Shajar al-Durr

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

Shajar al-Durr (Arabic: شجر الدر, "Tree of Pearls") [1][2] (Royal name: Fatma al-Malikah ad-Din Umm-Khalil Shajar al-Durr (Arabic: الملكة عصمة الدين أم خليل شجر الدر) (nicknamed: أم خليل, Umm Khalil; mother of Khalil)[3] (? – 28 April 1257, Cairo) was the widow of the Ayyubid Sultan As-Salih Ayyub who played a crucial role after his death during the Seventh Crusade against Egypt (1249–1250). She was regarded by Muslim historians and chroniclers of the Mamluk time as being of Turkic origin.[4][5] She became the Sultana of Egypt on May 2, 1250, marking the end of the Ayyubid reign and the starting of the Mamluk era.[6][7][8][9]

Background[edit]

Shajar al-Durr was of Turkic origin,[10][11][12][13] and described by historians as a beautiful, pious and intelligent woman.[14] She was purchased as a bondmaid by As-Salih Ayyub[15] in the Levant before he became a Sultan and accompanied him with his Mamluk Baibars (not the Baibars who became a Sultan) at Al Karak during his detention there in 1239.[16][17][18][19] Later when he became a Sultan in 1240 she went with him to Egypt and gave birth to their son Khalil who was called al-Malik al-Mansour.[14][20] Some time after the birth, As-Salih Ayyub married her.[21]

In April 1249, As-Salih Ayyub, who was gravely sick in Syria, returned to Egypt and went to Ashmum-Tanah, near Damietta[22][23] after he heard that King Louis IX of France had assembled a crusader army in Cyprus and was about to launch an attack against Egypt.[24] In June 1249, the crusaders landed in the abandoned town of Damietta,[25][26] at the mouth of the river Nile. As-Salih Ayyub was carried on a stretcher to his palace in the better-protected town of Al Mansurah where he died on November 22, 1249 after ruling Egypt for nearly 10 years.[27] Shajar al-Durr informed Emir Fakhr ad-Din Yussuf Ben Shaykh (commander of all the Egyptian army) and Tawashi Jamal ad-Din Muhsin (the chief eunuch who controlled the palace) of the Sultan's death but as the country was under attack by the crusaders they decided to conceal his death.[28] The coffined body of the Sultan was transported in secret by boat to the castle on al-Rudah island in the Nile.[29][30] Although the deceased Sultan had not left any testimony concerning who should succeed him after his death,[31] Faris ad-Din Aktai was sent to Hasankeyf to call al-Muazzam Turanshah, the son of the deceased Sultan.[32][33] Before he died, the Sultan signed a large number of blank papers[34] which were used by Shajar al-Durr and Emir Fakhr ad-Din in issuing decrees and giving Sultanic orders[35] and together they succeeded in convincing the people and the other government officials that the Sultan was only ill rather than dead. Shajar al-Durr continued to have food prepared for the sultan and brought to his tent.[36] High officials, the Sultan's Mamluks and soldiers were ordered - by the will of the (ill Sultan) - to swear an oath of loyalty to the Sultan, his heir Turanshah[37][38] and the Atabeg[39] Fakhr ad-Din Yussuf.[28]

Defeat of the Seventh Crusades[edit]

The news of the death of as-Salih Ayyub reached the crusaders in Damietta [40][41] and with the arrival of reinforcements led by Alfonso, Count of Poitou, the brother of King Louis IX, they decided to march on Cairo. A crusader force led by Louis IX's other brother Robert I of Artois crossed the canal of Ashmum (known today as Albahr Alsaghir) and attacked the Egyptian camp in Gideila, two miles (3 km) from Al Mansurah. Emir Fakhr ad-Din was killed during the sudden attack and the crusader force advanced toward the town of Al Mansurah. Shajar al-Durr agreed to Baibars's plan to defend Al Mansurah.[42] The crusader force was trapped inside the town, Robert of Artois was killed and the crusader force was annihilated[43][44] by an Egyptian force and the townspeople, led by the men who were about to establish the state which would dominate the southern Mediterranean for decades: Baibars al-Bunduqdari, Izz al-Din Aybak, and Qalawun al-Alfi.[45]

In February 1250 the dead Sultan's son Al-Muazzam Turanshah arrived in Egypt and was enthroned at Al Salhiyah[46][47] as he had no time to go to Cairo. With his arrival, Shajar al-Durr announced the death of as-Salih Ayyub. Turanshah went straight to Al Mansurah[48] and on April 6, 1250 the crusaders were entirely defeated at the Battle of Fariskur and king Louis IX was captured.[49]

Conflict with Turanshah[edit]

Once the Seventh Crusade was defeated and Louis IX was captured, troubles began between Turanshah on one side and Shajar al-Durr and the Mamluks on the other. Turanshah, knowing he would not have full sovereignty while Shajar al-Durr, the Mamluks and the old guards of his late father were around, detained a few officials and started to replace old officials, including the deputy Sultan,[50] with his own followers who had come with him from Hasankeyf.[51] He then sent a message to Shajar al-Durr while she was in Jerusalem[14] warning her and requesting her to hand over to him the wealth and jewels of his late father.[14] The request and manners of Turanshah distressed Shajar al-Durr. When she complained to the Mamluks about Turanshah's threats and ungratefulness,[52] the Mamluks, particularly their leader Faris ad-Din Aktai, were enraged.[53] In addition, Turanshah used to drink alcohol and when drunk he abused the bondmaids of his father and threatened the Mamluks.[54] Turanshah was assassinated by the Mamluks at Fariskur on May 2, 1250. He was the last of the Ayyubids Sultans.[55][56]

Rise to power[edit]

After the assassination of Turanshah the Mamluks and Emirs met at the Sultanic Dihliz[57] and decided to install Shajar al-Durr as the new monarch with Izz al-Din Aybak as Atabeg (commander in chief). Shajar al-Durr was informed of this at the Citadel of the Mountain in Cairo[58] and she agreed.[59] Shajar al-Durr took the royal name "al-Malikah Ismat ad-Din Umm-Khalil Shajar al-Durr" with a few additional titles such as "Malikat al-Muslimin" (Queen of the Muslims) and "Walidat al-Malik al-Mansur Khalil Emir al-Mo'aminin" (Mother of al-Malik al-Mansur Khalil Emir of the faithfuls) She was mentioned in the Friday prayers in mosques with names including "Umm al-Malik khalil" (Mother of al-Malik Khalil) and "Sahibat al-Malik as-Salih" (Wife of al-Malik as-Salih). Coins were minted with her titles and she signed the decrees with the name "Walidat Khalil".[60] Using the names of her late husband and her dead son were attempts to gain respect and legitimacy for her reign as an heir of the Sultanate.

After paying homage to Shajar al-Durr, Emir Hossam ad-Din was sent to King Louis IX who was still imprisoned in Al Mansurah and it was agreed that Louis IX would leave Egypt alive after paying half of the ransom that imposed on him earlier in exchange for his life and Damietta.[61] Louis surrendered Damietta and sailed to Acre On May 8, 1250 accompanied by about 12000 war prisoners.[62]

Conflict with the Ayyubids[edit]

News of the murder of al-Muazzam Turanshah and the inauguration of Shajar al-Durr as the new Sultana reached Syria. The Syrian Emirs were asked to pay homage to Shajar al-Durr but they refused and the Sultan's deputy in Al Karak rebelled against Cairo.[63] The Syrian Emirs in Damascus gave the city to an-Nasir Yusuf the Ayyubid Emir of Aleppo and the Mamluks in Cairo responded by arresting the Emirs who were loyal to the Ayubbids in Egypt.[64] In addition to the Ayyubids in Syria, the Abbasid Caliph al-Musta'sim in Baghdad also rejected the Mamluk move in Egypt and refused to recognize Shajar al-Dur as a monarch.[65][66] The refusal of the Caliph to recognize Shajar al-Durr as the new Sultana was a great setback to the Mamluks in Egypt as the custom during the Ayyubid era was that the Sultan could gain legitimacy only through the recognition of the Abbasid Caliph.[67][68] The Mamluks therefore decided to instal Izz al-Din Aybak as a new Sultan. He married Shajar al-Durr who abdicated and passed the throne to him after she had ruled Egypt as Sultana for about three months.[69] Though the period of Shajar al-Durr's rule as a monarch was of short duration, it witnessed two important events in history: one, the expelling of Louis IX from Egypt, which marked the end of the Crusaders' ambition to conquer the southern Mediterranean basin; and two, the death of the Ayyubid dynasty and the birth of the Mamluk state which dominated the southern Mediterranean for decades .

To please the Caliph and secure his recognition, Aybak announced that he was merely a representative of the Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad.[70] To placate the Ayyubids in Syria the Mamluks nominated an Ayyubid child named al-Sharaf Musa as a co-sultan.[67][71] But this did not satisfy the Ayyubids and armed conflicts between the Mamluks and the Ayyubids broke out.[72] The Caliph in Baghdad, preoccupied with the Mongols who were raiding territories not far from his capital, preferred to see the matter settled peacefully between the Mamluks in Egypt and the Ayyubids in Syria. Through negotiation and mediation of the Caliph that followed the bloody conflict, the Mamluks who manifested military superiority[73] reached an agreement with the Ayyubids that gave them control over southern Palestine including Gaza and Jerusalem and the Syrian coast.[74] By this agreement the Mamluks not only added new territories to their dominion but also gained recognition for their new state. In addition to the conflict with the Ayyubids of Syria, the Mamluks successfully countered serious rebellions in Middle and Upper Egypt.[75] Then, Aybak, fearing the growing power of the Salihiyya Mamluks who, with Shajar al-Durr, had installed him as a Sultan, had their leader Faris ad-Din Aktai murdered. The murder of Aktai was followed instantly by a Mamluk exodus to Syria where they joined the Ayyubid an-Nasir Yusuf.[76] Prominent Mamluks like Baibars al-Bunduqdari and Qalawun al-Alfi were among those Mamluks who fled to Syria.[77] Aybak became the sole and absolute ruler of Egypt after the Salihiyya Mamluks[78] who were the supporters of Shajar al-Durr[79] left Egypt and turned against him.

Death[edit]

By 1257 disputes and suspicion had become part of the relation between Aybak,[80] a Sultan who was searching for security and supremacy, and his wife Shajar al-Durr, a former Sultana who had a strong will and managed a country on edge of collapse during an external invasion. Shajar al-Durr wanted sole rule of Egypt. She concealed Sultanate affairs from Aybak; she also prevented him from seeing his other wife and insisted that he should divorce her.[80][81] Instead, Aybak, who needed to form an alliance with a strong Emir who could help him against the threat of the Mamluks who had fled to Syria,[82] decided in 1257 to marry the daughter of Badr ad-Din Lo'alo'a the Ayyubid Emir of al-Mousil.[83] Badr ad-Din Lo'alo'a warned Aybak that Shajar al-Durr was in contact with an-Nasir Yusuf in Damascus.[84][85] Shajar al-Durr, feeling at risk[14][86] and betrayed by Aybak, the man who she made a Sultan, had him murdered by servants while he was taking a bath.[87][88] He had ruled Egypt for seven years. Shajar al-Durr claimed that Aybak died suddenly during the night but his Mamluks (Mu'iziyya), led by Qutuz, did not believe her[89][90][91][92] and the servants involved confessed under torture. Shajar al-Durr and the servants were arrested and Aybak's Mamluks (the Mu'iziyya Mamluks) wanted to kill her, but the Salihyya Mamluks protected her and she was taken to the Red Tower where she stayed.[93][94] The son of Aybak the 15-year-old al-Mansur Ali was installed by the Mu'ziyyah Mamluks as the new Sultan.[89][95] Shajar al-Durr was stripped and beaten to death with clogs by the bondmaids of al-Mansur Ali and his mother. Her naked body was found lying outside the Citadel.[96][97][98] The servants who were involved in the killing of Aybak were executed.[99]

Shajar al-Durr was buried in a tomb, not far from the Mosque of Tulun, which is a jewel of Islamic funerary architecture. Inside is a mihrab (prayer niche) decorated with a mosaic of the "tree of life," executed by artists brought from Constantinople specifically for this commission. The wooden kufic inscription that runs around the interior of her tomb, while damaged, is also of extremely fine craftsmanship.

Impact[edit]

Before their deaths, Aybak and Shajar al-Durr firmly established the Mamluk dynasty that would ultimately repulse the Mongols, expel the European Crusaders from the Holy Land, and remain the most powerful political force in the Middle East until the coming of the Ottomans.

Shajar al-Durr in Egyptian folklore[edit]

Shajar al-Durr is one of the characters of Sirat al-Zahir Baibars (Life of al-Zahir Baibars), a folkloric epic of thousands of pages [100] that was composed in Egypt during the early Mamluk era and took its final form at the early Ottoman era.[101] The tale which is a mix of fiction and facts reflects the fascination of Egyptian common people for both Baibars and Shajar al-Durr. Fatma Shajarat al-Durr, as the tale names Shajar al-Durr, was the daughter of Caliph al-Muqtadir whose kingdom in Baghdad was attacked by the Mongols.[102] She was called Shajarat al-Durr (tree of pearls) because her father dressed her in a dress that was made of pearls. Her father granted her Egypt as she wished to be the Queen of Egypt and as-Salih Ayyub married her in order to stay in power as Egypt was hers. When Baibars was brought to the Citadel in Cairo she loved him and treated him like a son and he called her his mother. Aybak al-Turkumani, a wicked man, came from al-Mousil to steal Egypt from Shajarat al-Durr and her husband al-Salih Ayyub. Shajarat al-Durr killed Aybak with a sword but, while fleeing from his son, she fell from the roof of the citadel and died.[103]

Coins of Shajar al-Durr[edit]

The following names and titles were inscribed on the coins of Shajar al-Durr: al-Musta'simiyah al-Salihiyah Malikat al-Muslimin walidat al-Malik al-Mansur Khalil Amir al-Mu'minin. (The Musta'simiyah the Salihiyah Queen of the Muslims Mother of King al-Mansur Khalil Emir of the faithful) and Shajarat al-Durr. Also the names of the Abbasid Chaliph were inscribed on her coins: Abd Allah ben al-Mustansir Billah.[104]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Shajar al-Durn's name also spelled and pronounced as Shajarat al-Durr. Her coins carried the name Shajarat al-Durr. See under Coins of Shajar al-Durr.
  2. ^ As the letter' G ج ' is pronounced as ' J ' in Arabic and as ' G ' in Egyptian, her name is also pronounced as Shagar al-Durr .
  3. ^ Umm Khalil ( أم خليل ) also Walidat Khalil ( والدة خليل ) mean mother of Khalil. Khalil was her dead son from Sultan as-Salih Ayyub. The names were used by Shajar al-Durr to legitimate and consolidate her position as an heir and ruler. She signed the official documents and Sultanic decrees with the name 'Walidat Khalil' - (Abu Al-Fida, pp.66-87/Year 648H) - (Al-Maqrizi,p.459/vol.1).
  4. ^ Al-Maqrizi, Ibn Taghri and Abu Al-Fida regarded Shajar al-Durr as Turkic. Al-Maqrizi and Abu Al-Fida, however, mentioned that some believed she was of Armenian origin. (Al-Maqrizi, p. 459/vol.1) - (Ibn Taghri,p.102-273/vol.6)- (Abu Al-Fida, pp.68-87/Year 655H)
  5. ^ Dr. Yürekli, Tülay (2011), The Pursuit of History (International Periodical Research Series of Adnan Menderes University), Issue 6, Page 335, The Female Members of the Ayyubid Dynasty, Online reference: http://www.tarihinpesinde.com/sayi06/16.pdf
  6. ^ Some historians regard Shajar al-Durr as the first of the Mamluk Sultans. - (Shayyal, p.115/vol.2)
  7. ^ Al-Maqrizi described Shajar al-Durr as the first of the Mamluk Sultans of Turkic origin. " This woman, Shajar al-Durr, was the first of the Turkish Mamluk Kings who ruled Egypt " - (Al-Maqrizi, p.459/ vol.1)
  8. ^ Ibn Iyas regarded Shajar al-Durr as an Ayyubid. - (Ibn Iyas, p.89)
  9. ^ According to J. D. Fage " it is difficult to decide whether this queen (Shajar al-Durr) was the last of the Ayyubids or the first of the Mamluks as she was connected with both the vanishing and the oncoming dynasty". Fage, p.37
  10. ^ See note 3 and 5.
  11. ^ Ahmed, Nazeer. Islam in Global History: From the Death of Prophet Muhammed to the First. Xlibris Corporation, 2001. page 287
  12. ^ Fage, J. D. & Oliver, Roland Anthony. The Cambridge History of Africa. Cambridge University Press, 1986. page 37
  13. ^ Meri 2006, p. 729
  14. ^ a b c d e Ibn Taghri, pp.102-273/vol.6
  15. ^ Al-Maqrizi, p.459/vol.1
  16. ^ Al-Maqrizi, p.419/vol.1
  17. ^ ( Abu Al-Fida, p.68-87/Year 655H ) ( Ibn Taghri, pp.102-273/vol.6 )
  18. ^ Shayyal, p.116/vol.2
  19. ^ in 1239, before he became a Sultan, and during his conflict with his brother al-Malik al-Adil, as As-Salih Ayyub was captive in Nablus and detained in castle of Al Karak. He was accompanied by a Mamluk named Rukn ad-Din Baibars and Shajar al-Durr and their son Khalil. (Al-Maqrizi, p.397-398/vol.1 )
  20. ^ ( Al-Maqrizi's events of the year 638H ( 1240 C.E.) - p.405/vol.1. ) - ( Al-Maqrizi, p.404/vol.1 )
  21. ^ as-Salih Ayyub, after the birth of his son Khalil, married Shajar al-Durr. (Al-Maqrizi, pp.397-398/vol.1/ note 1. )
  22. ^ Al-Maqrizi, p. 437/vol.1
  23. ^ As-Salih Ayyub due to his serious disease was unable to ride a horse, he was carried to Egypt on a stretcher. (Shayyal,p.95/vol.2) - (Al-Maqrizi, p.437/vol.1)
  24. ^ It was believed that Frederick II, the King of Sicily informed As-Salih Ayyub about Louis's plan. (Shayyal, p.95/vol.2)
  25. ^ The Egyptian garrison of Damietta led by emir Fakhr ad-Din left the town and went to Ashmum-Tanah and were followed by its population before the landing of the crusade troops. (Al-Maqrizi, pp.438-439/vol.1) - (Abu Al-Fida,pp.66-87/ Year 647H) - Probably Fakhr ad-Din withdrew from Damietta because he thought the Sultan has died as he was not receiving messages from him for some time. (Shayyal, p.97/vol.2)
  26. ^ Also the crusade chronicler Lord of Joinville mentioned that Damiette was abandoned: " The Saracens thrice sent word to the Sultan by carrier-pigeons that the King had landed, without getting any answer, for the Sultan was in his sickness; so they concluded that the Sultan must be dead, and abandoned Damietta. " and " The Turks made a blunder in leaving Damietta, without cutting the bridge of boats, which would have put us to great inconvenience." ( Lord of Joinville, parg. 72./Cha.VI/part II )
  27. ^ (Al-Maqrizi, pp.439-441/vol.2) - (Abu Al-Fida, p.68-87/Year 647H) - (Shayyal, p.98/vol.2)
  28. ^ a b Al-Maqrizi, p.444/vol.1
  29. ^ (Al-Maqrizi, p.441/vol.1) - (Shayyal,p.98/vol.2)
  30. ^ Castle of al-Rudah ( Qal'at al-Rudah ) was built by As-Salih Ayyub on the island of al-Rudah in Cairo. It was used as an abode for his Mamluks.(Al-Maqrizi,p.443/vol1). Later, Sultan Aybak buried As-Salih Ayyub in the tomb which was built by as-Salih before his death near his Madrasah in the district of Bain al-Qasrain in Cairo. (Al-Maqrizi, p. 441/vol.1) - See also Aybak .
  31. ^ ( Abu Al-Fida, p.68-87/Death of as-Salih Ayyub)
  32. ^ Al-Maqrizi, p.445/vol.1
  33. ^ Al-Muazzam Turanshah was the deputy of his Father ( the Sultan ) in Hasankeyf.(Ibn taghri, pp. 102-273/vol.6/year 646)
  34. ^ According to Al-Maqrizi, Sultan as-Salih Ayyub made 10.000 Alama ( Sultan's sign ) before his death. (Al-Maqrizi, p.441/vol.1)
  35. ^ According to Abu Al-Fida and Al-Maqrizi, Shajar al-Durr used also a servant named Sohail in faking the Sultanic documents. ( Abu Al-Fida, p.68-87/Year 647H) - ( Al-Maqrizi, p.444/vol.1)
  36. ^ Goldstone. p. 169.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  37. ^ Ibn taghri, pp. 102-273/vol.6
  38. ^ As as-Salih Ayyub made no testimony concerning his successor, by this action, Shajar al-Durr made Turanshah an heir after the Sultan's death.
  39. ^ Commander in chief. See also Atabeg.
  40. ^ Shayyal/p.98/vol.2
  41. ^ News of the death of the Sultan were leaking. Some people at the Egyptian camp knew about the death of as-Salih Ayyub. When the vice-Sultan Hossam Ad-Din doubted about a Sultanic sign made by the servant Sohail he was informed by some of his men at the camp that the Sultan was dead. People noticed that Emir Fakhr ad-Din was acting as a sovereign so they knew that the Sultan was dead but not dared to speak out. (Al-Maqrizi,pp.444-445/vol.1). According to Abu Al-Fida many people knew the Sultan was dead when messengers were sent to Hasankeyf to call Turanshah. ( Abu Al-Fida/pp.66-87/Death of as-Salih Ayyub.)
  42. ^ Qasim,p.18
  43. ^ According to Al-Maqrizi, about 1500 crusaders were killed. ( Al-Maqrizi, p.448/vol.1 )
  44. ^ According to Matthew Paris, Only 2 Templars, 1 Hospitaller and one ‘contemptible person’ escaped. ( Matthew Paris, LOUIS IX`S CRUSADE.p.147 / Vol.5 )
  45. ^ They were led by their leader Faris Ad-Din Aktai. ( Sadawi, p.12)
  46. ^ the coronation judge Badr ad-Din al-Sinjari waited for Turanshah in Gaza where. From Gaza they went to Al Salhiyah where they were received by the Vice-sultan Hossam ad-Din. ( Al-Maqrizi, p. 449/vol.1 )
  47. ^ Also 'As Salhiyah' in north Egypt, east of the Nile Delta. In Sharqia Governorate now .
  48. ^ Al-Maqrizi, pp. 449-450/vol.1
  49. ^ See also Battle of Fariskur.
  50. ^ Turanshah replaced the Vice-Sultan Hossam ad-Din with Jamal ad-Din Aqush. ( Al-Maqrizi, p.457/vol.1)
  51. ^ Abu Al-Fida,pp.66-87/ Year 648H)
  52. ^ Shajar al-Durr protected Egypt during the Seventh Crusade, She preserved the Ayyubid throne and made Turanshah a Sultan in his absence.
  53. ^ Faris ad-Din Aktai was already angry of Turanshah because he did not promote him to the rank of Emir as he promised him when they were in Hasankeyf. ( Al-Maqrizi, p. 457/vol.1) - ( Ibn Taghri, pp.102-273/vol.6 )
  54. ^ Turanshah, when drunk, used to call the names of the Mamluks while cutting kindles with his sword and saying: " This is what I will do with the Bahriyya ". (Al-Maqrizi, p.457/vol.1) ( Ibn Taghri, pp.102-273/vol.6 )
  55. ^ Al-Maqrizi, p. 458-459/ vol.1
  56. ^ The Ayyubid child who was only 6-year-old Al-Ashraf Musa was a powerless cosultan.
  57. ^ Dihliz was the royal tent of the Sultan.
  58. ^ Citadel of the Mountain was the abode and court of the sultan in Cairo.
  59. ^ Al-Maqrizi, p.459/vo.1
  60. ^ (Al-Maqrizi, p.459/vol.1) - (Abu Al-Fida,pp.66-87/ Year 648H)
  61. ^ Al-Maqrizi,p.460/vol.1
  62. ^ The Franks war prisoners included prisoners from older battles (Al-Maqrizi, p.460/vol.1)
  63. ^ Al-Maqrizi, p.462/vol.1
  64. ^ Al-Maqrizi,pp.462-463/vol.1
  65. ^ The Abbasid Caliph al-Musta'sim sent a message from Baghdad to the Mamluks in Egypt that said :"If you do not have men there tell us so we can send you men." - (Al-Maqrizi, p.464/vol1)
  66. ^ In Egypt there was also objection from people who did not like Shajar al-Durr allowing Louis IX to depart from Egypt alive
  67. ^ a b Shayyal, p.115/vol.2
  68. ^ Despite the fact that the Ayyubids ruled as independent monarchs, they were spiritually royal to the Abbasid Caliphate It took the Mamluks some years till they could adjust this point. In 1258 the Abbasid Caliphate was destroyed with Baghdad by the Mongols. During the reign of Sultan Baibars a puppet Abbasid Caliphate was installed in Egypt which gave the Mamlukes full independence and freedom from any external power ( Shayyal, p.109/vol.2 )
  69. ^ Al-Maqrizi, p.463/vol.1
  70. ^ ( Al-Maqrizi, p.464/vol.1 ) ( Shayyal, p.115/vol.2 )
  71. ^ al-malik Sharaf Muzafer al-Din Musa was a grandson of al-Malik al-Kamil. (Al-Maqrizi, p.464/vol.1) - (Shayal, p.115/ vol.2) - (Ibn Taghri, pp.103-273/ The Sultanate of al-Muizz Aybak al-Turkumani) - ( Abu Al-Fida, pp.68-87/year 652H ) - See also Aybak.
  72. ^ See Aybak.
  73. ^ Mamluk forces defeated the forces of the Ayyubid king an-Nasir Yusuf in all the battles. - See also Aybak and an-Nasir Yusuf.
  74. ^ ( Al-Maqrizi, p. 479/vol.1 )( Shayyal, p. 116/vol.2 )
  75. ^ In 1253 a serious rebellion led by Hisn al-Din Thalab in upper and middle Egypt was crashed by Aktai the leader of the Bahri Mamluks. See also Aybak
  76. ^ Abu Al-Fida, pp.68-87/year 652H
  77. ^ While some Mamluks like Baibars and Qalawun fled to Syria others fled to Al Karak, Baghdad and the Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm. ( Shayyal, p. 118/vol.2)
  78. ^ Salihiyya Mamluks were the Mamluks of as-Salih Ayyub.
  79. ^ Asily,p.18
  80. ^ a b Al-Maqrizi, p.493/vol.1
  81. ^ Aybak had another wife known by the name "Umm Ali". She was the mother of al-Mansur Ali who became a Sultan.
  82. ^ Shayal, p.119/ vol.2
  83. ^ ( Al-Maqrizi, p.493/vol.1 ) - ( Ibn Taghri, pp.102-273/vol.6 )
  84. ^ Al-Maqrizi, p. 494/vol.1
  85. ^ According to Al-Maqrizi, Shajar al-Durr sent a gift to an-Nasir Yusuf with a message that said she will kill Aybak and marry him and make him a Sultan.( Al-Maqrizi, p.493/vol.1 )
  86. ^ According to Al-Maqrizi, Aybak was planning to kill Shajar al-Durr. ( Al-Maqrizi, p.493/vol.1 )
  87. ^ ( Al-Maqrizi, p.493/vol.1 ) - ( Abu Al-Fida, pp.68-87/year 655H )
  88. ^ According to Al-Maqrizi, Aybak called Shajar al-Durr for help while the servants were killing him. Shajar al-Durr ordered the servants to let him but a servant named Mohsin al-Jojri roared to her : ' If we let him he would kill both you and us '. - ( Al-Maqrizi, p,493/vol.1 )
  89. ^ a b Qasim,p.44
  90. ^ Al-Maqrizi, p.494/vol.1
  91. ^ According to Al-Maqrizi, during that night Shajar al-Durr sent the finger and ring of Aybak to Izz ad-Din Aybak al-Halabi asking him to take over the power but he refused. (Al-Maqrizi, p. 494/vol.1)
  92. ^ According to Ibn Taghri, Shajar al-Durr asked Izz ad-Din Aybak al-Halabi and Emir Jamal ad-Din Ibn Aydghodi to take over the power but both refused. ( Ibn Taghri, pp.102-273/vol.6 )
  93. ^ ( Al-Maqrizi, p.493/vol.1 ) - ( Abu Al-Fida, pp.68-87/year 655H ) - ( Ibn Taghri, pp.102-273/vol.6 )
  94. ^ The Red Tower was built at the Citadel by al-Malik al-Kamil.( Al-Maqrizi, p.494/note 2 /vol.1 )
  95. ^ (Abu Al-Fida,pp.66-87/ Year 647H) - (Al- Maqrizi, p.495) - ( Ibn Taghri, pp.102-273/vol.6 )
  96. ^ (Al-Maqrizi, p.494/vol.1)-( Ibn Taghri, pp.102-273/vol.6 )
  97. ^ Meri 2006, p.730
  98. ^ Irwin 1986, p. 29
  99. ^ In addition to Mohsin al-Jojri, 40 servants were executed. ( Al-Maqrizi, p. 494/vol.1 )
  100. ^ The edition that was printed in Cairo in 1923 is more than 15.000 pages.
  101. ^ See Sirat al-Zahir Baibars
  102. ^ in Addition, Sirat al-Zahir Baibars mentioned that it was also said that Shajarat al-Durr was the daughter of Caliph al- Muqtadir's father al-Kamil Billah from a bondmaid but she was adopted by al-Muqtadir.
  103. ^ Sirat al-Zahir Baibars
  104. ^ Mahdi,pp. 68-69

References[edit]

  • Abu al-Fida, The Concise History of Humanity.
  • Al-Maqrizi, Al Selouk Leme'refatt Dewall al-Melouk, Dar al-kotob, 1997.
  • Idem in English: Bohn, Henry G., The Road to Knowledge of the Return of Kings, Chronicles of the Crusades, AMS Press, 1969.
  • Al-Maqrizi, al-Mawaiz wa al-'i'tibar bi dhikr al-khitat wa al-'athar,Matabat aladab,Cairo 1996, ISBN 977-241-175-X.
  • Idem in French: Bouriant, Urbain, Description topographique et historique de l'Egypte,Paris 1895
  • Ibn Iyas, Badai Alzuhur Fi Wakayi Alduhur, abridged and edited by Dr. M. Aljayar, Almisriya Lilkitab, Cairo 2007, ISBN 977-419-623-6
  • Ibn Taghri, al-Nujum al-Zahirah Fi Milook Misr wa al-Qahirah, al-Hay'ah al-Misreyah 1968
  • History of Egypt, 1382-1469 A.D. by Yusef. William Popper, translator Abu L-Mahasin ibn Taghri Birdi, University of California Press 1954
  • Asly, B., al-Zahir Baibars, Dar An-Nafaes Publishing, Beirut 1992
  • Goldstone, Nancy (2009). Four Queens: The Provençal Sisters Who Ruled Europe. Phoenix Paperbacks, London. 
  • Sadawi. H, Al-Mamalik, Maruf Ikhwan, Alexandria.
  • Mahdi,Dr. Shafik, Mamalik Misr wa Alsham ( Mamluks of Egypt and the Levant), Aldar Alarabiya, Beirut 2008
  • Shayyal, Jamal, Prof. of Islamic history, Tarikh Misr al-Islamiyah (History of Islamic Egypt), dar al-Maref, Cairo 1266, ISBN 977-02-5975-6
  • Sirat al-Zahir Baibars, Printed by Mustafa al-Saba, Cairo 1923. Repulished in 5 volumes by Alhay'ah Almisriyah, Editor Gamal El-Ghitani, Cairo 1996, ISBN 977-01-4642-0
  • Sirat al-Zahir Baibars, assembled H. Johar, M. Braniq, A. Atar, Dar Marif, Cairo 1986, ISBN 977-02-1747-6
  • The chronicles of Matthew Paris ( Matthew Paris: Chronica Majora ) translated by Helen Nicholson 1989
  • The Memoirs of the Lord of Joinville, translated by Ethel Wedgwood 1906
  • The New Encyclopædia Britannica, Macropædia,H.H. Berton Publisher,1973–1974
  • Meri, Josef W. (Editor). Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopedia. Routledge, 2006. web page
  • Perry, Glenn Earl. The History of Egypt - The Mamluk Sultanate. Greenwood Press, 2004. page 49
  • Qasim,Abdu Qasim Dr., Asr Salatin AlMamlik ( era of the Mamluk Sultans ), Eye for human and social studies, Cairo 2007
  • Irwin, Robert. The Middle East in the Middle Ages: The Early Mamluk Sultanate, 1250-1382. Routledge, 1986. web page

External links[edit]

Regnal titles
Preceded by
Al-Muazzam Turanshah
Sultana of Egypt
1250
Succeeded by
Aybak and Al-Ashraf Musa, Sultan of Egypt