and the National Defence Complex (NDC). It is dedicated and named after a species of Falcon found in the mountains of Pakistan. The Shaheen I is also designated Hatf IV. Both the Shaheen I and Shaheen IA are Pakistan's equivalent to the United States Pershing I and Pershing IA series.
Shaheen I is a short-range ballistic missile (SRBM) with an optimal range of 750 km and propelled by a two stage solid fuel rocket motor. The Shaheen I can deliver either a conventional or a nuclear payload much faster than liquid fuelled missiles such as the Ghauri because it does not need to be fuelled before launch, reducing deployment time significantly.
The Shaheen I is believed to be very accurate; Pakistani military sources state a CEP of 25 to 50 m can be achieved, partly due to a "post-separation attitude correction system." This system would allow the missile to modify its trajectory, improving accuracy and, along with the stealthy warhead shaping, giving some capability to evade missile defence systems. It is based on terminal guidance system technology, which improves warhead accuracy by firing small thrusters to adjust the warhead's trajectory and uses satellite navigation systems to help find the target. Such systems would allow the Shaheen to be used against strategic targets without requiring a nuclear warhead to ensure the target's destruction.
On 25 April 2012, Pakistan successfully test-launched an upgraded Shaheen I called Shaheen 1A. The military said in a statement that the Shaheen 1A is a medium-range ballistic missile. It is an improved version of the Shaheen 1 with better accuracy and double the range of its predecessor.
The Pakistani military initially did not publicly reveal the range of the missile which lead to media speculation of the true range of the missile. According to a defense analyst in Islamabad, this missile could be equipped with warheads designed to evade missile defense systems. The speed of the Shaheen 1A also provides an extremely high impact speed for nearby targets, enabling it to avoid any anti-ballistic missile defenses that may develop in the immediate region. A western official in Islamabad mentioned that the Shaheen 1A missile seems to have an improved ability to strike at its targets. It also has a more powerful engine, which means that it travels at scramjet speeds and can strike at longer distances than Shaheen-1.
On 25 April 2012, the ISPR revealed more information about the missile. The missile weight is approximately 10,000 kg, slightly heavier than its predecessor and can carry a single 1000 kg warhead. In addition, the Shaheen IA primarily contains sophisticated automated refueling and advanced stealth technology features that were not present in its previous version to avoid detections from radars. All three Shaheen missiles, Shaheen I, Shaheen 1A and Shaheen II are reportedly equipped with the latest PSAC (Post-Separation Attitude Correction) system. This is a unique feature which consists of small thrusters that can adjust the warhead trajectory for greater accuracy and evading anti-ballistic missile defence systems. The features of the missile could also serve as a testbed of features which could be implemented on the yet to be deployed Shaheen III.
In stark contrast of the claims made by Pakistani authorities in Islamabad about how Shaheen 1A is an "upgraded" or "improved" version of the preceding missile in the series, the Scientists of the Indian National Institute of Advanced Studies (NIAS) that closely monitors the progress of nuclear weapons technology, didn't find sufficient amount of upgradation or improvement to merit a new test on its own. This in their opinion was a much anticipated "tit-for-tat" launch.
The scientists concluded,
“There are no changes evident in the stage configuration and the main aerodynamic fins at the end of the missile and the exhaust look similar. The overall warhead length is comparable with the other images...[other changes to control and avionics systems] do not appear to be greatly significant... and do not have much impact on the missile range. [..]Our assessment of the range of Shaheen 1 was 673 km for a launch from Islamabad in a south eastern (Azimuth 135 degrees) direction with a 1,000 kg re-entry vehicle. We do not find any evidence from the image put out by Pakistan to change this assessment. Longer range is however possible if Pakistan has reduced the missile throw-mass to below 1,000 kg.”
Only minor change in the missile according to NIAS was a shorter 1.6m long re-entry vehicle that was 2.3 m in earlier versions.
On April 10, 2013 Pakistan conducted a successful launch of intermediate range ballistic missile Hatf-IV (Shaheen-1). The Hatf-IV (Shaheen-1) missile incorporates a series of improvements in range and technical parameters of the existing warhead and is capable of carrying nuclear and conventional warheads to a range of 900 kilometers.
The Shaheen I was first test-launched on April 15, 1999. Two test-launches of a second version with greater range and improved accuracy were carried out in October 2002 and two more in October 2003. A batch of Shaheen I missiles, enough to equip one regiment/battery, was handed over to the Pakistan Army in 2003 along with mobile launchers. Another was tested on 8 May 2010 The Shaheen 1A was test fired on 25 April 2012.
- Related developments
- Related lists
- "Exclusive: Pakistani security official discusses the Shaheen-1A test". Terminal X. 2012-04-26. Retrieved 2013-01-09.
- John Pike. "How 'Shaheen' Was Developed". Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 2012-12-07.
- "Musharraf approves another missile test". News.xinhuanet.com. 2002-10-07. Retrieved 2012-12-07.
- "International Assessment and Strategy Center > Research > Pakistan’s Long Range Ballistic Missiles: A View From IDEAS". Strategycenter.net. 2004-11-01. Retrieved 2012-12-07.
- [dead link]
- "Shaheen-I". Onwar.com. 1999-04-15. Retrieved 2012-12-07.
- "Pakistan test fires medium-range missile — CNN.com". Edition.cnn.com. Retrieved 2012-12-07.
- "Pakistan tests nuclear-capable missile as arms race intensifies — World News". Worldnews.msnbc.msn.com. 2012-10-24. Retrieved 2012-12-07.
- Masood, Salman (2012-04-25). "Pakistan Says It Test-Fires Nuclear-Capable Missile". Pakistan;India: Nytimes.com. Retrieved 2012-12-07.
- "Pakistan Tests Intermediate-Range Nuclear-Capable Missile". Ibtimes.com. 2012-04-25. Retrieved 2012-12-07.
- "N-capable ballistic missile successfully test-fired". Khaleejtimes.com. 2012-04-26. Retrieved 2012-12-07.
- "Upgraded Hatf IV test-fired". The Nation. 2012-04-26. Retrieved 2012-12-07.
- "Ballistic missile Hatf IV test-fired". Dawn.Com. 2012-04-26. Retrieved 2012-12-07.
- "DNA exclusive: Nothing new about Pak’s latest missile, scientists tell PM — India — DNA". Dnaindia.com. 2012-05-18. Retrieved 2013-01-09.
- "Pakistan Successfully Test Fires Ballistic Missile". April 10, 2013. Retrieved 16 May, 2013.
- "Shaheen-1A successfully test-fired by Pakistan". NDTV.com. 2012-04-25. Retrieved 2013-01-09.
- StrategyCentre.net - Pakistan’s Long Range Ballistic Missiles: A View From IDEAS
- [dead link]
- FAS.org article - Hatf-3
- FAS.org article - How Shaheen Was Developed