Shandong University

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Shandong University
山东大学
Sdulogo lettering.jpg
Seal and lettering of Shandong University
Motto simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: xué zhǐ jìng, yŏu hào rán[1]
Motto in English Noble in Spirit, Boundless in Knowledge[2]
Established 1901
Type National university
Officer in charge Li Shouxin (李守信)
President Zhang Rong (张荣)
Academic staff 3,700 (in 2009)[3]
Admin. staff 7,898
Students 57,500 (in 2009) [3]
Undergraduates 43,000 (in 2009) [3]
Postgraduates 14,500 (in 2009) [3]
Location Jinan (济南), Shandong (山东), People's Republic of China
36°40′25″N 117°3′14″E / 36.67361°N 117.05389°E / 36.67361; 117.05389Coordinates: 36°40′25″N 117°3′14″E / 36.67361°N 117.05389°E / 36.67361; 117.05389 (central campus)
Campus Jinan (6), Weihai (1)
Former names Shandong Imperial University (Chinese: ; pinyin: Shāndōng xué Táng), Shandong Provincial University, National Shandong University (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Guó Shāndōng xué), among others
Nickname Shanda (Chinese: ; pinyin: Shān)
Website official website (Chinese), (official website (English)

Shandong University (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Shāndōng xué, abbreviated as Shanda, Chinese: ; pinyin: Shān, English acronym SDU) is a public comprehensive university in Shandong, China. It is one of the largest universities in China by student population (57,500 full-time students in 2009[3]) and is supported directly by the national government.[4]

Present-day Shandong University is the result of multiple mergers as well as splits and restructurings that have involved more than a dozen academic institutions over time.[5] The oldest of Shandong University's precursor institutions, Cheeloo University, was founded by American and English mission agencies in the late 19th century (as Tengchow College of Liberal Arts in Penglai).[6] Tengchow College was the first modern institution of higher learning in China. Shandong University derives its official founding date from the Imperial Shandong University (Chinese: ; pinyin: Shāndōng xué Táng) established in Jinan in November 1901 as the second modern national university in the country.[5]

Shandong University has seven campuses, all but one of which are located in the provincial capital city of Jinan. A campus to the northeast of the port city of Qingdao is under construction. The university has been classified as a National Key University by the Chinese Ministry of Education since 1960.[7] It has been included in major national initiatives seeking to enhance the international competitiveness of the top-tier universities in China such as Project 985[4] and Project 211.[4]

Shandong University offers master and doctoral degree programs in all major academic disciplines covering the humanities, science and engineering, as well as medicine.[8]

Reputation and ranking[edit]

In the general university ranking performed by the Chinese University Alumni Association (CUAA), Shandong University ranked number 14 among Top 100 Chinese universities in 2010.[9] It reached the 11th highest score in the "teaching" category of this ranking.[9] Shandong University's engineering programs have also been ranked number 15 nationwide by the Research Center of Management and Science in China (2008).[10] For the last 10 years, Shandong University has been continuously ranked among the top 10 universities nationwide in terms of the number of publications included in the Science Citation Index.[3] Research at Shandong University is deemed particular strong in the areas of physics, mathematics, and medicine.[3]

History[edit]

Traditional learning in Shandong (1733-1900)[edit]

Buildings of the Luoyuan Academy in Jinan
Miao Quansun, a historian, bibliographer, and book collector, taught at the Luoyuan Academy and helped to establish China's first modern libraries.[11]

The Luoyuan Academy (Chinese: ; pinyin: Luoyuán Shūyuàn) was established in Jinan in 1733 by an imperial edict from the Yongzheng Emperor of the Qing Dynasty.[12] The governor of Shandong, Yue Jun (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Yuè Jùn), received 1,000 taels of silver (approximately 37 kg) to fund the establishment of the academy.[12] The name "Luoyuan" (literally "source of the Luo [River]") refers to the original location of the academy near the Baotu Spring. The academy was dedicated to teaching the Chinese classics[12] to the sons of the gentry. Scholars affiliated with the academy include: Bi Yuan (畢沅, 1730–1797), Sang Tiaoyuan (桑调元, 1695–1771), Shen Qiyuan (沈起元, 1685–1763), He Shaoji (何紹基, 1799–1873), Kuang Yuan (匡源, 1815–1881), Wang Zhihan (王之翰, 1821–1850), Liu Yaochun (刘耀春), Zhu Xuedu (朱学笃, 1826—1892), and Miao Quansun (缪荃孙, 1844–1919). In 1881, the American Presbyterian missionaries John Murray (Chinese: ; pinyin: Yuēhàn) and Stephen A. Hunter (Chinese: ; pinyin: Hóngshì fǎn) attempted to purchase a property adjacent to the Luoyuan Academy for use as a chapel. This led to a violent reaction when on July 13, 1881, literati from the Academy incited an attack on the property.[13] The incident, known as the "Jinan Jiaoan" (Chinese: ; pinyin: nán Jiàoàn), had considerable diplomatic repercussions for the relationship between the Qing Dynasty and the United States. The Luoyuan Academy was rebuilt in 1896 to become the largest institution of its kind in Shandong.[12] Five years later (in 1901) it was replaced by the newly founded Imperial Shandong College which took over its campus[5] (today the site of the Provincial Bureau of Statistics on Spring City Road, Chinese: ; pinyin: Quán Chéng ).

19th-Century precursor institutions[edit]

Calvin W. Mateer established the Tengchow College of Liberal Arts in Dengzhou (Penglai).

The earliest precursor institutions that would later be fused into Shandong University were founded by American and English mission agencies: In early January 1864, Calvin W. Mateer, an American Presbyterian missionary, and his wife Julia Brown Mateer arrived in the recently opened treaty port of Dengzhou (Chinese: 登州; Wade–Giles: Tengchow) in the area of the present-day city of Penglai on the north-eastern coast of Shandong Peninsula.[14] Their journey had begun in New York on July 3, 1863, had taken them around the Cape of Good Hope to Shanghai, and had ended with a shipwreck off the coast of Yantai.[15] In the autumn of 1864, the Mateers opened an elementary school for boys (Mengyang Educational Society, Chinese: ; pinyin: Méngyǎng Xuétáng) in a Guanyin temple that had been sold to them since there were insufficient funds for its upkeep as a temple.[14] The school's first class consisted of six boarders and two day pupils.[14] The school was enlarged to accommodate 30 boarders and divided into primary and high school sections in 1869.[14] The high school became known as the Wenhui Guan (Chinese: ; pinyin: Wénhuì Guǎn). The Tengchow College of Liberal Arts was formally established in 1882,[6] i.e., at a time when the school had been operated as a primary and high school for 18 years already. By 1889, enrollment in the college had grown to 100 students.[16] The six-year curriculum included algebra, geometry and conic sections, trigonometry and measurement, surveying and navigation, analytical geometry and mathematical physics, calculus, as well as astronomy.[16] Religion also featured prominently in the curriculum as well as in daily life at Tengchow College.[16] The College soon enjoyed a reputation for its high standards of academic excellence.[17] When W.A.P Martin hired young professors of Western learning for the Imperial Capital University (the precursor of present-day Peking University), 12 out of 13 young professors hired were graduates of Tengchow College of Liberal Arts.[14] In 1884, shortly after the formal establishment of Tengchow College of Liberal Arts, British Baptists established Tsingchow Boy's Boarding School in Qingzhou, also located in northern Shandong, but not directly on the coast.

In 1902, the American and British missionaries agreed to combine their education ventures in Shandong,[6] and established an arts college (Chinese: 广; pinyin: Wéixiàn Guǎngwén Xuétáng) in Weifang, a theological college (Chinese: ; pinyin: Qīngzhōu Gòng Shéndào Xuétáng) in Qingzhou, and a medical college (Chinese: ; pinyin: nán Gòng dào Xuétáng) in Jinan.[6] In 1909, all three colleges were consolidated[6] into Shantung Protestant University (Chinese: ; pinyin: Shāndōng Xīnjiào xué) which was later renamed Shantung Christian University (Chinese: ; pinyin: Shāndōng jiào xué). "Cheeloo University", the school's informal name that had been officially approved by the school council in 1915, was derived from "Qilu", a nickname of Shandong Province coined after the ancient states of Qi (1046 BC-221 BC) and Lu (10th century BC-256 BC) that once existed in the area. Jinan was chosen as the new location for the consolidated university.[6]

Henry W. Luce led the fundraising for Cheeloo University in Jinan.

A prominent member of Cheeloo University's faculty was Henry Winters Luce (1868–1941), the father of the publisher Henry R. Luce (founder of TIME Magazine, Fortune, and Life). Henry W. Luce initially led the fundraising efforts for the new campus in Jinan[6] (today the Baotuquan Campus of Shandong University). In this capacity, he raised 300,000 dollars between 1912 and 1915 from donors in the United States.[18] The buildings on the new Cheeloo campus were designed by the architectural firm of Perkins, Fellows, & Hamilton from Chicago.[6] Henry W. Luce was elected vice-president of Cheeloo University in 1916, but resigned in the following year already, because he felt that he had insufficient support for his vision of a university of major national influence from the then Cheeloo President J. Percy Bruce.[18]

Cheeloo University particularly made its mark in the field of medicine: From 1914-1936, the university built and subsequently expanded Cheeloo Hospital as a major facility for medical education in China. Between 1916 and 1923, the former Peking Union Medical College, the Medical Department of Nanking University, the Hankow Medical College, and the North China Union Medical College for Women were all moved to Jinan and merged into the Cheeloo University School of Medicine.[6]

Lao She, author of "Rickshaw Boy" and "Teahouse", taught at Cheeloo University and National Shandong University in Qingdao.

Cheeloo University attracted Chinese intellectuals and scholars. The writer Lao She, author of the novel "Rickshaw Boy" and the play "Teahouse", taught at Cheeloo University (1930–1934) as well as at National Shandong University in Qingdao and other universities between 1934 and 1937.[19]

In 1937, when the Japanese forces occupied northern China during the Second Sino-Japanese War, Cheeloo University evacuated to Sichuan and operated on the campus of West China Union University[6] in Chengdu. In Jinan, the University's hospital remained open with a largely Western staff.[6] During the war, the Japanese military used the entire campus for housing about 1,200 patients along with 600 officers.[6]

During the Korean War (1950–1953), the Chinese government came to regard Christian schools as tools of "American imperialism" and hence embarked on closing them down.[16] Cheeloo University was dissolved in 1952. Its Medical School was fused with Shandong Provincial Medical College and the East China Norman Bethune Medical College to form Shandong Medical College (renamed into "Shandong Medical University" in 1985).

Imperial Shandong University (1901)[edit]

As governor, Yuan Shikai (shown as Emperor of China in 1916) drafted the charter for Shandong College.

The initiative for the founding of Shandong University (as Imperial Shandong University, Chinese: ; pinyin: Shāndōng xué Táng) in 1901 as a national, modern university came from Yuan Shikai, then the governor of Shandong province. Yuan Shikai was the chief military modernizer of the late Qing Dynasty whose control over a powerful army combined with his personal ambition played a key role in the birth of the Republic of China as well as its descent into warlordism in the early 20th century.[20]

Yuan Shikai had been governor of Shandong Province since December 1899. He had been appointed to this post to quell the Boxer Uprising in the province and to reassure the foreign diplomats in the country who were looking for quick decisive actions against the boxers.[21] In 1901, the same year that marked the end of the Boxer Uprising, Yuan sent a draft for the university charter (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Shāndōng xué Bànxué Zhāngchéng) to the Guangxu Emperor and instructed Li Yukai, the magistrate of Penglai, to start preparations for the university.[5] The draft of the university charter was approved by the emperor in November 1901,[5] shortly after the Boxer Uprising had officially ended with the signing of the Boxer Protocol on September 7, 1901. Shandong Imperial University became hence the second modern national university established in the country after Imperial Capital University (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Jīngshī xuétáng) that had been founded in 1898 and later became Peking University. The charter of Shandong Imperial University served as a model for subsequent foundations of imperial university. The original charter document for Shandong University is now kept in the National Palace Museum in Taipei, Taiwan where it had been taken during the retreat of the Kuomintang at the end of the Chinese Civil War.

Watson M. Hayes was invited to organize Imperial Shandong University and served as its first dean.

Governor Yuan Shikai wanted a prominent position for Western learning in the curriculum of the new college.[22] Hence, he invited the American Presbyterian missionary Dr. Watson McMillan Hayes (Chinese: ; pinyin: shì, 1857–1944) who was then serving as president of Tengchow College[16] in Penglai to help with setting up the new Imperial Shandong University and serve as its president.[22] The appointment of the Presbyterian missionary W. A. P. Martin as inaugural president of the Imperial Capital University three years earlier[23] had set a precedent for this arrangement. Hayes arrived in Jinan in July 1901 and started the preparations for the new college.[22] Hayes also published Shandong's first successful daily newspaper and petitioned the Qing court to grant a holiday on Sundays;[24] As a consequence, Shandong University was closed on Sundays right from the start.[22] However, by the end of the year, Hayes and six Chinese Christian teachers he had brought with him had resigned already[22] over disagreements regarding the policy of mandatory Confucius worship for students of the imperial university.[25][26] Hayes went on to teach the Presbyterian Mission Theological Class in Chefoo (present-day Yantai) and continued to work as a missionary and educator in Shandong until his death in a Japanese internment camp in Wei County (present-day Weifang) in 1944.

Imperial Shandong University occupied the premises of the Luoyuan Academy which had been renovated and extended significantly five years earlier. It was opened on November 13, 1901 in a ceremony attended by Governor Yuan Shikai.[22] 299 student were enrolled in the first term,[22] of which 120 passed the first examination and 100 were finally admitted.[22] The first faculty had 50 members that also included teachers from overseas,[5] it was later increased to 110. The curriculum contained Chinese classics, Chinese history, social sciences, natural sciences, and foreign language[5] with more than 20 subjects being taught.[5] At the beginning, the curriculum covered 3 years, but it was later expanded to 4 years.[5]

"Western studies" faculty of Imperial Shandong University (presumably W. M. Hayes and the six Chinese Christian teachers he had brought with him)

The first president of the new university was Tang Shaoyi.[5] Tang had been educated in the United States (elementary school in Springfield, Massachusetts, high school in Hartford, Connecticut, and finally one year at Columbia University)[27] and had since then followed a career that had been closely linked to Yuan Shikai:[27] He had been a diplomat with Yuan Shikai's staff in Korea[27] and was appointed head of the Shandong Bureau of Foreign Affairs under governor Yuan Shikai in 1900.[27] He would later become the first Prime Minister of the Republic of China (in March 1912, again under the presidency of Yuan Shikai). As Prime Minister, however, he sided with Sun Yat-sen's Kuomintang against Yuan Shikai and resigned after only three months in office.

In 1904, Imperial Shandong University moved to new premises in the Ganshi Qiao (Chinese: ; pinyin: Gānshí Qiáo) area of Jinan[5] (located to the south-west of the historical city center) and changed its name to "Shandong Institution of Higher Learning" (Chinese: ; pinyin: Shāndōng Gāoděng Xuétáng). In 1911, it changed its name once again, this time to the "School of Higher Learning" (Chinese: ; pinyin: Shāndōng Gāoděng Xuéxiào).

National Shandong University in Qingdao (1909-1936)[edit]

Gate of National Shandong University in Qingdao. The building in the background was originally part of the German Bismarck barracks.
German Admiral von Tirpitz backed a plan that gave the Chinese government a stake in the new university of Qingdao.[28]

The first modern academic institution in the port city of Qingdao, then part of the German Kiautschou Bay colonial concession, was the German-Chinese "Advanced School of Special Sciences of a Special Type" ("Hochschule für Spezialwissenschaften mit besonderem Charakter", Chinese: ; pinyin: bié Gāoděng Zhuānmén Xuétáng). It was founded on October 25, 1909,[29] about 11 years after the German lease on the territory went into effect. In establishing the university, the German authorities took a much more accommodating approach towards the Chinese government than they had taken in the de facto annexation of the territory.[28] The negotiations over the establishment of the school were led by sinologist Otto Franke.[28] Although the German governor Oskar von Truppel vigorously objected to Chinese influence over the school,[28] Franke's collaboration plan received firm backing from Admiral von Tirpitz as well as the German envoy in Beijing.[28] The university operated under the supervision of the German naval administration, but was recognized and supported financially by the Chinese government.[29] The cumbersome name of the school ("spezial" or "tebie", i.e., "special") was chosen at the insistence of the Chinese government to reflect its special status, below the Imperial College in Beijing but above the other provincial Chinese universities.[28] The local informal name for the university was "Hainan School" in reference to an old name for Qingdao.[30] Studies were organized in a "preparatory level" with a six-year (since 1911, five-year) curriculum for students aged 13 to 15 years and an "upper school".[30] Subjects covered included German, history, geography, mathematics, natural history, zoology, botany, health, physics, chemistry, drawing, music, sports, as well as Chinese language and sciences.[30] Whereas engineering and natural sciences were taught in an entirely "Western mode", the Chinese and European approaches were combined in the teaching of the humanities.[28] Religious subjects had been excluded from the curriculum at the request of the Chinese government.[30] The number of students at the school rose to about 400 in 1914,[29] the school assembled a German and a Chinese library with about 5000 and 8000 volumes respectively.[30] School operations ceased with the beginning of the First World War in 1914[29][30] and never resumed.[29]

Gao Enhong, first president of the private Qingdao University and governor of the Jiaozhou territory
Poet Zang Kejia studied at National Shandong University and later co-edited the "Selected Poems of Chairman Mao".

Qingdao reverted from Japanese to Chinese control in 1922 and Qingdao University was founded as a new private university in August 1924; its first president was Gao Enhong (Chinese: ; pinyin: Gāo ēnhóng),[5][29] the governor of the Jiaozhou territory.[29] The former German-Chinese university was not mentioned during the opening ceremony and it was decided not to hire foreign teachers for the time being.[29]

Qingdao University was housed in the former Bismarck barracks that had been constructed for the German troops in 1903, i.e., during the time when Qingdao was part of the German concession in Shandong. The curriculum of Qingdao University was mainly focused on engineering and business administration[5] and a bachelors degree was to be awarded after four years of study. Luo Ronghuan, later a marshal of the People's Liberation Army, was among Qingdao University's students. Qingdao University fell on hard times after the Zhili clique of warlords that had ruled Shandong since the takeover from the Japanese unexpectedly lost to its rival Fengtian clique in the Second Zhili-Fengtian War of 1924. Gao Enhong was forced to resign as president of the university and funding dried up.[5]

Warlord Zhang Zongchang ordered the fusion of six schools into a provincial Shandong University in Jinan.

The Fengtian clique installed the warlord Zhang Zongchang as ruler of Shandong. Zhang, an illiterate former bandit[31] who had built a reputation mainly for ruthlessness, brutality, and colorful antics,[32] ordered the fusion of six schools into a provincial Shandong University (Chinese: ; pinyin: Shěng Shāndōng xué) in Jinan in 1926.[5]

In 1928, the Kuomintang Government in Nanjing regained control of northern China and Shandong through the Northern Expedition. Soon afterwards, preparations commenced for a National University in the province.[5] In August 1928, the government ordered the replacement of the provincial Shandong University with a National University in Shandong.[5] The National University of Qingdao was formally established with an opening ceremony on September 21, 1930.[5] In 1932, it was renamed "National Shandong University". Like Qingdao University, Shandong National University was housed in the buildings of the former Bismarck barracks. The University's chancellor, Yang Zhensheng (Chinese: ; pinyin: Yáng Zhènshēng), followed the model set by Peking University in establishing an "inclusive" (Chinese: ; pinyin: Jiānróng bìngbāo), "scientific and democratic" (Chinese: ; pinyin: xué mínzhǔ) academic environment.[5] During this period, Shandong National University hired distinguished scientists, scholars and literary figures such as Lao She, Wen Yiduo, Shen Congwen, Liang Shiqiu, the nuclear physicist Wang Ganchang (faculty member from 1934 to 1936), and the embryologist Tong Dizhou.[5] Poet Zang Kejia, who later co-edited the "Selected Poems of Chairman Mao" (Chinese: ; pinyin: Máo Zhǔ Shī Jiǎngjiě, 1957), was a student of Wen Yiduo from 1930-1934 in Qingdao.

Second Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945)[edit]

In November 1937, a few months after Marco Polo Bridge Incident that had marked the outbreak of a fully-fledged war in July of the same year, National Shandong University was evacuated from Qingdao. The university first moved to Anqing in Anhui Province and soon afterwards to Wanxian in Sichuan Province (today Wanzhou District in Chongqing).[5] Books, equipment, and administrative files were shipped in separate installments and suffered severe loss.[5] Classes resumed in Wanxian in Spring 1938, but were stopped soon after that on orders of the Ministry of Education.[5] Teachers and students were then transferred to the National Central University that had been moved from Nanjing to Chongqing[5] in the previous year. The books and equipment of Shandong University were placed into storage in the National Central Library, the National Central University, and the National Central Vocational School.[5] After the war, in the spring of 1946, the University moved back to Qingdao.[5]

Post-war period (1945-1965)[edit]

Communist Party Meeting at Shandong University in 1959, during the Great Leap Forward

From 1945 until May 1949, part of the Shandong University campus in Qingdao served as the headquarters for the U.S. Sixth Marine Division until it was disbanded on 31 March 1946 and later on for the U.S. Fleet Marine Force, Western Pacific.[33] In 1947, the Su Mingcheng Incident, in which an American seaman had killed a rickshaw puller after an argument, caused protests of the university students.[33][34]

In 1951, East China University (Chinese: ; pinyin: Huádōng xué) was merged into Shandong University. In the same year, the university published the "Journal of Shandong University". Cheeloo University was dissolved in 1952 and its Medical School became part of Shandong Medical College. Prior to the Sino-Soviet split, Soviet faculty members worked at Shandong University. In October 1958, the university moved back to Jinan from Qingdao. The marine sciences remained in Qingdao, where they later formed Shandong Ocean University.[5] In Jinan, Shandong University first occupied the Hongjialou Campus.[5] Construction of the new Central Campus commenced in 1959, during the Great Leap Forward and in the year of a great Yellow River flood. Shandong University was added to the list of National Key University on 10 October 1960.[7]

Cultural Revolution (1966-1976)[edit]

Zhou Enlai intervened to restore Shandong University during the Cultural Revolution.

Starting from early June 1966, schools in Jinan were closed down by strikes as teachers were "struggled against" in the Cultural Revolution.[35] Shandong University was also completely paralyzed by the events.[5] A complete restructuring was imposed on Shandong's university system: according to a resolution passed by Revolutionary Committee of Shandong Province on July 29, 1970, the liberal arts of Shandong University were moved to Qufu and combined with Qufu Normal College to form a new Shandong University.[36] The biology department was moved to Tai'an and merged into the Shandong Agricultural College.[36] The rest of the sciences was to form the Shandong Science and Technology University.[36] In 1971, the university's admission policy was also changed: in order to open the university to workers and peasants, new students were now nominated "by the masses" and then approved by the political leadership and the university.[5] Until 1976, a total of 3267 students who were admitted under this scheme graduated after completing a 2- or 3-year curriculum.[5] Premier Zhou Enlai learned of Shandong University's reorganization in 1973. Although he was already terminally ill with bladder cancer at the time, he intervened and ordered a return to previous structure of the university.[5] As a consequence, all organizational changes imposed by the Revolutionary Committee of Shandong Province were undone in early 1974 already.[37]

Recent history (1980-present)[edit]

Shandong University at Weihai was established in 1984. In 1985, Shandong Medical College was renamed Shandong Medical University. From 1986 to 1996, Shandong University underwent a period of rapid academic expansion.[5] By 1997, is contained 14 colleges, 45 schools and offered 56 undergraduate program, 57 master degree programs as well as 17 doctoral degree programs.[5] Shandong University merged with Shandong Medical University and the Shandong University of Technology in 2000. With Shandong Medical University the former campus of Cheeloo University became part of Shandong University (as the West Campus, renamed Baotuquan Campus in 2009). The campus of Shandong University of Technology became the South Campus of Shandong University (renamed Qianfoshan Campus in 2009). Construction of the Xinglongshan Campus (then under the name "New South Campus"), a large new campus located in a mountain valley to the south of Jinan dedicated to education of first- and second-year undergraduate students, began in 2003.

Academic institutions in the history of Shandong University
Establishment Established by Year established Location
Luoyuan Academy (Chinese: ; pinyin: Luoyuán Shūyuàn) Qing Emperor 1733 Jinan
Tengchow College of Liberal Arts
(Chinese: ; pinyin: Dēngzhōu Wénhuì Guǎn)
American Presbyterians 1882 Dengzhou (part of Penglai)
Tsingchow Boy’s Boarding School
(Chinese: ; pinyin: Guǎng Shūyuàn)
British Baptists 1884 Qingzhou
Arts College at Weixian
Chinese: 广; pinyin: Wéixiàn Guǎngwén Xuétáng
American Presbyterians & British Baptists 1902 Weixian (i.e., Wei County, today the city of Weifang)
Theological College at Qingzhou
Chinese: ; pinyin: Qīngzhōu Gòng Shéndào Xuétáng
American Presbyterians & British Baptists 1902 Qingzhou (part of Weifang)
Medical College
Chinese: ; pinyin: nán Gòng dào Xuétáng
American Presbyterians & British Baptists 1902 Jinan
Shandong Imperial University
(Chinese: ; pinyin: Shāndōng xué Táng)
Qing Emperor 1901 Jinan
Shandong Institution of Higher Learning
(Chinese: ; pinyin: Shāndōng Gāoděng Xuétáng)
Qing Emperor 1904 Jinan
Cheeloo University/Shantung Protestant University (later renamed to Shantung Christian University,
Chinese: ; pinyin: xué)
American Presbyterians & British Baptists 1909 Jinan
Advanced School of Special Sciences of a Special Type
(Hochschule für Spezialwissenschaften mit besonderem Charakter,
Chinese: ; pinyin: bié Gāoděng Zhuānmén Xuétáng)
German Empire & Qing Dynasty 1909 Qingdao
School of Higher Learning
(Chinese: ; pinyin: Shāndōng Gāoděng Xuéxiào)
1911 Jinan
Shandong Provincial Law and Politics College 1914 Jinan
Shandong Provincial Industrial College 1914 Jinan
Shandong Provincial Commercial College 1914 Jinan
Shandong Provincial Medical College 1920 Jinan
Shandong Provincial College of Mineralogy 1920 Jinan
Qingdao University (Private) 1924 Qingdao
Shandong Provincial University
(Chinese: ; pinyin: Shěng Shāndōng xué)
Warlord Zhang Zongchang 1926 Jinan
National Shandong University
(simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Guó Shāndōng xué)
Republic of China 1932 Qingdao
University Property Protection Committee of National Shandong University Republic of China 1938 Sichuan
Huazhong Construction University 1944 Jiangsu
Linyi Shandong University 1945 Linyi
National Shandong University Republic of China 1946 Qingdao
Huadong (East China) Universithttp://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/q%C5%ABy
(Chinese: ; pinyin: Huádōng xué)
1948 Weixian (today the city of Weifang)
Shandong University 1951 Qingdao
Qingdao Medical College 1956 Qingdao
Shandong College of Oceanography (now Ocean University of China, Qingdao) 1959 Qingdao
Shandong University
(simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Shāndōng xué)
1958 Jinan
Liberal Arts Departments are combined with Qufu Teachers College Revolutionary Committee of Shandong Province 1970 Qufu
Department of Biology becomes part of Shandong Agricultural College Revolutionary Committee of Shandong Province 1970 Tai'an
Department of Science and the Administration built into Shandong University of Science and Technology Revolutionary Committee of Shandong Province 1970 Jinan
Shandong University P.R. China 1974 Jinan
Shandong University, Weihai (satellite campus)
(Chinese: ; pinyin: Wēihái Xiào)
1984 Weihai

Campuses[edit]

Shandong University has a total of seven campuses. All but one of them are located in Jinan, the capital city of Shandong Province. Together they cover an area of 3.8 km². The only campus outside of Jinan is situated in the city of Weihai near the tip of Shandong peninsula.

Current campuses of Shandong University
Current name Old name Address and location
Central Campus (Chinese: ; pinyin: ZhōngXīnXiào) East New Campus (Chinese: ; pinyin: DōngXīnXiào) 27 Shanda Nanlu, Jinan, 36°40′25″N 117°3′14″E / 36.67361°N 117.05389°E / 36.67361; 117.05389
Hongjialou Campus (Chinese: ; pinyin: Hóngjiālóu Xiào) East Old Campus (Chinese: ; pinyin: DōngLǎoXiào) 5 Hongjialou, Jinan, 36°41′9″N 117°3′41″E / 36.68583°N 117.06139°E / 36.68583; 117.06139
Baotuquan Campus (Chinese: ; pinyin: Bàoquán Xiào) West Campus (Chinese: 西; pinyin: Xiào), formerly the campus of Cheeloo University 44 Wenhua Xilu, Jinan, 36°39′11″N 117°0′43″E / 36.65306°N 117.01194°E / 36.65306; 117.01194
Qianfoshan Campus (Chinese: ; pinyin: Qiānshān Xiào) South Campus (Chinese: ; pinyin: Nán Xiào), formerly the campus of the Shandong University of Technology 17923 Jingshi Road, Jinan, 36°39′5″N 117°1′20″E / 36.65139°N 117.02222°E / 36.65139; 117.02222
Xinglongshan Campus (Chinese: ; pinyin: Xīnglóngshān Xiào) New South Campus (Chinese: ; pinyin: Nán Xīn ) 2550 Erhuan Donglu, Jinan, 36°35′55″N 117°2′38″E / 36.59861°N 117.04389°E / 36.59861; 117.04389
Ruanjianyuan Campus (Chinese: ; pinyin: Ruǎnjiànyuán Xiàoqū)) Qilu Software College Campus (Chinese: ; pinyin: Ruǎnjiàn XuéYuàn) Shunhua Road, Jinan, 36°40′0″N 117°7′57″E / 36.66667°N 117.13250°E / 36.66667; 117.13250
Weihai Campus (Chinese: ; pinyin: Wēihǎi Xiào) Shandong University at Weihai (Chinese: ; pinyin: Wēihǎi Fēnxiào) 180 Wenhua Xilu, Weihai, 37°31′49″N 122°3′19″E / 37.53028°N 122.05528°E / 37.53028; 122.05528
Qingdao Campus (Chinese: ; pinyin: Qīngdǎo Xiào, satellite campus, under construction) Aoshanwei Town, Jimo City

Central Campus[edit]

Integrated Research Building (Chinese: ; pinyin: Zhīxīn Lóu; literally: "know what is new building"), completed in 2010, seen from the southeast in March 2013.

Construction of the Central Campus commenced in 1959, about a year after the university had moved back from Qingdao to Jinan[5] and during a time that coincided with the Great Leap Forward, the Great Chinese Famine, as well as a devastating flood of the Yellow River (in July 1959). The Central Campus houses the central administration (in the Mingde Building, Chinese: ; pinyin: Míng Lóu), the main university library, a large dining hall, as well as student dormitories. The central campus is home to the schools of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Environmental Engineering, Economics, History and Culture, Marxism-Leninism, Life Sciences, Mathematics and System Science, Literature and Journalism and Communication, as well as Information Science and Engineering. One of Shandong University's hotels (Chinese: 中心; pinyin: Shāndōng xué Xuéshù Jiāoliú Zhōngxīn, or for short: "Xueren Dasha", Chinese: ; pinyin: Xuérén shà) is also located on the central campus. The roads within the Central Campus are named after concepts from Confucianism.

Hongjialou Campus[edit]

Sacred Heart Cathedral on Hongjialou Square that borders immediately on the Hongjialou Campus.

The Hongjialou Campus derives its name from the Hongjialou Square and is located immediately to the north and east of the Square and the Sacred Heart Cathedral (Chinese: ; pinyin: Hóng Jiā Lóu Shèng Xīn Zhŭ Jiào Zuò Táng). The first construction on the campus dates back to 1936 when it was used for the Jinan Yifan Girls' Middle School (Chinese: ; pinyin: fàn Zhōngxué) that was operated by Franciscan sisters (Chinese: ; pinyin: ài xiū ) of the Archdiocese of Jinan.[38] In 1948, the Yifan Girls' Middle School was combined with Liming Middle School (Chinese: ; pinyin: míng Zhōngxué) and its former campus became part of the Shandong Agricultural Institute that used it until 1958, when the Institute moved to Tai'an. In October 1958, the Hongjialou Campus became Shandong University's first Campus after the university moved back to Jinan from Qingdao.[5] The Hongjialou Campus houses the Schools of Law, Foreign Languages and Literature, Physics, Fine Arts, Physical Education, Philosophy and Social Sciences, as well as Political Science and Public Administration.

Baotuquan Campus[edit]

Alumni Gate (completed in 1924), the former main entrance to Cheeloo University and a landmark of the Baotuquan Campus

The Baotuquan Campus is the former campus of Cheeloo University and was established in 1909. The design for the campus was made by Perkins, Fellows and Hamilton, an architectural firm from Chicago renowned for its school buildings in the "Prairie School" style. The American architects attempted to include Chinese architectural features into the design of the buildings on the new Cheeloo University campus in Jinan. They did, however, mistakenly assume that the roof shape was the only distinguishing feature of Chinese architecture.[39] As a result, the buildings feature Chinese-style roofs on buildings that lack the matching support elements such as wooden Dougong brackets that characterize Chinese architecture. Historical buildings on the Baotuquan Campus include the Bergen Science Hall (Chinese: ; pinyin: Bǎiěrgēn Lóu, formerly for Chemistry and Biology), the Mateer Science Hall (formerly for Physics and Physiology), the McCormick Hall, and the Alumni Gate (the former main entrance, construction completed on June 17, 1924). Baotuquan Campus houses the schools of public health, nursing, dentistry, pharmacy, and medicine.

Qianfoshan Campus[edit]

Main building on the Qianfoshan Campus.

The Qianfoshan Campus was established in 1949 and served as the campus of Shandong University of Technology. It became a part of Shandong University when Shandong University of Technology was merged into Shandong University in July 2000. The campus has a total area of about 420,000 square meters[40] and remains exclusively dedicated to engineering. It is home to the schools of Materials Science and Engineering, Electrical Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, Computer Science and Technology, Control Science and Engineering, Energy and Power Engineering, Physical Education, as well as Civil Engineering. The roads on the Qianfoshan Campus are named after famous engineers and inventors from China as well as abroad.

Xinglongshan Campus[edit]

Xinglongshan Campus in 2005

The Xinglongshan Campus is the newest campus of Shandong University and also its largest campus in Jinan with an area of about 769,000 square meters.[41] Construction of the campus started in March 2003 and its first facilities were ready for use in August 2004.[42] The campus is used to house first- and second-year students of nine different departments. The Xinglongshan Campus also houses a Student Associations Activity Center with a total floor space of about 2000 square meters.[43]

Ruanjianyuan Campus[edit]

Qilu Software College Campus in 2005

The Ruanjianyuan Campus is home to the School of Computer Science and Technology as well as to the University's Software College.[44] Campus construction started in July 2001 and the campus now has a total area of about 267,000 square meters.[44] More than 3,000 students live on the Ruanjianyuan Campus. The campus is located next to a cluster of commercial software ventures, such as the China International ICT Innovation Cluster (CIIIC) and shares educational resources with these businesses.

Shandong University Weihai Campus[edit]

Shandong University campus at Weihai

Shandong University Weihai Campus was established in 1984,[45] its campus covers a total area of about 1 million square meters,[45] making it the largest campus of Shandong University. Shandong University Weihai Campus is organized in 13 departments that include the College of Korean Studies, the Business School, the Law School, the School of Journalism and Communication, the Art Institute, the College of Ocean Science, the School of Information Engineering, the School of Electrical and Mechanical Engineering, the Institute of Space Science and Physics, the Mathematics and Statistics Institute, the School of International Education, and the College of Vocational and Technical Training.[45] To the west of the Weihai campus lies the Shandong University Academic Center, a beach-front hotel and conference center.

Qingdao Campus[edit]

Construction of the Qingdao Campus started in March 2011 and is scheduled for completion in August 2013. The campus is located north of Xingshi Zhuang Village (Chinese: ; pinyin: Xīngshízhuāng Cūn) in Aoshanwei Town (Chinese: ; pinyin: Áoshānwèi Zhèn) that is part of Jimo City and located to the northeast of Qingdao. The construction site is immediately adjacent to the seashore of Aoshan Bay and the coastal highway (Chinese: ; pinyin: Bīnhǎi dào). The total planning area covers about two million square meters, 43 percent of which are included in the first construction phase. When completed, the Qingdao Campus will have a capacity of 30,000 students; recruitment of the first class of 5,000 freshman students is planned for the fall of 2013.[46] The construction cost is estimated at 800 million Chinese Yuan (about 124 million US Dollars). The architecture of the new campus is intended to blend Chinese and western elements. Many buildings will incorporate the red roofs and other building style elements of the German colonial architecture in Qingdao. The master plan for the campus was developed by Perkins Eastman (New York). One of the founders of Perkins Eastman, Bradford Perkins is the grandson of Dwight H. Perkins, whose firm (Perkins, Fellows, & Hamilton) designed the Cheeloo University campus in Jinan. The campus will be dedicated to advanced science and engineering research, with a special emphasis on interfacing with high-tech industry and international academic collaboration. It is part of a plan to give Shandong University a presence that is distributed throughout the province[46] in a manner that is comparable to the University of California system, but retains a greater level of central control.[46]

Administration[edit]

Historical building on the Baotuquan Campus

At the top level, Shandong University is governed by a president (Chinese: ; pinyin: Xiàozhǎng) and a cabinet of vice presidents (Chinese: ; pinyin: Xiàozhǎng), each with a specific portfolio of responsibilities (e.g., research, international exchange). Central administrative departments (e.g., for finance, human resources, research, or international affairs) are led by a director (Chinese: ; pinyin: Chùzhǎng). Below the central administration, the university is organized by subject area into 31 faculties that are referred to as "Schools" (Chinese: ; pinyin: Xuéyuàn) as well as a graduate school. Each school is headed by a dean (Chinese: ; pinyin: Yuànzhǎng) and may be divided further into departments headed by a chairperson. Academic programs are offered in 11 main disciplines: philosophy, economics, law, literature, history, natural sciences, engineering, management, medicine, education, and military science. There are 104 undergraduate degree programs, 209 master's degree programs, and 127 doctoral degree programs. In addition, there are seven professional master's degree programs in law, business management, engineering, clinical medicine, public health, dentistry, and public administration.

The student population is around 57,500 full-time students, of which 14,500 are postgraduate students, and over 1,000 are foreign students (data from 2009).[3]

The major research efforts at Shandong University are organized in 34 national, provincial, and ministerial key academic disciplines, two national key research labs, 21 provincial and ministerial key research labs, a national engineering and technology promotion center, 10 provincial technology research centers, three national basic scientific research and personnel development bases; three social science key research bases approved by Ministry of Education; and three national fundamental science personnel development bases. Among its faculty are 23 members (including adjuncts) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Chinese Academy of Engineering. Three general hospitals, including Qilu Hospital, and 12 teaching hospitals are affiliated with the university. The university library houses a collection of over 3,550,000 items.

Schools and departments[edit]

Central campus
Old building of the School of Physics on the Hongjialou Campus in 2006
Lawn and trees on the central quadrangle of the Baotuquan Campus
Autumn colors on the Baotuquan Campus
  • School of Business Administration
  • School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering
  • School of Civil Engineering
  • School of Computer Science and Technology
  • School of Control Science and Engineering
  • School of Dentistry
  • School of Economics
  • School of Electrical Engineering
  • School of Energy and Power Engineering
  • School of Environmental Science and Engineering
  • School of Fine Arts
  • School of Foreign Languages and Literature
  • School of History and Culture
  • School of Information Science and Engineering
  • School of Law
  • School of Life Science
  • School of Literature and Journalism
  • School of Marxist Theory Education
  • School of Materials Science and Engineering
  • School of Mathematics and System Sciences
  • School of Mechanical Engineering
  • School of Medicine
  • School of Nursing
  • School of Pharmacy
  • School of Philosophy and Social Development
  • School of Physical Education
  • School of Physics
  • School of Political Science and Public Administration
  • School of Public Health
  • Taishan College (honor school)
  • Nishan College (honor school)
  • General Study Program

International cooperation and exchange[edit]

Building on the Baotuquan Campus in winter.

Shandong University has established an international network for educational cooperation and has signed exchange agreements with over 70 universities from over 50 countries. Among its faculty are international researchers and scholars, who either visit for a short term (less than 1 month, 160 visitors in 2009), a medium term (less than half a year, 70 visitors in 2009), or for the long term (more than half a year, 80 visitors in 2009). Of the 80 long-term international faculty members, 30 language scholars teach languages such as English, Japanese, Korean, French, German, Spanish, and Russian. The others are active in disciplines such as philosophy, biology, chemistry, physics, law, international politics and economics, as well as Chinese classics and traditional philosophy.

About 1500 international students from about 40 countries come to study at Shandong University each year. An international student population numbering more than 1000 can be found on campus at any given time during the semester. Most of these international students come from Asian and African countries, but there are also students from Europe, the United States, Canada, and Australia. Since 1980, Shandong University has received more than 10,000 students from over 60 countries. Popular study subjects are Chinese language and culture, but also economics and medicine. Furthermore, Shandong University participates in international short term exchange programs and receives approximately 2500 international student visitors for such programs per year.

In 2006, Shandong University created a joint urban research center with the University of Cincinnati in the United States, and a presence on each other's campus.[47] An International Laboratory operated in the a partnership with Virginia Tech was inaugurated in the Integrated Research Building on the Central Campus in August 2010. The laboratory focuses on a biophysics and engineering analysis of biological model systems drawn from China's biodiversity.[48] Shandong University is a partner university of the Study China Programme, which is coordinated by the University of Manchester and funded by the UK Department for Business, Innovation and Skills.[49][50]

Research Centers[edit]

National Key Laboratories[edit]

Building of the State Key Laboratory for Crystal Materials
  • National Key Laboratory for Crystal Materials
  • National Laboratory for Microbial Technology

National Engineering Laboratory[edit]

  • National Engineering Laboratory for the Reduction of Coal-fired Pollutants Emission

National Research Center[edit]

  • National Glycoengineering Research Center

Ministry of Education Key Laboratories[edit]

  • Key Laboratory for Colloid and Interface Chemistry
  • Key Laboratory for Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials
  • Key Laboratory for Experimental Teratology
  • Key Laboratory for Cardiovascular Remodelling and Function Research

Ministry of Health Key Laboratories[edit]

  • Key Laboratory for Otolaryngology

Key Research Base of the Ministry of Education in Humanities and Social Sciences[edit]

  • Center for Zhouyi and Ancient Chinese Philosophy
  • Center for Judaic and Inter-Religious Studies
  • Institute for Literary Theory and Aesthetics
  • Institute for Contemporary Socialism

National Research Institutes[edit]

  • Institute for Crystal Materials
  • Institute for Microbiology
  • Institute for Infrared and Remote Sensing Technology

Research Centers of Shandong Province[edit]

  • Geotechnical and Structural Engineering Research Center
  • Laboratory for Risk Analysis and Random Calculus
  • Institute for Religion, Science, and Social Studies
  • Number Theory at Shandong University
  • High Energy Physics Group
  • Oriental Archaeology Research Center
  • Center for Economic Research
  • Center for Health Management & Policy
  • Center for European Studies
  • Center for Space Thermal Science
  • Center for Japanese Studies
  • Key Laboratory for Otolaryngology
  • Modern Logistics Research Center
  • Institute of ECIWO Biology

University hospitals[edit]

Shandong University Qilu Hospital[edit]

The "Republican Building" of Qilu Hospital was built in 1914 and inaugurated by military governor Jin Yunpeng.

Qilu Hospital was established as the hospital of Cheeloo University. Construction started in 1914 and was supervised by Harold Balme[6] (1878–1953), a British physician from King's College Hospital in London,[51] who would later serve as the third president of Cheeloo University (from 1921 until 1927).[51] The first building of the new hospital (today known as the "Republican Building") was inaugurated on September 27, 1915 by the military governor of Shandong, Jin Yunpeng. About 20 years later, the hospital moved to a new building (completed in 1936) and the old building was used by Cheeloo University's School of Medicine. Today, the Shandong University Qilu Hospital as a total capacity of 1,800 beds[52] and treats more than 1.9 million outpatient treatments per year.[52] It has departments include cardiology, internal medicine, hematology, gynecology and obstetrics, otolaryngology, general surgery, neurosurgery, and pediatrics.[52] The hospital is located at Wenhua West Road 107 in Jinan.

Second Hospital of Shandong University[edit]

The Second Hospital of Shandong University has a capacity of about 1200 beds and has departments for neurosurgery, orthopedic surgery, and internal medicine.[53] The hospital is managed by the National Medical Department and affiliated with Shandong University,[53] it is located at Beiyuan Street 247 in Jinan.

Stomatology Hospital of Shandong University[edit]

The Stomatology Hospital of Shandong University was founded in 1977. It has 105 employees and is organized into four research centers and two laboratories.[54] It is located at Wenhua West Road 44 in Jinan.

Identity[edit]

Mao Zedong corresponded with Shandong University Professor Gao Heng in the time period preceding the Cultural Revolution.
The official lettering of Shandong University has been taken from the handwritten address of this letter from Mao Zedong to Gao Heng.

The official university motto is "Noble in Spirit, Boundless in Knowledge"[2] (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: xué zhǐ jìng, yŏu hào rán);[1] it was adopted in May 2002.[citation needed] The university also uses the branding slogan "Soul of the mountains, spirit of the sea" (Chinese: , ; pinyin: Shān zhī hún, hǎi zhī yùn) in reference to Shandong's geographical nature as a mountainous peninsula.[citation needed] At the main entrance gate (south gate) to the university's Central Campus, an inscription defines the mission of the university as "Preparing talents for the world; Striving for the prosperity and strength of the country"[55] (Chinese: ; pinyin: Wèi tiān xià chǔ rén cái wèi guó jiā jīng yīng).[56] The official lettering is a reproduction of calligraphy written by Mao Zedong. In March 1964, during the period between the Great Leap Forward and the Cultural Revolution, Mao wrote the characters in the address of a thank-you note to Gao Heng, a professor at Shandong University who had sent him literature.[citation needed] The official anthem of Shandong University was written by lyricist Qiao Yu (乔羽), who also wrote the lyrics for My Motherland, and composer Gu Jianfen (谷建芬), both natives of Shandong Province. The lyrics of the anthem are:[57]

我们向往大海, Wǒmen xiàngwǎng dà hǎi,

只有大海能纳百川。 Zhǐyǒu dà hǎi néng nà bǎi chuān.

我们敬仰高山, Wǒmen jìngyǎng gāo shān

登高望远才知地阔天宽。 Dēnggāo wàng yuǎn cái zhī dì kuò tiān kuān.

勇于探索,不畏登攀。 Yǒngyú tànsuǒ, bù wèi dēngpān.

淡泊的襟怀,炽热的情感, Dànbó de jīnhuái, chìrè de qínggǎn,

让文明之花嫣红开遍。 Ràng wénmíng zhī huā yānhóng kāi biàn.

同学少年,青春结伴。 Tóngxué shàonián, qīngchūn jiébàn.

知识无涯,生命无限! Zhīshì wú yá, shēngmìng wúxiàn!

List of university presidents[edit]

Tang Shaoyi studied at Columbia University, became the first president of Shandong College, and later served as Prime Minister of the Republic of China.
  • Tang Shaoyi, president of Imperial Shandong University, 1901, later Prime Minister of the Republic of China (1912)
  • Wang Shoupeng, (acting) president of Shandong University in Jinan, 1926–1927
  • Yang Zhensheng, president of National Shandong University in Qingdao, 1930–1932
  • Zhao Taimou, president of National Shandong University in Qingdao, 1932–1936 and 1946–1949
  • Lin Jiqing, (acting) president of National Shandong University in Qingdao, 1936–1946
  • Hua Gang, president of Shandong University (Qingdao), 1951–1955
  • Chao Zhefu, president of Shandong University (Qingdao), 1956–1958
  • Cheng Fangwu, president of Shandong University (Jinan), 1958–1974
  • Wu Fuheng, 1979–1984
  • Deng Conghao, 1984–1986
  • Pan Chengdong, 1986–1997
  • Zeng Fanren, 1998–2000
  • Zhan Tao, 2000–2008
  • Xu Xianming, 2008–2013
  • Zhang Rong, 2013–present

Notable faculty and alumni[edit]

Wang Ganchang was a PhD student of Lise Meitner (co-discoverer of nuclear fission) at the Humboldt University of Berlin and became one of the fathers of China's atomic bomb.
Wen Yiduo, studied at the Art Institute of Chicago, became a poet, and was assassinated by Kuomintang agents.

See also[edit]

Other academic institutions in Jinan (not part of Shandong University):

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "山东大学校训 (Chinese)". Retrieved 10 July 2014. 
  2. ^ a b "SDUW Holds Launching Ceremony of 2013 Overseas Study Programs". Retrieved July 10, 2014. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h "A Century-Old University Overflowing with Vigor" - official website of Shandong University (in Chinese)
  4. ^ a b c "About Shandong University" - official website of Shandong University (in Chinese)
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj "History" - official website of Shandong University (in Chinese)
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m "Shantung Christian University" - from: "Hallowed halls: Protestant colleges in old China" by Tess Johnston, Deke Erh, Martha Smalley, and Tung-Chung Yee, Old China Hand Press, Hong Kong, 1998
  7. ^ a b "National Key Universities" - Baidu Baike Online Encyclopedia (in Chinese)
  8. ^ "Profile of Shandong University" - official website of Shandong University (in Chinese)
  9. ^ a b "Chinese Alumni Network Top 100 Chinese University Ranking 2010 - CUAA website (in Chinese)
  10. ^ Wu Shu Lian, "2008 Chinese University Evaluation Report" (in Chinese)
  11. ^ Duncan Campbell (guest editor): The Heritage of Books, Collecting and Libraries, China Heritage Quarterly, No. 20, December 2009
  12. ^ a b c d "Luoyuan Academy" - Online Article at Hudong.com (in Chinese)
  13. ^ United States. Dept. of State (1881): "Papers relating to the foreign relations of the United States"
  14. ^ a b c d e Robert McCheyne Mateer: Character-building in China: the life-story of Julia Brown Mateer, Fleming H. Revell Company, 1912
  15. ^ Daniel W. Fisher: Calvin Wilson Mateer, Forty-Five Years a Missionary in Shantung, China, A Biography, The Westminster Press, Philadelphia, 1911
  16. ^ a b c d e Jessie Lutz, China and the Christian Colleges, 1850-1950, Cornell University Press, 1971
  17. ^ Danian Hu: China and Albert Einstein: The Reception of the Physicist and His Theory in China, 1917-1979, Harvard University Press, Jun 30, 2009
  18. ^ a b William Joseph Haas (1996): "China voyager: Gist Gee's life in Science", M.E. Sharpe
  19. ^ Lao She, "Rickshaw: The Novel Lo-t'o Hsiang Tzu", University of Hawaii Press, 1979, Translator's Introduction
  20. ^ Suisheng Zhao, "Power by design: constitution-making in Nationalist China", University of Hawai'i Press, Honolulu, 1996, pg. 22
  21. ^ Lanxin Xiang, "The origins of the Boxer War: a multinational study", Routledge, London, 2002, pg. 117
  22. ^ a b c d e f g h John J. Heeren (1940): On the Shantung Front, The board of foreign Mission of the presbyterian church in the United States of America
  23. ^ Cao Yixing: "W. A. P. Martin: Inaugural president of the Imperial University of Peking", PKU News 2008
  24. ^ Qu Zheng-Min, "China's first university"
  25. ^ Ulrich van der Heyden (Editor), Holger Stoecker (Editor) 2005: "Mission und Macht im Wandel politischer Orientierungen", Franz Steiner Verlag
  26. ^ Arthur Judson Brown (1907): "New forces in old China: an inevitable awakening" Young People's Missionary Movement, New York, 2nd edition
  27. ^ a b c d Ke-wen Wang, "Modern China: an encyclopedia of history, culture, and nationalism", Routledge, London, 1997, Pg. 348
  28. ^ a b c d e f g George Steinmetz (2007): The Devil's Handwriting: Precoloniality and the German Colonial State in Qingdao, Samoa, and Southwest Africa (Chicago Studies in Practices of Meaning), University Of Chicago Press
  29. ^ a b c d e f g h Andreas Steen (2006): Deutsch-chinesische Beziehungen 1911-1927, Akademie Verlag (in German)
  30. ^ a b c d e f Chun-Shik Kim (2004): Deutscher Kulturimperialismus in China: Deutsches Kolonialschulwesen in Kiautschou (China) 1898-1914, Franz Steiner Verlag (in German)
  31. ^ Harold Miles Tanner (2009): "China: A History", Hackett Pub. Co.
  32. ^ "CHINA: Basest War Lord", Time Magazine, Mar. 07, 1927
  33. ^ a b Xiaobing Li, Hongshan Li: China and the United States: A New Cold War History, University Press of America, 1998
  34. ^ C. X. George Wei, Xiaoyuan Liu: Exploring Nationalisms of China: Themes and Conflicts, Greenwood Publishing Group, 2002
  35. ^ Jinan City Government online records for 1966 (1st half, in Chinese)
  36. ^ a b c Jinan City Government online records for 1970 (in Chinese)
  37. ^ Jinan City Government online records for 1974 (in Chinese)
  38. ^ information base of the Shandong Government
  39. ^ Jeffrey W. Cody (1996): "Striking a harmonious chord: Foreign Missionaries and Chinese-style Buildings, 1911-1949, Architronic 5(3)
  40. ^ Shandong University of Technology - online article at baike encyclopedia (in Chinese)
  41. ^ "Overiew of Shandong University's New South Campus" - official website of Shandong University (in Chinese)
  42. ^ A Visit to the New District Construction Management Office - official website of Shandong University (in Chinese)
  43. ^ "Shandong University Xinglongshan Campus Student Activity Center officially opened" Shandong University Alumni Network (in Chinese)
  44. ^ a b "College Profile" - website of the Shandong University Software College (in Chinese)
  45. ^ a b c "Shandong University Weihai Campus - School Profile", official website of Shandong University Campus (in Chinese)
  46. ^ a b c Shandong University to build Qingdao campus, Shenzhen Daily, October 26, 2010
  47. ^ Trip to Promote UC's China Strategy Pays Off in First Comprehensive Agreement With Chinese University
  48. ^ Liu Qi: Sino-US Cooperation in the Establishment of University Laboratory on Biomimetic Physics, SDU Media Site, published 2010-08-15
  49. ^ "Partnership Universities and locations". Retrieved 2013-08-04. 
  50. ^ "Study China". Retrieved 2013-08-04. 
  51. ^ a b "Obituary - Harold Balme, O.B.E., M.D., F.R.C.S." British Medical Journal, Feb 28, 1953, p. 511-512
  52. ^ a b c "About Qilu Hospital" - official website of Qilu Hospital (in Chinese)
  53. ^ a b "Second Hospital of Shandong University" - official website (in Chinese)
  54. ^ "Stomatology Hospital of Shandong University" - official website (in Chinese)
  55. ^ "Introduction to Shandong University". Retrieved 10 July 2014. 
  56. ^ "山东大学办学宗旨 (Chinese)". Retrieved 10 July 2014. 
  57. ^ "山东大学之歌 (Chinese)". Retrieved 10 July 2014. 
  58. ^ McDougall, Bonnie S.; Louie, Kam (1999). The Literature of China in the Twentieth Century. New York: Columbia University Press. p. 114. ISBN 0231110855. Retrieved 3 February 2013. 

External links[edit]