Its use in Indian Punjab is mainly confined to the elderly generation who lived on the other side of the border before the independence of Pakistan in 1947, although it is also recommended to be studied for students studying at M.A level in Punjabi. It is however, used as the main alphabet to write the Pothohari dialect in Indian Jammu and Kashmir.
Shahmukhi is written from right to left, while Gurmukhi is written from left to right. Below is the comparison of the two scripts.
In Punjabi there are many Arabic and Persian loanwords. There are some sounds in these words which were not previously found in South Asian languages before the influence of Arabic and Persian, and these are therefore represented by introducing dots beneath specific Gurumukhi characters. Since the Gurmukhi alphabet is phonetic, any loanwords which contained pre-existing sounds were more easily transliterated without the need for characters modified with subscript dots beneath.
ﻉ is often transliterated in many ways due to its changing sound in various Arabic and Persian words.