Shahrud, Iran

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Shahrud
شاهرود
city
Shahrud is located in Iran
Shahrud
Shahrud
Coordinates: 36°25′05″N 54°58′35″E / 36.41806°N 54.97639°E / 36.41806; 54.97639Coordinates: 36°25′05″N 54°58′35″E / 36.41806°N 54.97639°E / 36.41806; 54.97639
Country  Iran
Province Semnan Province
County Shahrud
Bakhsh Central
Elevation 1,345 m (4,413 ft)
Population (2006)
 • Total 126,916
Time zone IRST (UTC+3:30)
 • Summer (DST) IRDT (UTC+4:30)

Shahrud[1] (Persian: شاهرود‎, also Romanized as Shāhrūd, Shahrood, and Shahroud; also known as Shārūd; formerly, Emamshahr (Persian: اِمامشَهر‎, also Romanized as Emāmshahr) is a city in and capital of Shahrud County, Semnan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 126,916, in 35,548 families.[2]

Situated about an altitude of 4413 ft (1345 m), it is located at latitude 36°25'N, longitude 055°01'E. Now, it is the largest city of Semnan Province and also its county has same position in the province. The main launch site of the Iranian Space Agency is near Shahrud.

Geography[edit]

Some 410 kilometers to the east of Tehran, half-way between the capital and Mashad, and at the junction with the Gorgan road, sits the modern city of Shahrud, which has grown to absorb the historic town of Bastam situated in the hills a few kilometers to the north.

From the north, it is surrounded by the Alborz mountains, and from the south by the arid salty deserts. The river of Tash, after crossing this town, reaches the south deserts. The weather on the mountainous areas is cold and it is somewhat temperate in other parts of the city.

Shahrud is located in the Damghan basin, a sub-basin of the Kavir basin which also contains the Great Salt Desert.

Climate[edit]

Shahrud has a cold desert climate (Köppen climate classification BSk) with hot summers and cool winters. Precipitation is very low, and mostly falls in winter and spring.

Climate data for Shahrud
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 19.0
(66.2)
20.0
(68)
29.0
(84.2)
31.4
(88.5)
36.0
(96.8)
39.0
(102.2)
42.0
(107.6)
42.0
(107.6)
37.0
(98.6)
32.0
(89.6)
24.0
(75.2)
19.2
(66.6)
42
(107.6)
Average high °C (°F) 5.8
(42.4)
8.4
(47.1)
14.3
(57.7)
21.1
(70)
26.5
(79.7)
31.3
(88.3)
33.5
(92.3)
32.4
(90.3)
29.2
(84.6)
22.3
(72.1)
15.1
(59.2)
8.2
(46.8)
20.67
(69.21)
Daily mean °C (°F) 1.0
(33.8)
3.4
(38.1)
8.6
(47.5)
15.1
(59.2)
20.3
(68.5)
25.0
(77)
27.3
(81.1)
26.0
(78.8)
22.1
(71.8)
15.3
(59.5)
9.0
(48.2)
3.1
(37.6)
14.68
(58.43)
Average low °C (°F) −3.6
(25.5)
−1.9
(28.6)
2.5
(36.5)
7.9
(46.2)
12.7
(54.9)
17.1
(62.8)
20.0
(68)
18.5
(65.3)
14.0
(57.2)
8.0
(46.4)
2.6
(36.7)
−1.5
(29.3)
8.03
(46.45)
Record low °C (°F) −14
(7)
−14.0
(6.8)
−8.8
(16.2)
−7.0
(19.4)
−1.0
(30.2)
6.0
(42.8)
10.0
(50)
8.0
(46.4)
2.0
(35.6)
−3.0
(26.6)
−10
(14)
−11
(12)
−14
(6.8)
Precipitation mm (inches) 28.6
(1.126)
19.3
(0.76)
28.0
(1.102)
23.7
(0.933)
21.5
(0.846)
3.9
(0.154)
1.5
(0.059)
1.8
(0.071)
2.3
(0.091)
7.9
(0.311)
9.4
(0.37)
19.8
(0.78)
167.7
(6.603)
Avg. rainy days 7.1 6.8 8.3 8.2 9.1 3.6 1.8 1.5 1.9 4.8 4.5 6.0 63.6
Avg. snowy days 4.2 3.1 1.3 0.2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.3 2.6 11.7
 % humidity 65 59 51 45 42 37 36 37 39 48 52 64 47.9
Mean monthly sunshine hours 167.5 174.4 212.1 230.3 279.2 330.1 340.4 337.4 294.8 252.2 205.9 170.3 2,994.6
Source: NOAA (1961-1990) [3]

History[edit]

In 2006, traces of a prehistoric, 8,000-year-old settlements were found in Shahrud. The discoveries included ovens, craft workshops, and other evidence of settlements. [1]

As a modern city, the city of Shahrud was merely a village before the reign of Fath Ali Shah of the Qajar dynasty, with two old castles and a small farm named "Shabdary". The surrounding areas however, such as Biarjomand, Miami and Bastam do have a distant history.

The old town of Bastam is located 6 kilometers north of Shahrood. Its pre-Islamic history is not clear, but according to some historians, it was built during Shapur II period (310-379 CE). During the Abbasid era, it was the second largest town (following Damghan) in the Qomis province.

The town was visited by Nasser Khosrow Qubadiani, the great Iranian poet of the 12th century, and mentioned by him as the center of the Qomis province. But Bastam declined during the Mongol era assaults, and Shahrud eventually took its place.

Attractions[edit]

The most interesting historical sites of Shahrud are:

  • The Saljuki Mosque which is located in Bastam. Its construction belongs to the year 1120 C.E.
  • The Village of Kharaqan which is located 12 kilometers from Bastam. It was a famous village during the 14th and the 15th centuries. The tomb of Abul-Hassan Kharaqani, who is one of the most famous Arefs (mystics) of the Sufi groups of the 12th century, is located in this village. The brick building with its dome dates to the 12th century.
  • The Byar Castle ruins, which is located on the south-eastern area of Bastam, and is near to the desert edge of Byarjomand. This castle has an old mosque and an old wall with three gates.
  • Farumad Mosque. Located in a village by the same name 165 km to the north east of Shahrud, the original construction of this magnificent historic monument belongs to the 13th century CE. Today nothing but the ruins and demolished columns and prayer hall of this structure catch the visitor's eyes. The reason for the building of such a mosque in this village was that Farumad and the surrounding villages had developed into a major center of political activity during the Sarbedaran Movement during the later Ilkhanid period.
  • Shahrud Museum: Dating from the later Qajar and early Pahlavi periods, originally belonging to the Shahrud Municipality and already located in the center of the town, this two-storied structure with brick facing was transformed into the present museum in 1988 after a series of major repair and renovation works. It is an interesting structure in terms of architectural style and exterior tile works. It houses both archaeological and ethnological sections.

Notable people[edit]

Higher education[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Shahrud, Iran can be found at GEOnet Names Server, at this link, by opening the Advanced Search box, entering "-3062042" in the "Unique Feature Id" form, and clicking on "Search Database".
  2. ^ "Census of the Islamic Republic of Iran, 1385 (2006)" (Excel). Islamic Republic of Iran. Archived from the original on 2011-11-11. 
  3. ^ "Shahroud Climate Normals 1961-1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved December 28, 2012. 

External links[edit]