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The Shalivahana era, also known as the Saka era, is used with Hindu calendars, the Indian national calendar, the Balinese calendar, the Javanese calendar and the Cambodian Buddhist calendar. Its year zero begins near the vernal equinox of the year 78.
Western Kshatrapas (35–405 BC) were Saka rulers of the South-western part of India (Saurashtra and Malwa: modern Gujarat, Southern Sindh, Maharashtra, Rajasthan, parts of Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka)[www.mapsofworld.com/world-ancient-history/satavahana-empire.html]. They were successors to the Indo-Scythians who invaded the area of Ujjain and established the Saka era (with Saka calendar), marking the beginning of the long-lived Saka Western Satraps kingdom.
The Satavahana king (the king titled as Shalivahana is Gautamiputra Satakarni) is credited with the initiation of the era known as Shalivahana Saka to celebrate his victory against the Sakas in the year 78 CE.
Some scholars are of the opinion that saka era was founded by great kushana ruler Kanishka to commemorate his victory over Western Kshatrapas. But due to controversy related to dating of Kanishka's accession to throne his contribution is doubted.
Salivahana Caste (also called Kummari (Potter)) in Andhra Pradesh, Salivahana caste is recognized by Govt of India and Govt of AP as per GpO.Ms.No. 28 BCW (M1) Dept., dt 24.6.1995 It has been used not only in many Indian inscriptions but also in ancient Sanskrit inscriptions in Indochina and Indonesia. The reformed calendar promulgated by the Indian government from 1957 is reckoned by this era. It is variously alleged to have been founded by King Kaniṣka.
Kushan Empire -for a complex description of Kushan-Scythian dating.
- John Rosenfield The Dynastic Art of the Kushans, p. 130
- M. C. Ricklefs, A History of Modern Indonesia Since c. 1300, 2nd ed. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1993, pp. 5 and 46.
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