Shaker Aamer

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Shaker Aamer
ISN 00239, Shaker Aamer.jpg
Aamer in Guantanamo (photo taken before 1 November 2007)
Born (1968-12-12) 12 December 1968 (age 45)
Medina, Saudi Arabia
Detained at Kandahar, Bagram and Guantánamo
ISN 239
Charge(s) None
Penalty None
Status Cleared for release to Saudi Arabia since 2007 but wants to be sent to the UK where he is a resident and his family lives.[1]
Children Four children

Shaker Aamer (born 12 December 1968) is a Saudi citizen (with right of permanent residence in the UK) held by the United States in the Guantanamo Bay detention camps in Cuba.[2] He was arrested in Jalalabad, Afghanistan, on 24 November 2001 and was rendered to Guantánamo on 14 February 2002, where he has now been held for 12 years, 7 months and 4 days without trial or charge.[3][4][5]

According to documents published in the Guantanamo Bay files leak, the US military Joint Task Force Guantanamo believed in November 2007 that Aamer had led a unit of fighters in Afghanistan, including the Battle of Tora Bora, while his family was paid a stipend by Osama bin Laden. The file asserts past associations with Richard Reid and Zacarias Moussaoui.[6][7] Aamer denies being involved in terrorist activity and his lawyer, Clive Stafford Smith, said the leaked documents would not stand up in court. He claimed that part of the evidence comes from an unreliable witness and that confessions Aamer made had been obtained through torture.[8][9] Aamer’s father-in-law, Saaed Ahmed Siddique, said: "All of these claims have no basis. If any of this was true he would be in a court now."[10] The Bush administration acknowledged later that it had no evidence against Aamer.[11]

Aamer has never been charged with any wrongdoing, has never received a trial and his lawyer says he is "totally innocent."[12][13] He was cleared for release to Saudi Arabia by the Bush administration in 2007 and the Obama administration in 2009.[1][13] He has been described as a "charismatic leader" who spoke up and fought for the rights of fellow prisoners. Aamer says that he has been subject to torture while in detention.[14]

Aamer's mental and physical health has been declining over the years, as he has participated in hunger strikes to protest detention condition and been held in solitary confinement much of the time. He claims to have lost 40 per cent of his body weight in captivity but did not disclose his actual weight.[15][16][17] After a visit in November 2011, his lawyer said, "I do not think it is stretching matters to say that he is gradually dying in Guantanamo Bay."[18] The UK government has been demanding his release for years, and many people there have repeatedly called for his release.[6][7]

Family and personal life[edit]

Aamer was born on 12 December 1969 and grew up in Medina in Saudi Arabia. He left the country at the age of 17. He lived and traveled in the United States, Europe and the Middle East.[19] Aamer lived and studied in Georgia and Maryland in 1989 and 1990 and during the Persian Gulf War, he worked as a translator for the U.S. Army.[20]

He moved to the United Kingdom in 1996 where he met his wife, Zin Siddique a British woman. They married in 1997 and have four British children. Aamer has never met his youngest son Faris, who was born after his imprisonment.[21]

Aamer worked as an Arabic translator for London law firms. Some of the solicitors he worked for dealt with immigration cases. In his spare time, Aamer helped refugees find accommodation and offered them advice on their struggles with the Home Office.[19]

Aamer's family now live in Battersea, South London. His wife Zin Aamer has suffered from depression and mental episodes since his arrest.[17][22][23] Saeed Siddique, Aamer's father-in-law, said in 2011, "When he was captured, Shaker offered to let my daughter divorce him, but she said, 'No, I will wait for you.' She is still waiting."[24]

Capture and allegations[edit]

Aamer with daughter, Johnina (left), and son Michael (photo taken before his capture in 2001, released by his lawyer)

Aamer took his family to Afghanistan in 2001 where he was working for an Islamic charity. He was working for the charity when the U.S. invaded the country later that year.[21] The Northern Alliance took him into custody in Jalalabad on 24 November 2001, and passed him to the Americans. The US routinely paid ransom for Arabs handed over to them.[20] They interrogated Aamer at Bagram Theater Internment Facility and transported him to Guantánamo on 14 February 2002.

According to Joint Task Force Guantanamo assessments from 1 November 2007 the US military believed that Aamer was a "recruiter, financier, and facilitator" for al-Qaeda, based partly on evidence given by the informant Yasim Muhammed Basardah, a fellow detainee.[10] The leaked documents alleged that Aamer had confessed to interrogators that he was in Tora Bora with Osama bin Laden at the time of the US bombing.[7] The documents further note that the Saudi intelligence Mabahith identified Aamer "as a high priority for the government of Saudi Arabia, an indication of his law enforcement value to them."[25]

In 2010 the Guantanamo Review Task Force released their report of the detainee assessments. In many instances, the Task Force largely agreed with prior threat assessments of the detainees and sometimes found additional information that further substantiated such assessments. In other instances, the Task Force found prior assessments to be overstated. Some assessments, for example, contained allegations that were not supported by the underlying source document upon which they relied. Other assessments contained conclusions that were stated categorically even though derived from uncorroborated statements or raw intelligence reporting of undetermined or questionable reliability. Conversely, in a few cases, the Task Force discovered reliable information indicating that a detainee posed a greater threat in some respects than prior assessments suggested.[26]

Aamer denies being involved in terrorist activity[27] and his attorney, Clive Stafford Smith of Reprieve, said the evidence against his client "would not stand up in court." He pointed out that part of the evidence comes from Yasim Muhammed Basardah, whom American judges found to be "utterly incredible" and who was tortured and "promised all sorts of things."[10]

The Bush administration acknowledged later that it had no evidence against Aamer, and he was cleared for transfer in 2007. The Obama administration cleared him for transfer in 2009.[11][13] The clearance is only for transfer to Saudi Arabia.[1]

Aamer's allegations about Bagram interrogations[edit]

In September 2009 Zachary Katznelson, a Reprieve lawyer, said that Aamer had told of suffering severe beatings at the Bagram facility. Aamer said that close to a dozen men had beaten him, including interrogators who represented themselves as officers of MI5, the United Kingdom's internal counter-terrorism agency. Following one severe beating, he recovered from being stunned to find that all the interrogators had left the room and put a pistol on the table.[28] He did not find out if the pistol was loaded. He said it occurred to him that it had been left either so he could kill himself, or that, if he picked it up, he could be shot and killed on the excuse he was trying to shoot them.[28]

Aamer says that the "MI5" interrogators told him he had two choices: (1) agree to spy on suspected jihadists in the United Kingdom; or (2) remain in US custody.[28] He said that guards/agents repeatedly knocked his head against the wall while an MI5 officer was in the room.

"All I know is that I felt someone grab my head and start beating my head into the back wall – so hard that my head was bouncing. And they were shouting that they would kill me or I would die."[29]

Fifteen other British former detainees have alleged similar mistreatment by MI5 and MI6 agents, including torture.[8][30] They filed suit against the British government over their mistreatment and torture. In November 2010, the British government settled the suit, paying the detainees millions of pounds in compensation.[31][32][33][34] Aamer is also on the compensation list and part of the deal, but details are not known as most of the deal is still secret.[35][36]

Guantanamo[edit]

Aamer has been described as an unofficial spokesman for the detainees at Guantanamo. He is charismatic and has spoken up for the welfare of prisoners, negotiating with camp commanders and organizing protests against cruel treatment. He organized and participated in a hunger strike in 2005 in which he lost half of his weight. He demanded the prisoners be treated according to the Geneva Convention, allowing the detainees to form a grievance committee. In negotiations, the camp administration promised a healthier diet for the prisoners after he agreed to end the hunger strike.[19][37] His lawyer Stafford Smith said the grievance committee was formed, but that the camp authorities disbanded it after a few days. American spokesmen Major Jeffrey Weir denied that the Americans had ever agreed to any conditions resulting from the hunger strike.

Since then Aamer has been taking part in further hunger strikes. He has been held in solitary confinement for most of the time. His lawyers describe his solitary confinement as "cruel" and said his health has been affected to a point were they fear for his life. Stafford Smith said Aamer is "falling apart at the seams."[18][19][38][39]

Given the time involved, the lengthy spells in solitary confinement and the torture allegedly used against him, Shaker Aamer's plight has been one of the worst of all the detainees held at Guantanamo.

Amnesty International[40]

On 18 September 2006, Aamer's attorneys filed a 16-page motion arguing for his removal from isolation in Guantanamo Bay prison.[41] The motion alleges that Aamer had been held in solitary confinement for 360 days at the time of filing, and was tortured by beatings, exposure to temperature extremes, and sleep deprivation, which together caused him to suffer to the point of becoming mentally unbalanced. The next day Katznelson filed a motion to enforce the Geneva Conventions on his behalf.[42]

In September 2011, Aamer's lawyer Brent Mickum, who saw him in Guantánamo, alleges that Aamer was repeatedly beaten before their meetings. He said that Aamer's mental and physical health is deteriorating. "It felt like he has given up: that’s what 10 years, mostly in solitary confinement will do to a person," he said.[43]

Binyam Mohamed, one of the Britons who formerly occupied a cell one door down from Aamer, has said since his release that he knows why Aamer is still in the prison camps.[19]

"I would say the Americans are trying to keep him as silent as they could. It's not that he has anything. What happened in 2005 and 2006 is something that the Americans don't want the world to know – hunger strikes, and all the events that took place, until the three brothers who died ... insider information of all the events, probably. Obviously, Shaker doesn't have it, but the Americans think he may have some of it, and they don't like this kind of information being released."

Clive Stafford Smith, his lawyer and director of human rights organisation Reprieve, comes to a similar conclusion. He said:[44]

"I have known Shaker for some time, because he is so eloquent and outspoken about the injustices of Guantanamo he is very definitely viewed as a threat by the US. Not in the sense of being an extremist but in the sense of being someone who can rather eloquently criticise the nightmare that happened there."

Omar Deghayes, a former Guantanamo Detainee who knew Aamer, said of him,

"He was always forward, he would translate for people, he'd fight for them, and if he had any problems in the block he'd shout at the guards... until he would get you your rights. And that's why he's still in prison... because he's very outspoken, a very intelligent person, somebody who would fight for somebody else's rights." [45]

At Camp "No" on June 2006[edit]

Aamer said that he was beaten for hours and subjected to interrogation methods that included asphyxiation on 9 June 2006, the same day that three fellow prisoners died in Guantanamo. Describing the event, Aamer said that he was strapped to a chair, fully restrained at the head, arms and legs. When MPs pressed on pressure points all over his body: his temples, just under his jawline, in the hollow beneath his ears. They bent his nose repeatedly, pinched his thighs and feet. They inflicted pain to his eyes, bent his fingers until he screamed and then they cut off his airway and put a mask over him, so he could not cry out.[46][47]

Please torture me in the old way ... Here they destroy people mentally and physically without leaving marks.

Aamer in a letter to The Independent[15]

The law professor Scott Horton published an award-winning article in Harper's Magazine in 2010. He said that Aamer had been brought to "Camp No," a secret interrogation black site outside the camp, with the three men who died on the day of the event. Horton described Aamer's account of having his airways cut off as "alarming" and wrote, "This is the same technique that appears to have been used on the three deceased prisoners."[46][47] Colonel Michael Bumgarner, the commander of the camps during the incident and identified in Horton's article as having been present during the interrogations, denied Horton's claims.[48]

Horton wrote that Aamer's repatriation was being delayed so that he could not testify about his alleged torture in Bagram or the events on 9 June 2006. He wrote: "American authorities may be concerned that Aamer, if released, could provide evidence against them in criminal investigations."[46][47]

2013 hunger strike and detention condition[edit]

In 2013 Aamer told his attorneys that he is among the growing group of active hunger strikers. He said he has been refusing meals since February 15 and has lost 32 pounds.[20] In previous hunger strikes guards force-fed him with tubes down his nose.[20] His lawyer said Aamer spends 22 hours a day alone in his cell.[20] Aamer is not permitted visitors except his attorneys.[20]

2014 motion for release[edit]

In 2014 his lawyers filed a motion on Aamer's behalf seeking his release on the grounds that his health is "gravely diminished,". They argue that his various health problems can not be treated in Guantanamo and "Even if he receives the intensive medical and therapeutic treatment his condition requires, Mr Aamer will take many years, if not a lifetime, to achieve any significant recovery,". His lawyers argue that both the Geneva Convention and Army Regulation 190-8, requiring the repatriation of chronically ill prisoners.[49][50][51]

UK release negotiations[edit]

The United Kingdom government initially refused to intervene on the behalf of Guantánamo detainees who were legal British residents without being British citizens. In August 2007, Foreign Secretary David Miliband requested the release of Aamer and four other men, based on their having been granted refugee status, or similar leave, to remain in Britain as residents prior to their capture by US forces.[21][37][52][53] With the repatriation of Binyam Mohammed in February 2009, all British citizens and residents other than Aamer have been released. [54][55][56]

The UK government officials have repeatedly raised Aamer's case with the Americans. On a visit to the United States on 13 March 2009, when asked about Guantánamo captives, Home Secretary Jacqui Smith said that the U.S. administration has said they do not want to return Aamer to the U.K. William Hague, the Foreign Secretary, raised Aamer's case again with Hillary Clinton, US Secretary of State, in November 2010,[57] followed by meetings with other United States officials. At the time, the US government had reached settlement with former detainees as a resolution for damages due to the use of torture in interrogation.[57]

In September 2011, Foreign Office Minister Alistair Burt said that the negotiations are ongoing and confidential.[58] Supporters of Aamer have criticized the UK government for not doing enough on his behalf; they urged the government to step up their efforts.[13] In January 2012, The Independent revealed that the British government has spent £274,345 fighting in court to prevent Aamer's lawyers from gaining access to evidence which may prove his innocence.[15] The newspaper reported that Aamer has several serious medical complaints from years of "inhumane" detention conditions, and that the UK gave false hope to his family.[38]

Calls for his release[edit]

  • September 2006, Aamer's attorneys filed a 16 page motion arguing for his removal from isolation in Guantanamo Bay prison.[59]
  • In January 2010, his 12-year-old daughter Johina wrote a letter to Gordon Brown asking for his release.[22][59]
  • August, 2010, protesters disrupted a meeting that discussed plans to create a US Embassy near Battersea, the home of Aamer.[59][60]
  • On 11 December 2010, hundreds took to the streets in London near the US embassy to demand Aamer's release.[59][61]
  • In February 2011, Amnesty International called Aamer's ongoing incarceration a "mockery of justice" and denounced the "cruel limbo" he had been left in.[59][62] At the same time The Guardian reported that people had sent 12.000 emails to US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton and UK MPs in support of Aamer.[59][63]
  • In her 2011 album In The Current Climate, singer-songwriter Sarah Gillespie sang an imaginary first person song of Aamer entitled How The West was Won. Gillespie devoted the track to Aamer in the CD booklet.[64]
  • In May 2011, Students of University of St Andrews protested for the release of Aamer.[59][65]
  • In early 2012, approaching Aamer's completion of ten years' imprisonment in Guantánamo, campaigners stepped up efforts for his release. Among them, Jane Ellison, Tory MP for Battersea, wrote to Barack Obama to urge Aamer's release.[59][66]
  • February 2012, marking the 10th anniversary of Aamer's detention, a series of protests took place in England whilst a hunger strike was undertaken in Guantanamo.[59]
  • In December 2012, the comedian Frankie Boyle donated £50,000 to Aamer's legal fund for suits against MI6.[67]
  • By April 2013, 117,384 British citizen or UK residents had signed an online petition to pressure the UK Government for Aamer's release.[68]
  • In July 2013, Clive Stafford-Smith, Frankie Boyle and Julie Christie went on a sequential hunger strike in support of Shaker Aamer and his release.[69][70]
  • In August 2013 the singer PJ Harvey released the song Shaker Aamer describing Aamer's plight being force fed in restraining chairs and shackles during a month long hunger strike.[71]

See also[edit]

Further reading[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Townsend, Mark (20 April 2013). "Last British resident in Guantánamo 'may never be allowed home'". The Guardian. Retrieved 3 April 2014. 
  2. ^ OARDEC (15 May 2006). "List of Individuals Detained by the Department of Defense at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba from January 2002 through May 15, 2006" (PDF). United States Department of Defense. Retrieved 29 September 2007. 
  3. ^ JTF-GTMO (16 March 2007). "Measurements of Heights and Weights of Individuals Detained by the Department of Defense at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba". Department of Defense. Archived from the original on 23 December 2008. Retrieved 22 December 2008. 
  4. ^ from DoD data. "Measurements of Heights and Weights of Individuals Detained by the Department of Defense at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba (ordered and consolidated version)". Center for the Study of Human Rights in the Americas. Archived from the original on 21 December 2009. 
  5. ^ "Shaker Aamer". FreeDetainees.org. 2011. Retrieved 31 December 2011. 
  6. ^ a b Ross, Tim (26 April 2011). "Wikileaks: Shaker Aamer willing to be 'a martyr'". The Daily Telegraph (London). 
  7. ^ a b c Gordon Rayner (2 May 2011). "How Osama bin Laden, the world's most wanted man, eluded US during 10-year manhunt". The Daily Telegraph (London). 
  8. ^ a b "Guantanamo man wins papers ruling". BBC News. 8 December 2009. Retrieved 5 January 2012. 
  9. ^ "Concerns over Guantanamo Bay interrogation methods". Wandsworth Guardian. 1 May 2010. Retrieved 5 January 2012. 
  10. ^ a b c Cahalan, Paul (3 May 2011). "Shaker Aamer family rubbish Bin Laden link". Your Local Guardian. 
  11. ^ a b Mason, Chris (9 September 2011). "British Guantanamo inmate on hunger strike". BBC. Retrieved 5 January 2012. 
  12. ^ "3,000 days of Guantanamo Bay imprisonment for Battersea man Shaker Aamer". The Guardian. Retrieved 5 January 2012. 
  13. ^ a b c d MATT WILLIAMS (9 January 2012). "Ten years on, UK resident remains in detention at Guantanamo". The Scotsman (UK). Retrieved 9 January 2012. 
  14. ^ "Shaker Aamer: Amnesty urgent action". The Guardian (London). 15 January 2012. Retrieved 15 January 2012. 
  15. ^ a b c PAUL CAHALAN (11 February 2012). "Letters raise fears for last Briton in Guantanamo". The Independent (UK). Retrieved 13 February 2012. 
  16. ^ Cockburn, Alexander (4 February 2011). "Nine years on and still no justice for Shaker Aamer". Morning Star. Retrieved 5 January 2012. 
  17. ^ a b Cahalan, Paul (18 August 2011). "Fears grow over Britain's last inmate at Guantanamo Bay". The Independent (London). 
  18. ^ a b McGuffin, Paddy (24 November 2011). "Guantanamo detainee 'slowly dying in hellhole'". Morning Star. Retrieved 5 January 2012. 
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  20. ^ a b c d e f "11 years in Guantanamo without trial or charges". By Phil Hirschkorn t. March 31, 2013. 
  21. ^ a b c "Calls to free Guantanamo father", BBC, 8 February 2005
  22. ^ a b Verkaik, Robert (11 January 2010). "Free my dad from Guantanamo, 12-year-old asks Brown". The Independent (UK). Retrieved 5 January 2012. 
  23. ^ "Ten years in custody without charge for Battersea's Shaker Aamer". Your Local Guardian. Retrieved 5 January 2012. 
  24. ^ Cahalan, Paul (1 January 2012). "Obama's U-turn on Guantanamo seals fate of lone Briton". The Independent (UK). Retrieved 5 January 2012. 
  25. ^ Leigh, David; Cobain, Ian (24 April 2011). "Guantánamo Bay files: Shaker Aamer, inmate from Britain the US won't let go". The Guardian. 
  26. ^ Guantanamo Review Task Force Final Report, (p. 9)
  27. ^ http://www.ibtimes.co.uk/last-brit-guantanamo-shaker-aamer-diagnosed-post-traumatic-stress-1443869
  28. ^ a b c Doward, Jamie (6 September 2009). "'MI5 agent left me alone with gun', says Guantánamo terror detainee". The Guardian (London). Archived from the original on 6 September 2009. 
  29. ^ Verkaik, Robert (14 January 2012). "Last Briton in Guantanamo Bay says MI5 officer was in room as he was tortured". Daily Mail (London). 
  30. ^ Cahalan, Paul (21 December 2009). "Ministers in U-turn over torture documents for Guantanamo Briton". The Independent (UK). Retrieved 5 January 2012. 
  31. ^ Kate Allen (22 November 2010). "Where is the justice for Shaker Aamer?". The Guardian (UK). Retrieved 5 January 2012. 
  32. ^ Gardham, Duncan (7 December 2009). "New allegations of MI5 complicity in Guantanamo abuse case". The Daily Telegraph (UK). Retrieved 5 January 2012. 
  33. ^ Wintour, Patrick; Weaver, Matthew (16 November 2010). "Guantánamo Bay prisoners to get millions from British government". The Guardian (UK). Retrieved 5 January 2012. 
  34. ^ "Is the Return of Guantanamo Prisoner Shaker Aamer Part Of Compensation Deal?". Pubrecord. Retrieved 5 January 2012. 
  35. ^ Burns, John F. (16 November 2010). "Britain to Compensate Guantánamo Detainees". The New York Times. Retrieved 5 January 2012. 
  36. ^ "Moazzam Begg Explains How Ex-Guantánamo Prisoners Offered to Forego Compensation for Return of Shaker Aamer". Worthington, Andy. Retrieved 5 January 2012. 
  37. ^ a b Verkaik, Robert (14 September 2007). "The case of the Guantanamo lawyer, the detainees and the illegal pairs of pants". The Independent (London). Retrieved 7 August 2007. 
  38. ^ a b PAUL CAHALAN (11 January 2012). "Guantanamo is 10 years old – and the last British prisoner is 'falling apart'". The Independent (UK). Retrieved 11 January 2012. 
  39. ^ Rosenberg, Carol. "Secret Guantánamo cell block cost nearly $700,000 – Guantánamo". Miami Herald. Retrieved 5 January 2012. 
  40. ^ "Amnesty condemns Guantanamo case". South Wales Guardian. Press Association. 12 February 2011. 
  41. ^ "Lawyers: Gitmo solitary wrecks captive's mind", CNN. 18 September 2006
  42. ^ Katznelson, Zachary Philip (19 September 2006). "Shaker Aamer v. George W. Bush – 04-cv-2215: Motion to lift stay and for preliminary injunction enforcing Geneva Conventions". United States Department of Justice. Retrieved 29 December 2008. 
  43. ^ "Last Briton in Guantanamo on hunger strike". Channel 4 News. Retrieved 5 January 2012. 
  44. ^ "'Heartbreaking' moment Shaker Aamer saw first photo of son". Your Local Guardian. 11 February 2010. Retrieved 5 January 2012. 
  45. ^ "'Spectacle Shaker Aamer". Spectacle. 31 May 2012. Retrieved 4 September 2012. 
  46. ^ a b c Horton, Scott (18 January 2010). "The Guantánamo "Suicides": A Camp Delta sergeant blows the whistle". Harper's Magazine. Archived from the original on 18 January 2010. 
  47. ^ a b c Cobain, Ian (18 January 2010). "US magazine claims Guantánamo inmates were killed during questioning". The Guardian (London). Archived from the original on 18 January 2010. 
  48. ^ Horton, Scott (18 May 2006). "The Official Response Begins". Harpers Magazine. Retrieved 5 January 2012. 
  49. ^ http://www.bbc.com/news/uk-26933512
  50. ^ http://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/apr/08/guantanamo-bay-british-detainee-shaker-aamer-ptsd-release
  51. ^ http://jurist.org/paperchase/2014/04/last-former-english-resident-in-guantanamo-bay-requests-release-on-declining-health.php
  52. ^ Stringer, David (7 August 2007). "UK asks US to release 5 from Guantanamo". Associated Press. Retrieved 7 August 2007. 
  53. ^ James Kirkup (14 August 2007). "Life of house arrest awaits Guantanamo detainees on return to UK". The Scotsman (UK). Retrieved 10 October 2007. 
  54. ^ Mikkelson, Randall (14 March 2009). "US and Britain at odds over detainee". Swissinfo. Retrieved 14 March 2009.  mirror
  55. ^ Rosen-Molina, Mike (29 July 2008). "UK Guantanamo detainee asks court to order turnover of 'torture' evidence". The Jurist. Retrieved 31 July 2008.  mirror
  56. ^ "Transferred to Britain – The Guantánamo Docket". The New York Times. Retrieved 5 January 2012. 
  57. ^ a b Verkaik, Robert (19 November 2010). "Torture settlement brings hope to last British inmate in Guantanamo". The Independent (UK). Retrieved 5 January 2012. 
  58. ^ Mason, Chris (9 September 2011). "BBC News – British Guantanamo inmate on hunger strike". BBC. Retrieved 5 January 2012. 
  59. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Updates - Shaker Aamer". Spectacle (UK). 4 September 2012. Retrieved 4 September 2012. 
  60. ^ Harding, Eleanor (3 August 2010). "Battersea man Shaker Aamer protesters gatecrash Nine Elms meeting". Wandsworth Guardian. 
  61. ^ "Hundreds join campaigners demanding release of last British Guantanamo detainee". Your Local Guardian. 13 December 2010. 
  62. ^ "Amnesty condemns Guantanamo UK Shaker Aamer case". BBC News. 12 February 2011. 
  63. ^ "Nine years without trial for Guantanamo Brit is 'travesty of justice'". Wandsworth Guardian. 14 February 2011. 
  64. ^ "Peter Baker, In the current climate review". Thejazzbreakfast.wordpress.com. 25 January 2011. Retrieved 5 January 2012. 
  65. ^ "St Andrews Guantanamo Bay protest highlights case of Shaker Aamer". The Courier. 3 May 2011. Retrieved 5 January 2012. 
  66. ^ McVeigh, Tracy (31 December 2011). "Last British resident held in Guantánamo Bay faces another year's captivity". The Observer (UK). Retrieved 5 January 2012. 
  67. ^ Taylor, Jerome (14 December 2012). "Frankie Boyle donates £50,000 to help Guantanamo inmate sue MI6". The Independent (London). 
  68. ^ http://epetitions.direct.gov.uk/petitions/33133
  69. ^ Logan, Brian (16 July 2013). "Will Frankie Boyle go hungry for Guantánamo's detainees?". The Guardian (London). 
  70. ^ http://www.heraldscotland.com/news/home-news/fasting-boyle-is-still-joking.21666587
  71. ^ http://www.rollingstone.com/music/news/pj-harvey-releases-new-track-shaker-aamer-for-guantanamo-detainee-20130804

External links[edit]