Zayn al-Din al-Juba'i al'Amili
Zayn al-Din al-Juba'i al'Amili (Shahid Thani) (1506-1558) was the second martyr (Arabic: ash-Shahid ath-Thani الشهيد الثاني ).
Thani was one of the greatest shi'a scholars. He studied under famous scholars such as Sunni and Shi'a in Jabal 'Amel, Damascus, Cairo, Jerusalem among many others. He was known and respected by sunnis in Baalabeck for this. He was authorized to teach Muslims in the Nouriyah Islamic school according to the five schools of thought.
He became a Mujtahid at age 33 after his visits to Iraq. Since Ijtihad was forbidden and Shi'ism had a history of persecution in the area - especially since shi'ism was still strong among the people as a result of the not-so-long gone Hamdanid dynasty - some people conspired against him due to petty reasons before being judged in front of the Sultan.
In Rajab of 965 A.H. (1558), he was beheaded on his way to see the sultan and a shrine was built by some Turkmens on the site as they realised his stature. The person that beheaded him was killed by the Sultan orders.
One of his greatest work is the first commentary of The Damascene Glitter by Shahid Awwal called The Beautiful Garden in Interpreting the Damscene Glitter (Arabic: ar-Rawda-l-Bahiyah fi Sharh allam'a-d-Dimashqiya الروضة البهيّة في شرح اللمعة الدمشقيّة ) in few volumes.
Shaikh Zainuddin, better known as Shahid Al-Thani (the second Shaheed), is among the greatest FUQAHA. He was born in 911 AH. in Jabal Amel, but he must have lived in TUS for a considerable time, as he occasionally signed his name as "alTUSI, al-Shami " .
He was a widely travelled man, having visited Egypt, Syria, Tihamah, Hijaz, Baitul Muqaddas, Iraq and Constantinople (Istanbul). Always in pursuit of knowledge, he studied from nearly twelve Sunni Ulama of Fiqh. Apart from the proficiency in Fiqh, he was well versed in Usool, Philosophy, Irfan, Medicine and Astronomy.
He was a man of piety, known for his austere way of life. His students have recorded in his biography that Shaheed maintained his family by selling the woods cut by himself during the nights, and then sat to teach during the day. While in Ba'lbak, he conducted classes in Fiqh according to five schools, i.e. Ja'fari, Hanafi, Shafei, Maliki and Hambali. His famous work is the commentary on al-Lum'ah which had been authored by Shaheed-e-Awwal. His commentary, Sharh e Lumuah is a part of curriculum in almost every Hawza even today. He studied from Muhaqqiq Karaki before the later migrated to Iran.
ShaheedeThani's son wrote the famous book on Usool, called MA'ALIMULUSOOL. ShaheedeThani was martyred in 966 AH.