Shalimar Gardens, Lahore
|Fort and Shalamar Gardens in Lahore|
|Name as inscribed on the World Heritage List|
|Criteria||i, ii, iii|
|Inscription||1981 (5th Session)|
The Shalimar Gardens (Punjabi, Urdu: شالیمار باغ), sometimes written Shalamar Gardens, is a Pakistani garden and it was built by the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan in Lahore, modern day Pakistan. Construction began in 1641 AD (1051 AH) and was completed the following year. The project management was carried out under the superintendence of Khalilullah Khan, a noble of Shah Jahan's court, in cooperation with Ali Mardan Khan and Mulla Alaul Maulk Tuni. The meaning of the name Shalimar remains unknown, Russian scholar Anna Suvorova in her book "Lahore: Topophilia of Space and Place" has asserted that it is certainly an Arabic or Persian name since a Muslim King would never use a Sanskrit or Hindu name for a royal garden. The Shalimar Gardens are located near Baghbanpura along the Grand Trunk Road some 5 kilometers northeast of the main Lahore city. Shalimar Gardens draws inspiration from Central Asia, Kashmir, West Punjab, Persia, and the Delhi Sultanate.
The site of the Shalimar Gardens originally belonged to one of the noble Zaildar families in the region, well known as Arain Mian Family Baghbanpura. The family was also given the royal title of 'Mian' by the Mughal Emperor, for its services to the Empire. Mian Muhammad Yusuf, then the head of the Arain Mian family, donated the site of Ishaq Pura to the Emperor Shah Jahan, after pressure was placed on the family by the royal engineers who wished to build on the site due to its good position and soil. In return, Shah Jahan granted the Arain Mian family governance of the Shalimar Gardens. The Shalimar Gardens remained under the custodianship of this family for more than 350 years.
The Shalimar Gardens are laid out in the form of an oblong parallelogram, surrounded by a high brick wall, which is famous for its intricate fretwork. This garden was made on the concept of Char Bhagh. The gardens measure 658 meters north to south and 258 meters east to west. In 1981, Shalimar Gardens was included as a UNESCO World Heritage Site along with the Lahore Fort, under the UNESCO Convention concerning the protection of the world's cultural and natural heritage sites in 1972.
The three level terraces of the Gardens
- The upper terrace named Farah Baksh meaning Bestower of Pleasure.
- The middle terrace named Faiz Baksh meaning Bestower of Goodness.
- The lower terrace named Hayat Baksh meaning Bestower of life.
From this basin, and from the canal, rise 410 fountains, which discharge into wide marble pools.It is a credit to the creativity of Mughal engineers that even today scientists are unable to fully comprehend the water systems and thermal engineering from architectural blueprints. The surrounding area is rendered cooler by the flowing of the fountains, which is a particular relief for visitors during Lahore's blistering summers, with temperature sometimes exceeding 120 °F (49 °C). The distribution of the fountains is as follows:
- The upper level terrace has 105 fountains.
- The middle level terrace has 152 fountains.
- The lower level terrace has 153 fountains.
- All combined, the Gardens has 410 fountains.
The Gardens have 5 water cascades including the great marble cascade and Sawan Bhadoon.
Buildings of the Gardens
The buildings of the Gardens include:
Trees of the Gardens
Some of the varieties of trees that were planted included:
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Shalimar Gardens, Lahore.|
- UNESCO World Heritage Site Profile
- The Herbert Offen Research Collection of the Phillips Library at the Peabody Essex Museum
- Sattar Sikander, The Shalamar: A Typical Muslim Garden, Islamic Environmental Design Research Centre
- Chapter on Mughal Gardens from Dunbarton Oaks discusses the Shalimar Gardens
- Irrigating the Shalimar Gardens in addition to canal named Shah Nahar Youtube link in Urdu