Shahmukhi alphabet

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Not to be confused with Gurmuki, the Punjabi script used in India and other countries.
Shahmukhi
Type
Abjad
Languages Punjabi
Parent systems

U+0600 to U+06FF
U+0750 to U+077F
U+FB50 to U+FDFF

U+FE70 to U+FEFF

Shahmukhi (Punjabi: شاہ مکھی, meaning literally "from the King's mouth") is a Perso-Arabic alphabet used to write the Punjabi language. It is generally written in Nastaʿlīq hand. Perso-Arabic is one of two scripts used for Punjabi, the other being Gurmukhi.

The Shahmukhi alphabet was first used by the Sufi poets of the Punjab; it became the conventional writing style for the Muslim populace of the Pakistani province of Punjab following the independence of Pakistan in 1947, while the largely Sikh province of Punjab, India adopted the Gurmukhi script to record the Punjabi language.

Its use in Indian Punjab is mainly confined to the elderly generation who lived on the other side of the border before the independence of Pakistan in 1947, although it is also recommended to be studied for students studying at M.A level in Punjabi.[1] It is however, used as the main alphabet to write the Pothohari dialect in Indian Jammu and Kashmir.[citation needed]

Shahmukhi is written from right to left, while but Gurmukhi is written from left to right. Below is the comparison of the two scripts.

Top left: International Phonetic Alphabet, dash, top right: Gurmukhi, bottom: Shahmukhi.
  • The Gurumukhi sounds ñ (ਞ), ng (ਙ), ṇ (ਣ), nh (ੰ/ં) are all written with :ں : nun ghunna (nun without dot). In initial and medial positions, the dot is retained.
  • ے (Bari ye) is only found in the final position, when writing the sounds e (ਏ) or æ (ਐ), and in initial and medial positions, it takes the form of ی.
  • There are three signs used when indicating a short vowel: َ (ਅ), ُ (ਉ), ِ (ਇ): a, u, i.

Examples: قَلَم (ਕ਼ਲਮ) qalam-pen گھُپ (ਘੁਪ) ghup-dense لِحاظ (ਲਿਹਾਜ਼) lihāż-consideration

  • at the beginning of a word, short vowels are written as follows: اَ, اُ, اِ
  • Long vowels are expressed with ا, ی, ے and و as follows:

Initial- آ (ਆ): ā اَے (ਏ ਐ): e, æ اُو (ਊ): ū اِی (ਈ): ī اَو (ਔ ਓ): au, o Medial-َﺎ َﻴ ُﻮ ِﻴ َﻮ Final- َﺎ َﮯ ُﻮ ِﯽ َﻮ

  • Consonants are doubled with ّ (ੱ) ex: ﷲ (ਅੱਲਾਹ): Allāh كَچَّا (ਕੱਚਾ): Kachchā: unripe

Additional letters[edit]

There are a few additional letters that are occasionally used. *These are included in Unicode as of 2006.[2] They are:

ٻ bbe -ਬ

ڄ jje -ਜ

ڋ ḍḍe -ਡ

ڰ ggaf -ਗ

ڻ rnoonh -ਣ

Loanwords[edit]

In Punjabi there are many Arabic and Persian loanwords. There are some sounds in these words which were not previously found in South Asian languages before the influence of Arabic and Persian, and these are therefore represented by introducing dots beneath specific Gurumukhi characters. Since the Gurmukhi alphabet is phonetic, any loanwords which contained pre-existing sounds were more easily transliterated without the need for characters modified with subscript dots beneath.

ﺫ – ਜ਼

ﺹ – ਸ

ﺽ – ਜ਼

ﻁ – ਤ

ﻅ – ਜ਼

ﻍ – ਗ਼

ﺡ – ਹ

ﺙ – ਥ

گ – ਗ

چ – ਚ

پ – ਪ

ژ – ਜ਼

ﺥ – ਖ਼

ﺯ – ਜ਼

ﻑ – ਫ਼

ﻕ – ਕ਼

ﻉ – this is often transliterated in many ways due to its changing sound in various Arabic/Persian words.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Re: Sangam: Gurmukhi to Shahmukhi(Urdu) transliteration software". Sikhmatrimonials.com. 2006-06-27. Retrieved 2014-02-08. 
  2. ^ "Western Panjabi Alphabet". User.uni-hannover.de. 2013-04-14. Retrieved 2014-02-08. 

External links[edit]