|Owner||Shanghai Shentong Metro Group|
|Locale||Shanghai and Kunshan, Jiangsu|
|Transit type||Rapid transit|
|Number of lines||14[note 1]|
|Number of stations||329[note 2]|
|Daily ridership||6.86 million (2013 avg.)
9.381 million (record)
|Annual ridership||2.5 billion (2013)|
|Began operation||May 28, 1993|
|Operator(s)||Shanghai No.1-No.4 Metro Operation Company (4 Companies share similar names)|
|System length||538 km (334.3 mi)[note 1]|
|Track gauge||1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) standard gauge|
|Literal meaning||Shanghai Rail Transit|
|Commonly abbreviated as|
|Literal meaning||Shanghai Subway|
The Shanghai Metro is a rapid transit system in Shanghai, China. The first line opened in 1993, making Shanghai the third city in mainland China, after Beijing and Tianjin, to have a rapid transit system. Since then, the Shanghai Metro has become one of the fastest-growing rapid transit systems in the world, with several lines still under construction.
Overall, there are 14 metro lines[note 1] and 329 stations[note 2], with an operating route length of 538 kilometres (334 mi),[note 1] making it one of the longest in the world. The Shanghai Metro ranks third in the world in annual ridership, with 2.5 billion rides delivered in 2013. It set a daily ridership record of 9.381 million on April 30, 2014. On a normal weekday over 8 million people use the Shanghai Metro.
On 16 October 2013, with the extension of Line 11 into Kunshan, Jiangsu province, Shanghai Metro became the first rapid transit system in China to connect two provincial-level administrative divisions. There are plans to further connect the Shanghai Metro with the metro systems of Suzhou and Wuxi.
- 1 Lines
- 2 Stations
- 3 Ticket system
- 4 Retail
- 5 Technology
- 6 Operators
- 7 Future expansion
- 8 History
- 9 Incidents
- 10 See also
- 11 Notes
- 12 References
- 13 External links
There are two types of transfer stations: physical transfer stations and transit-card only ones. In a physical transfer station, passengers can transfer between subway lines without exiting a fare zone. In a transit-card only transfer station, however, passengers have to exit and re-enter fare zones as they transfer from one subway line to another. In order to receive a discounted fare, passengers must use a Shanghai public transport card (SPTC) instead of Single-Ride tickets.
Physical transfer stations
Below is a list of physical transfer stations.
- Baoshan Road, Shanghai Railway Station, Zhongtan Road, Zhenping Road, Caoyang Road, Jinshajiang Road, Zhongshan Park, West Yan'an Road and Hongqiao Road are interchanges between Lines 3 and 4. This is where the two lines share tracks between Baoshan Road and Hongqiao Road.
- Lines 4 and 6 stop at two different stations both known as Pudian Road, but these two stations are not located together and interchanging is not possible.
- Longyang Road and Pudong International Airport stations also provide transfers to the Shanghai Maglev Train, though passengers have to make another payment if they board the Maglev train.
Transit-card only transfer stations
A transit-card only transfer station is a station where two lines meet, but unlike a physical interchange, there is no direct pathway between them within the paid fare area. Passengers wishing to interchange must exit the paid fare area for the first line, walk a short distance on the street, and re-enter the paid fare area for the second line. Since June 1, 2008, passengers interchanging using a Shanghai public transport card have their trip regarded as one journey and the distance will be accumulated for fare calculation. Passengers must exit a station and re-enter another within 30 minutes using the same Shanghai public transport card. Those using single-ride tickets cannot use virtual transfers and must purchase a new ticket.
In some cases virtual interchanges have been replaced by physical interchanges after construction is completed. For example, Hongkou Football Stadium Station was previously a virtual interchange between Line 3 and Line 8, but is now a physical interchange. The remaining virtual interchanges are:
- Shanghai Railway Station is a virtual interchange station between Line 1 and Line 3 / Line 4, but the transfer between Line 3 and Line 4 does not require re-entry.
- South Shaanxi Road is currently a virtual interchange station between Line 1 and Line 10 due to complications with constructions on Line 12.
Stations of note
The busiest station in Shanghai Metro system is People's Square station (Lines 1, 2 and 8). As the interchange station for three lines, it is extremely crowded during peak hours. It remains busy during the rest of the day as it is located near major shopping and tourist destinations such as Nanjing Road (E.) Pedestrian Street as well as the Shanghai Museum, People's Park, the Shanghai Grand Theatre and Yan'an Park on People's Square. It has the second most number of exits (totalling 17) in the stations of the metro system.
Xujiahui (Lines 1, 9 and 11) is located in the major Xujiahui commercial center of Shanghai. Six large shopping malls and eight large office towers are each within a three-minute walk of one of the station's exits, numbering a total of 18 since the addition of the four in the Line 9 part of the station that opened in December 2009. This is the largest number of exits of all the stations on the system. This station is also widely used as a pedestrian tunnel across the wide roads.
Lujiazui (Line 2) is the major station in Pudong area. It is situated in the heart of Lujiazui financial district, the financial center of Shanghai. The city's iconic landmarks, the Oriental Pearl TV Tower, Jin Mao Tower and Shanghai World Financial Centre are all within walking distance of the station. In contrast to Xujiahui and People's Square, Lujiazui is not particularly busy during off-peak hours or at weekends as it is located in financial district of Shanghai.
Shanghai Railway Station (Lines 1, 3 and 4) is a major transportation hub in Shanghai, containing the railway station, two subway lines and the stop for many city bus lines as well as interprovincial buses. These bus lines will soon be housed in a brand-new bus station. The line 1 platform is in the South square while platforms for line 3/4 are in the North square. These two platforms are technically separate stations, so interchange is only possible between lines 3/4. A transfer to the line 1 platform requires a SPTC or a new ticket.
Pudong International Airport (Line 2) – the eastern terminus of Line 2. It serves the airport of the same name in Shanghai. The station also provides a transfer with the Shanghai Maglev Train to Longyang Road.
Like many other metro systems in the world, Shanghai Metro uses a distance-based fare system. As of September 15, 2005, after Shanghai Municipal Government raised the price, fares range from 3 yuan for journeys under 6 km, to 10 yuan for journeys over 6 km.
As of December 25, 2005, Shanghai uses a "one-ticket network", which means that interchanging is possible between all interchange stations without the purchase of another ticket where available. In the event of riding beyond the value of one's ticket, the user may pay the difference at a Service Center near the main turnstiles.
Since June 1, 2008, users of the Shanghai public transport card can interchange at Shanghai Railway Station, and Hongkou Stadium without paying another base fare. (see section on virtual interchange stations above).
- For most lines, the base fare is 3 yuan (US$0.45) for journeys under 6 km, then 1 yuan for each additional 10 km. As of December 2013, the highest fare is 15 yuan (Approximately US$2.50).
- For journeys exclusively on Line 5 (Xinzhuang – Minhang Development Zone), the fare is 2 yuan for journeys under 6 km and all other journeys are 3 yuan (though the total length of this line is a bit longer than 16 km).
- Users of the Shanghai public transport card get a 10% discount for the rest of the calendar month after paying 70 yuan. The discount is applied only for journeys after the payment; it is not retroactively applied to previous journeys.
- Users of the Shanghai public transport card as part of the "Air-conditioned Bus Transfer Discount" get a 1 yuan discount when transferring to the metro within 90 minutes. (The 10% monthly discount may be applied after the transfer discount) This discount also applies for bus to Metro and bus to bus transfers and can accumulate over multiple transfers. For example, to get from Zhenbei Rd/Meichuan Rd to Xiuyan Rd/Hunan Rd would normally cost 8 yuan each way (947 bus to line 4 to 451 bus) but only costs 6 RMB with the card (947 bus discounted transfer to line 4, discounted transfer to 451 bus). Depending on the time spent at the destination the discount will be applied at the start of the return trip as well, making the cost of a round-trip 11 yuan instead of the 16 yuan that would normally be charged without the card.
- Seniors over 70 years of age can take the metro for free (except during rush hours, 7–9am and 5–7pm on weekdays) by using their social security cards (also RFID-embedded) at a special turnstile at each metro station.
Single Journey ticket
Single-ride tickets can be purchased from ticket vending machines, and at some stations, at a ticket window. Single-ride tickets are embedded with RFID contactless chips. When entering the system riders tap the ticket against a scanner above the turnstile, and on exit they insert the ticket into a slot where it is stored and recycled.
In addition to a Single-Ride ticket, fare can be paid using a Shanghai public transport card. This RFID-embedded card can be purchased at selected banks, convenience stores and metro stations with a 20-yuan deposit. This card can be loaded at ticket booths, Service Centers at the metro stations as well as many small convenience stores and banks throughout the city. The Shanghai Public Transportation Card can also be used to pay for other forms of transportation, such as taxi or bus.
A one-day pass was introduced for the Expo 2010 held in Shanghai. The fare for the calendar day was set at 18 yuan, for unlimited travel within the metro system. This is not available through vending machines, but has to be purchased at Service Centers at metro stations.
A three-day pass is available for Shanghai Metro. The fare for three days was set at 45 yuan, for unlimited travel within the metro system. This is not available through vending machines, but has to be purchased at Service Centers at metro stations.
Nearly every Shanghai subway station houses retailing of some kind. Many are small kiosks selling a variety of telephony products such as telephone calling cards, mobile phone SIM cards, or new cellphones. Newsstands are also available in many stations. Snack shops and convenience stores have become popular, along with bookstores. ATMs can be found in most downtown stations and even some suburban ones. Almost all stations have stands to distribute free newspaper in every weekdays' morning, starting from 7:30.
Standard gauge is used throughout the network, allowing new train equipment to be transported over the Chinese rail network which uses the same gauge.
Many stations in the stations of Lines 4, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10 have platform screen doors with sliding acrylic glass at the platform edge. The train stops with its doors lined-up with the sliding doors on the platform edge and open when the train doors open, and are closed at other times. These screens are also being retrofitted on existing lines, starting with Line 1 whose core stations had doors by the end of 2006. On the People's Square Station of Line 2, the platform has sliding safety doors that reach only halfway up from the ground called Automatic platform gates.
Train sets used by the Metro system:
- 89 Bombardier Movia 456 six car sets - Lines 9 and 7 (Additional 41 ordered for Line 12)
- 37 German Shanghai Metro Group (GSMG) six cars units – Line 1 and 2 (most reformed to 8 car units)
- 40 Alstom Metropolis eight car sets – Line 1 and 2
- 42 CNR Changchun Railway Vehicles Co., Ltd. 4 car sets - line 6
- 28 Alstom Metropolis six car sets – Line 3
- 41 Shanghai Electric-Alstom/Nanjing Puzhen Rolling Stock Co., Ltd. type AC15 six car sets – Line 10
Most lines currently use 6 car sets, exceptions include:
- Lines 5, 6, and a section of line 2 which use 4 car sets.
- Some trains on line 8 use 7 car sets.
- Line 1 and the remainder of line 2 which uses 8 car sets.
Every train set and individual car comes with unique numbers, but the numbering systems varies.
The train set number have 3-4 digits, and are assigned sequentially without reusing numbers used to belong to another set, with exceptions that the train numbers 1301-1303 is reused when the current Line 13 is opened. Trains reassigned from one line to another will receive a new set number from the receiving line, and the original number is left unused. For example, train 216 is the 16th set of train serving line 2, and train 1122 is the 22nd set on Line 11, and during the time when sets 421-428 serviced in Line 2, they are assigned numbers 225-232.
Every car has a unique serial number, consists of 5-6 digits. It is assigned during production and will never change. 5-digit serial numbers are used on early trains. The first two digits are production year, middle two are the sequential number of cars of the same platform built in the given year, and the last digit is the type of train. 6-digit serial numbers are used by recent trains. The first two digits are the number of the line the car is intended to service (with exception of trains 901-910 consist of cars numbered under Line 1, despite considered cars intended for Line 9.), the middle 3 digits are the sequential number of car serving the line, considering cars numbered under other systems or lines, but not the trains borrowed from or intended to be transferred to another line, and the last digit is the car type. The car type digit have 3 options: 1 for trailers with cabs, 2 for motored middle cars with pantograph, and 3 for motored middle cars without a pantograph. The two different systems of numbering may mix in a same train set, especially on Line 1. Examples:
- Train 201 using 5-digit numbering (before modified into an 8-car set): 99071-99082-99093-99102-99113-99121
- Train 1104 using a 6-digit numbering: 110191-110202-110213-110223-110232-110241
The car in every set is assigned a car number based on its set's number, and the format is a digit following the set number, like car 4224 is the 4th car in the set 422 for Line 4. When a car is swapped another, the numbers swap. Example: during the time that train 206 and train 201 swapped a car, the car from 206 is reassigned a car number from 201. There are no certain way to calculate the car number to and from the set number, but some thumb rules may apply.
A special case is set 952, which is an experimental train. It is not intended for any line, but as it was once put into service in Line 9, it is assigned a train number and 6-digit car serial numbers from Line 9. The numbers assigned to this set will be reused when new sets arrived for the extension of Line 9.
Another special case is car 92113. The original 92113 car is heavily damaged in an accident during tests, and a new replace car, built by CSR Zhuzhou, reused the number and put back into its original place.
Some cars are purpose built or modified to be used as testing car. Some passenger cars are modified to double as a basic dynamic testing train while still capable of day-to-day passenger transport. A loco-hauled purpose-built set of test train is also under service. Damaged cars from train sets 102 and 117 are under renovation, and is believed to be converted into test car as well.
In contrast to many other metro systems in the world, the Shanghai metro uses overhead wires for the power supply, probably due to its use of a 1500 volt DC system which is twice the voltage generally used for third rails.
On Line 2, Siemens Transportation Systems equipped the line with an overhead contact line (cantilever material: galvanized steel) and 7 DC traction power supply substations.
Passenger information systems
Plasma screens on the platforms show passengers when the next two trains are coming, along with advertisements and public service announcements. The subway cars contain LCD screens showing advertisements and on some lines, the next stop, while above-ground trains have LED screens showing the next stop. The LED screens are being phased in on Line 1 and are also included in lines 7 and 9, two underground lines. There are recorded messages stating the next stop in Mandarin, English and Shanghainese, but the messages stating nearby attractions or shops for a given station (a form of paid advertising) are in Mandarin only.
Four companies operate the Shanghai Metro network. Each of them are subdivisions of Shanghai Shentong Metro Group Co.,Ltd.
- Shanghai No. 1 Metro Operation Co., Ltd. manages Lines 1, 5, 9 and 10.
- Shanghai No. 2 Metro Operation Co., Ltd. manages Lines 2, 11 and 13.
- Shanghai No. 3 Metro Operation Co., Ltd. manages Lines 3, 4, 7 and 16.
- Shanghai No. 4 Metro Operation Co., Ltd. manages Lines 6, 8 and 12.
Line 22 is a commuter rail line that is separately operated by Shanghai Jinshan Railway Co., Ltd.
The Shanghai Metro system is one of the fastest growing metro systems in the world. Many lines are under construction or planned to be constructed in the near future. After the completion of these lines, a uniform numbering system will be put in place. According to the latest report, by the end of 2020 the network will comprise 22 lines spanning 877 kilometres (545 mi). Line 11 is planned to connect with Suzhou and Wuxi Metro systems in neighbouring Jiangsu province.
The planned lines 20 and 21 have been renumbered as 17 and 16 respectively, while the numbering for the original lines 16 and 17 have not been confirmed. In this table, the numbering of the original lines 16/21 and 17/20 are swapped for ease of reference.
|Planned Open Date||Route||Name||Terminals||Length (km)||Stations||Status||Notes|
|By the end of 2014||South Extension||Dongchuan Road||Xidu||Under Construction|
|2nd Phase||Longyang Road||Luoshan Road||15||2||Under Construction|||
|1st Phase Western Section||Tiantong Road||Qixin Road||27.4||19||Under Construction|
|1st Phase Eastern Section
|Jinshajiang Road||Changqing Road||16.2||12||Under construction|
|By the end of 2015||3rd Phase||Luoshan Road||Huanglou (Disneyland)||9.4||3||Planning|
|By the end of 2020[note 4]||4th Phase of East Extension||Pudong International Airport||Pudong Railway Station||2||Planning|
|Connection||Guanglan Road||Huanglou (Disneyland)||2||Planning|
|1st Phase of South Extension||Dongchuan Road||Nanqiao New City||20.7||8||Bridge under construction|
|1st Phase of North extension||Xinzhuang||Hongqiao Railway Station||14.3||11||Planning|
|3rd Phase||Shendu Highway||Huizhen Road||6.2||5||Post-planning|||
|3rd Phase (East)||Middle Yanggao Road||Caolu||14.5||8||Planning|
|2nd Phase||Xinjiangwancheng||Huandong No.1 Avenue||9.4||5||Planning|
|2nd Phase||Changqing Road||Zhangjiang Road||22.5||11||Planning|
|Duplicate Part with Shanghai East-West Expressway||7.8||6||Under construction|
|Qihua Road||Zizhu Science-Based Industry Park||40.1||28||Planning|
|Hongqiao Railway Station||Shanghai Oriental Land||35.2||11||Planning|||
|Line 18||Changbei Road||Hangtou Town||44.3||30||Planning|
|1st Phase||Chuanqiao Road||Changxing Island||20.6||6||Planning|
|Line 20||1st Phase||Hongqiao Railway Station||Baoshan Industry Park||17.2||13||Planning|
|1st Phase||Hongkou Football Stadium||Shanghai Zoo||19||17||Planning|
|Timetable not given||Last Phase of North Extension||Fujin Road||Chongming Island||Long Term Plan|
|2nd Phase of South Extension||Nanqiao New City||Haiwan||Long Term Plan|||
|2nd Phase||Changxing Island||Chongming Island||Long Term Plan|||
|Changxing Island||Hengsha Island|
|Line 20||2nd Phase||Baoshan Industry Park||Gongqing Forest Park||Long Term Plan|
|2nd Phase||Shanghai Zoo||Wujing||Long term Plan|
- May 28, 1993 – Southern section of Line 1 (New Longhua/Shanghai South Railway Station – Xujiahui) enters operation (4.4 km).
- April 10, 1995 – Line 1 (Jinjiang Park – Shanghai Railway Station; including initial section, which opened 1993) enters operation  (16.1 km).
- December 28, 1996 – Southern extension to Line 1 (Xinzhuang – Jinjiang Park) enters operation (4.5 km).
- June 11, 2000 – Line 2 (Zhongshan Park – Longyang Road) enters operation (16.3 km).
- December 26, 2000 – Two lines enter operation:
- November 25, 2003 – Line 5 (Xinzhuang – Minhang) enters operation (17.2 km).
- December 28, 2004 – Northern extension to Line 1 (Shanghai Railway Station – Gongfu Xincun) enters operation (12.4 km).
- December 31, 2005 – Line 4 enters operation, except section between Lancun Road and Damuqiao Road that was delayed due to construction accident.
- December 18, 2006 – Northern extension to Line 3 (Jiangwan – Jiangyang Road North) enters operation (15.7 km).
- December 30, 2006 – Western extension to Line 2 (Songhong Road – Zhongshan Park) enters operation (6.15 km).
- December 29, 2007 – Five lines or sections enter operation on the same day:
- Second northern extension to Line 1 (Gongfu Xincun – Fujin Road) (3.4 km)
- Delayed section of Line 4 (Lancun Road – Damuqiao Road), completing the loop
- Line 6 (Gangcheng Road – South Lingyan Road) (31.1 km)
- Line 8 (Shiguang Road – Yaohua Road)
- Line 9 (Songjiang New City – Guilin Road)
- December 28, 2008 – Line 9 is extended from Guilin Road to Yishan Road, connecting with the rest of the metro network.
- July 5, 2009 – Southern extension to Line 8 (Yaohua Road – Shendu Highway) enters operation (14.4 km).
- December 5, 2009 – Line 7 (Shanghai University – Huamu Road) enters operation (34.4 km).
- December 31, 2009 – Two lines enter operation:
- Downtown section of Line 9 (Yishan Road – Century Avenue)
- Line 11 (Jiangsu Road – Jiading North)
- February 24, 2010 – Short section of eastern extension of Line 2 (Longyang Road - Guanglan Road) enters operation. Zhangjiang Hi-tech Park station is rebuilt underground.
- March 16, 2010 – Second western extension to Line 2 (Xujing East – Songhong Road) enters operation, connecting Hongqiao Airport to the metro system.
- March 29, 2010 – Branch line of Line 11 (Jiading New City - Anting) enters operation.
- April 8, 2010 – Eastern extension to Line 2 (Guanglan Road – Pudong Airport) enters operation, connecting the two airports.
- April 10, 2010 – Line 10 (New Jiangwan City – Hangzhong Road) enters operation. Shanghai Metro becomes the longest metro system in the world after 15 years of breakneck growth.
- April 20, 2010 – Expo section of Line 13 (Madang Road – Shibo Avenue) enters temporary operation.
- July 1, 2010 – with the opening of Hongqiao Railway Station, its metro station of the same name on Line 2 enters operation.
- November 2, 2010 – With the end of Shanghai Expo, Expo section of Line 13 suspends service, to be reopened when the rest of the line is completed.
- November 30, 2010 – Section of Line 10 (Longxi Road – Hongqiao Railway Station) enters operation, connecting the two terminals of Hongqiao Airport.
- December 28, 2010 – The 10-km long northern extension to Line 7 (Shanghai University – Meilan Lake) enters operation.
- December 30, 2012 – The first phase of Line 13 (Jinyun Road – Jinshajiang Road) and southern extension of Line 9 (Songjiang South Railway Station – Songjiang Xincheng) enters operation.
- August 31, 2013 – The second phase of Line 11 (Jiangsu Road – Luoshan Road) enters operation.
- October 16, 2013 – The 6-km long branch extension of Line 11 (Anting – Huaqiao) enters operation. Shanghai Metro is extended into Jiangsu province.
- December 29, 2013 - The eastern section of Line 12 (Tiantong Road - Jinhai Road) and the southern section of Line 16 (Luoshan Road - Dishui Lake) both enter operation.
- December 22, 2009—at about 5:50 am, an electrical fault in the tunnel between South Shaanxi Road Station and People's Square Station caused a few trains to stall. While the track was under repair, a low-speed collision occurred between two trains on Line 1, trapping scores of passengers underground for up to two hours and affecting millions of early commuters. Nobody was injured, but the front of the train was badly damaged. Service resumed at around 12:15 pm.
- July 5, 2010—at the Zhongshan Park Station a woman died after trying to crowd into a subway train as the doors were closing. With her wrist trapped in the doors, she was dragged into the railings when the train started moving.
- July 29, 2011—at 7:06 pm, during a signaling system upgrade a train on Line 10 bound for the Hangzhong Road Station branch took the wrong direction and went into the branch bound for Hongqiao Railway Station. No injuries.
- September 27, 2011—at 2:51 pm, two trains on Line 10 collided between Yuyuan Garden Station and Laoximen Station, injuring 284 people. Initial investigations found that train operators violated regulations while operating the trains manually after a loss of power on the line caused its signal system to fail. No deaths were reported.
- This figure excludes Maglev line and Line 22, both often included in Shanghai Metro maps but not considered part of the system.
- 329 is the number of stations if interchanges on different lines are counted separately, with the exception of the 9 stations shared by Lines 3 and 4 on the same track. The stations on the Maglev line and Line 22 are not included.
- Currently, Line 2 has two sections running separately: the section west of Guanglan Road towards Hongqiao Airport is served by 8-carriaged trains that run at 5-minute intervals; while the section east of Guanglan Road towards Pudong International Airport is served by 4-carriaged trains that run at 13-minute intervals from 9 am to 4 pm. Any trips that bypass Guanglan Road station requires passengers to transfer to the opposite platform at the station.
- Lines in this section will be constructed between 2010 and 2020, so the opening dates will be between 2012 and 2020, not all at the end of 2020.
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- Signs at the Service points seen on 4–5 July 2010 at the Xujiahui (near Exit 8) and Shanghai West Railway Station.
- The original 1301-1303 during Expo 2010 are trains borrowed from Line 9, which is returned to Line 9 after the Expo is ended.
- All GSMG cars came with AC motors serving Lines 1 & 2 are built on the same platform, despite considered different model, AC-01 for Line 1 and AC-02 for Line 2 respectively
- This is due to the trains are bought as reserve before the final plans of Line 9 are made and line number assigned, and initially put into service in Line 1.
- Trains 901-910 for Line 9
- "沪部分轨交线明年采用信号系统升级版". Retrieved 2012-11-22.
- "Metro-System Line 2, Shanghai, China". Retrieved 2008-07-06.
- http://shanghaiist.com/2014/01/04/shanghai-metro-announcements-shanghainese.php. Missing or empty
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|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Shanghai Metro.|
- Official website
- Shanghai Metro Club
- Shanghai Subway Information on UrbanRail
- Shanghai Metro Map - real distances