Shakushain's Revolt (シャクシャインの戦い Shakushain no tatakai?) was an Ainu rebellion against Japanese authority on Hokkaidō between 1669 and 1672. It was led by Ainu chieftain Shakushain against the Matsumae clan, who represented Japanese trading and governmental interests in the area of Hokkaidō then controlled by the Japanese (Yamato people).
The war initially began as a fight for resources between Shakushain's people and a rival Ainu clan in the Shibuchari River (Shizunai River) basin of what is now Shinhidaka, Hokkaidō. The war developed into a final attempt by the Ainu to preserve their political independence and regain control over the terms of their trade relations with the Yamato people.
According to scholar Brett Walker:
Shakushain's War stands out as a watershed event in the history of the conquest of Ezo. Shakushain exploded onto the scene as a charismatic leader who proved able to bridge regional differences among Ainu communities, threatening to unite them against the Japanese intrusion from the south. The Tokugawa shogunate reacted by solidifying its own united front of military allies in the northeast, replacing local Matsumae generals with men of its own choosing, thus illustrating its self-appointed role as defender of the realm.
At the end of 1669, Shakushain's forces surrendered to the Matsumae. The two sides exchanged gifts and negotiated a peace settlement; however, while Ainu generals celebrated with "liberal helpings of saké", they were assassinated by Matsumae warriors. Shakushain was among those killed that day.
- Brett L. Walker, The Conquest of Ainu Lands: Ecology and Culture in Japanese Expansion 1590-1800. University of California Press, 2001, pages 49–56, 61-71.
- Matsumae Castle and Town includes English-language account of Shakushain's Revolt
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