Shakhty

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Shakhty (English)
Шахты (Russian)
-  City[1]  -
Shakhty.jpg
A view of the city from the KhBK (cotton plant) area
Map of Russia - Rostov Oblast (2008-03).svg
Location of Rostov Oblast in Russia
Shakhty is located in Rostov Oblast
Shakhty
Shakhty
Location of Shakhty in Rostov Oblast
Coordinates: 47°42′N 40°14′E / 47.700°N 40.233°E / 47.700; 40.233Coordinates: 47°42′N 40°14′E / 47.700°N 40.233°E / 47.700; 40.233
Coat of arms of Shakhty.png
Coat of arms
City Day Third Sunday of September[citation needed]
Administrative status (as of May 2011)
Country Russia
Federal subject Rostov Oblast[1]
Administratively subordinated to Shakhty Urban Okrug[1]
Administrative center of Shakhty Urban Okrug[1]
Municipal status (as of January 2007)
Urban okrug Shakhty Urban Okrug[2]
Administrative center of Shakhty Urban Okrug[2]
Mayor[citation needed] Denis Stanislavov[3]
Statistics
Population (2010 Census) 239,987 inhabitants[4]
Rank in 2010 79th
Time zone MSK (UTC+04:00)[5]
Postal code(s)[6] 346500
Dialing code(s) +7 8636[citation needed]
Official website
Shakhty on WikiCommons

Shakhty (Russian: Шахты; IPA: [ˈʂaxtɨ]) is a city in Rostov Oblast, Russia, located on the southeastern spur of the Donetsk mountain ridge, 75 kilometers (47 mi) northeast of Rostov-on-Don. Population: 239,987 2010 Census.[4]

History[edit]

In 1805, sergeant-major Popov founded a small settlement near the Grushevka River. The settlement later became known as Popovka. In 1809, Popov built the first mine. Twelve Cossacks and fourteen peasant serfs lived in Popovka at that time. From 1881 to 1921, it was known as Alexandrovsk-Grushevsky (Александровск-Грушевский).

By 1914, the population had reached 54,000. The main source of income was coal mining, which had been carried out in that region since the 18th century. The population was poor, but the town had rail, telegraph and telephone networks, electricity and plumbing as well as libraries, hospitals and a post office. Most of the merchants and industrialists lived in Rostov and Novocherkassk.[7]

1917 saw the city change hands three times, until it was taken on April 28, 1919, by the Don Army, under General Fitzkhelaurov. For twenty months it was independent of the Bolsheviks, but was ravaged by typhoid.

On January 13, 1921, it was finally given its present name. The name "Shakhty" ("mine shafts" in English) was chosen, because of the city's association with coal mining. During the 1920s, many of the churches and the archives were destroyed. As with the rest of the Soviet Union, the same street names were changed.

The city is known for the Shakhty Trial of 1928, a precursor of the show trials of the 1930s, and for being the scene of many of Andrei Chikatilo's murders.

In 1941 an independent Cossack republic had been declared in Shakhty although this was suppressed by the NKVD before the Russian invasion.[8]

In July 1942, during the Great Patriotic War, the town was occupied by the Germans; many coal pits and buildings were blown up by the Germans during their retreat in February, 1943. Twenty-nine of the townsmen were awarded the title of the Hero of the Soviet Union.

In 1948, production levels in the mines reached what they had been before the war. During the Leonid Brezhnev years, the city was at the height of its development, with a population of over 250,000, and about ten million tons of coal being mined each year.

Perestroika proved devastating for the city, as mines were privatized and shut down, causing massive unemployment, which led to a severe rise in crime and drug abuse. Today Shakhty is the main industrial center of the Eastern Donbass. The city is also one of the main producers and exporters of tile in Eastern Europe, Shakhtinskaya Plitka.

Administrative and municipal status[edit]

Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is incorporated as Shakhty Urban Okrug—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts.[1] As a municipal division, this administrative unit also has urban okrug status.[2]

Demographics[edit]

The city's population was 239,987 as of the 2010 Census;[4] up from 222,592 recorded in the 2002 Census.[9] As of the 1989 Census, the population was 225,797.[10]

Twin towns and sister cities[edit]

Shakhty is twinned with:

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e Law #340-ZS
  2. ^ a b c Law #191-ZS
  3. ^ Official website of Shakhty Administration. Denis Ivanovich Stanislavov (Russian)
  4. ^ a b c Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved June 29, 2012. 
  5. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Постановление №725 от 31 августа 2011 г. «О составе территорий, образующих каждую часовую зону, и порядке исчисления времени в часовых зонах, а также о признании утратившими силу отдельных Постановлений Правительства Российской Федерации». Вступил в силу по истечении 7 дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Российская Газета", №197, 6 сентября 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Resolution #725 of August 31, 2011 On the Composition of the Territories Included into Each Time Zone and on the Procedures of Timekeeping in the Time Zones, as Well as on Abrogation of Several Resolutions of the Government of the Russian Federation. Effective as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication.).
  6. ^ Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (Russian)
  7. ^ shakhty.su: History
  8. ^ p.88, Stalingrad, Antony Beevor
  9. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian). Retrieved August 9, 2014. 
  10. ^ Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года[All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. Retrieved August 9, 2014. 

Sources[edit]

  • Законодательное Собрание Ростовской области. Закон №340-ЗС от 25 июля 2005 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Ростовской области», в ред. Закона №962-ЗС от 25 октября 2012 г. «О внесении изменений в областной Закон "Об административно-территориальном устройстве Ростовской области" и признании утратившим силу абзаца сорок первого пункта 5 статьи 1 областного Закона "О внесении изменений в областной Закон "Об административно-территориальном устройстве Ростовской области"». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Наше время", №187–190, 28 июля 2005 г. (Legislative Assembly of Rostov Oblast. Law #340-ZS of July 28, 2005 On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Rostov Oblast, as amended by the Law #962-ZS of October 25, 2012 On Amending the Oblast Law "On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Rostov Oblast" and on Abrogating Paragraph Forty-One of Item 5 of Article 1 of the Oblast Law "On Amending the Oblast Law "On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Rostov Oblast". Effective as of the official publication date.).
  • Законодательное Собрание Ростовской области. Закон №191-ЗС от 19 ноября 2004 г. «Об установлении границы и наделении статусом городского округа муниципального образования "Город Шахты"», в ред. Закона №627-ЗС от 12 января 2007 г «О внесении изменений в некоторые областные Законы об установлении границ муниципальных образований и наделении их соответствующим статусом». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Наше время", №285–286, 23 ноября 2004 г. (Legislative Assembly of Rostov Oblast. Law #191-ZS of November 19, 2004 On Establishing the Border and Granting Urban Okrug Status to the Municipal Formation of the "City of Shakhty", as amended by the Law #627-ZS of January 12, 2007 On Amending Various Oblast Laws on Establishing the Borders of the Municipal Formations and on Granting Them an Appropriate Status. Effective as of the official publication date.).

External links[edit]