Shanghai Pudong International Airport
Shanghai Pudong International Airport (IATA: PVG, ICAO: ZSPD) is the primary international airport serving Shanghai, and a major aviation hub for Asia. The city's other major airport, Hongqiao, mainly serves domestic flights. Located about 30 kilometres (19 mi) east of the city centre, Pudong Airport occupies a 40 square kilometres (9,900 acres) site adjacent to the coastline in eastern Pudong. The airport operates by Shanghai Airport Authority (Chinese:上海机场（集团）有限公司, SSE: 600009).
The airport is the main hub for China Eastern Airlines and Shanghai Airlines, and a major international hub for Air China. It is also the hub for privately owned Juneyao Airlines and Spring Airlines, and an Asian-Pacific cargo hub for UPS and DHL. The DHL hub, opened in July 2012, is said to be the biggest express hub in Asia.
Pudong Airport has two main passenger terminals, flanked on both sides by three parallel runways. A third passenger terminal is planned for 2015, in addition to a satellite terminal and two additional runways, raising its annual capacity from 60 million passengers to 80 million, along with the ability to handle six million tonnes of freight.
Pudong Airport is a fast-growing hub for both passenger and cargo traffic. With 3,227,914 metric tonnes handled in 2010, the airport is the world's third busiest airport by cargo traffic. Pudong Airport also served a total of 40,578,621 passengers in 2010, making it the third busiest airport in mainland China and the 20th busiest in the world. As of December 2011, Pudong Airport hosted 87 airlines serving 194 destinations.
History and development
Prior to the establishment of Pudong International Airport, Hongqiao International Airport was the primary airport of Shanghai. During the 1990s, the expansion of Hongqiao Airport to meet growing demand became impossible as the surrounding urban area was developing significantly, and an alternative to assume all international flights had to be sought. A suitable site was selected on the coast of the Pudong development zone to the east of Shanghai.
Construction of the first phase of the new Shanghai Pudong International Airport began in October 1997, took two years to build at a cost of RMB 12 billion (1.67 billion USD), and was opened on October 1, 1999. It covers an area of 40 square kilometres (15 sq mi) and is 30 kilometres (19 mi) from downtown Shanghai. The first phase of the airport has one 4E category runway (4000 m x 60 m) along with two parallel taxiways, an 800,000-square-metre (8,600,000 sq ft) apron, seventy-six aircraft positions and a 50,000 m2 (540,000 sq ft) cargo warehouse.
A second runway was opened on March 17, 2005, and construction of phase two (including a second terminal, a third runway and a cargo terminal) began in December 2005 and started operation on March 26, 2008, in time for the Beijing 2008 Summer Olympics.
In November 2011 Pudong Airport received approval from the national government for a new round of expansion which includes two runways. The 3,800-meter fourth runway, along with an auxiliary taxiway and traffic control facilities, is projected to cost 2.58 billion yuan (USD 403 million). The 3,400-meter fifth runway, along with a new traffic tower, will cost 4.65 billion yuan (USD 726.6 million). Construction is expected to be completed in 2015 and will double the capacity of the airport.
Limited international services resumed at Hongqiao Airport in October 2007 with flights to Tokyo International Airport (Haneda), in November 2007 with flights to Gimpo International Airport in Seoul, in June 2010 with flights to Taipei Songshan Airport and in September 2010 with flights to Hong Kong Airport. This is believed to be a major effort to provide convenience to business travelers, a practice already in place between Haneda and Gimpo for years. Hongqiao, Haneda, Gimpo, and Songshan are much closer to their respective metro centers than their newer but remote international gateways Pudong, Narita, Incheon, and Taoyuan.
The airport has 70 boarding bridges along with 218 parking positions. Three runways are in operation: one 4,000-metre (13,000 ft) runway—4E rating—with six taxiways, one 3,800-metre (12,500 ft) runway—4F rating—with four taxiways and one 3,400-metre (11,200 ft) runway—4F rating—with six taxiways.
Terminal 1 was opened on October 1, 1999 along with a 4000m runway and including a cargo hub. It was built to handle the demand for traffic and to relieve Shanghai Hongqiao International Airport's traffic. Terminal 1 is shaped like Kansai International Airport's terminal, but it is shorter and with 28 gates, 13 of which are double decker gates. The exterior of the terminal is shaped like waves. The capacity of Terminal 1 is 20 million passengers. It currently has 204 check-in counters, thirteen luggage conveying belts and covering an area of 280,000 square meters. Terminal 1 has received some controversy about the lack of shopping stalls, the pricing of the shops, confusing locations of restrooms, the escalators and passenger difficulty of moving through the terminal.
Terminal 2, opened on 26 March 2008, along with the third runway, gives a capacity of 60 million passengers and 4.2 million tonnes of cargo annually. Terminal 2 is shaped like the 1st terminal but it has more of a seagull shaping, rather than a wave shape and is slightly larger than Terminal 1. Terminal 2 is primarily used by Air China and other Star Alliance members but may be used by SkyTeam and Oneworld airlines.
Shanghai Airlines moved to Terminal 2 upon its opening on March 26, 2008 with 14 other airlines, including Air India, Northwest Airlines, Qatar Airways, Alitalia, British Airways, Qantas, Virgin Atlantic Airways, Philippine Airlines, Malaysia Airlines, Transaero Airlines, Cebu Pacific, Aerosvit Airlines, Garuda Indonesia and Royal Nepal Airlines. Fellow Star Alliance partners Air Canada, Air China, Air New Zealand, ANA, Asiana Airlines, Lufthansa, Singapore Airlines, Thai Airways and United Airlines moved to the new terminal on April 29, 2008 such that more than 30 airlines are now operating at Terminal 2.
Airlines and destinations
- North: S1 Yingbin Expressway and Huaxia Elevated Way
- South: S32 (S12) Shanghai-Jiaxing-Huzhou Expressway and G1501 Shanghai Ring Expressway
Starting service on 29 January 2004 as the first commercial high-speed maglev railway in the world, Shanghai Maglev Train links Pudong International Airport with Longyang Road Metro Station, where transfer to Line 2 or Line 7 is possible. The 30-km ride from Longyang Road Metro station to Pudong International Airport typically takes less than eight minutes, with the maximum speed reaching 431 km/h. Trains operate every 15 minutes; therefore passengers can expect to arrive in less than 25 minutes, waiting time included.
A standard single-ride ticket costs 50 RMB. Discounted prices are available for Shanghai Public Transportation Card holders (￥40 single), and for round trips within 7 days (￥80 round-trip). First-class tickets cost 100 RMB (single) or 180 RMB (round-trip within 7 days). All cars are equipped with racks and space designated for luggage.
Shanghai Metro Line 2
Shanghai Metro Line 2 also provides service between Pudong International Airport and Longyang Road, Lujiazui, People's Square, and Hongqiao International Airport, Shanghai's primary domestic airport. Line 2 is part of the Shanghai Metro system; therefore unlike the Maglev, free in-system transfer to other lines are possible, with ticket prices varying from 3 RMB to 10 RMB.
Prices are substantially lower than the Maglev (￥6 from Pudong International Airport to Longyang Road and Lujiazui, ￥7 to People's Square, ￥8 to Hongqiao International Airport). However, trips take longer due to lower speed of trains. A casual ride to People's Square, the city centre, typically takes just over one hour. It is wise to allow more than five hours for a safe flight transfer at Hongqiao International Airport using public transportation.
It should further be noted that Line 2 operates in two sections: trains from Pudong International Airport terminate at Guanglan Road, where passengers wishing to travel on change trains across the platform. In addition, not all trains go to Hongqiao International Airport.
Eight Airport Bus lines serve Pudong International Airport, providing rapid links to various destinations. Buses are labelled "机场X线" (Airport Bus Line X) and typically operate on a 15-to-30 minute basis. Fares range from 2 to 22 yuan depending on distance travelled.
Incidents and accidents
- On January 30, 2006, the nose gear of a Cargolux Boeing 747-400F collapsed while parked on the cargo apron.
- On May 13, 2006, A China Eastern Airbus A340-600 (Tail number B6055), flight 5042 from Seoul to Shanghai suffered tire bursts on all of its main landing gears. None of the 232 passengers were hurt.
- On November 19, 2006, An Air Canada Boeing 767-300 flight 38 encountered severe turbulence en route to Vancouver from Shanghai. Four cabin members were hurt. The plane safely landed in Tokyo's Narita International Airport. This incident occurred just after a domestic Japan Airlines Boeing 777 flight 1348 experienced turbulence which landed safely in Tokyo's Haneda Airport.
- On the morning of November 28, 2009, An Avient McDonnell Douglas MD-11F cargo plane registered to Zimbabwe (Reg: Z-BAV) departing for Kyrgyzstan crashed into a warehouse near the runway of the airport due to a tailstrike that caught fire during takeoff and broke into several pieces with seven people on board. Three people died and four were injured.
Nearby major airports
The S1 Yingbin Expressway goes into the airport
- Shanghai Hongqiao International Airport
- List of airports in China
- List of the busiest airports in China
- Airport information for ZSPD at World Aero Data. Data current as of October 2006.Source: DAFIF.
- Airport information for PVG at Great Circle Mapper. Source: DAFIF (effective Oct. 2006).
- Passenger Traffic 2010 FINAL
- UPS Air Operations Facts
- Deutsche Post DHL targets Asian expansion
- Shanghai Airport reports profit growth, despite big investments in massive new facilities at Pudong – China Airlines, Airports and Aviation News. Chinaaviation.aero (2008-03-11). Retrieved on 2011-01-22.
- "民航局与上海市人民政府在沪签战略合作协议" (in Chinese). Carnoc. 6 April 2012.
- "Top international routes in China and India. Shanghai Pudong and Delhi dominate". CAPA. September 13, 2011.
- "From obscurity, Guangzhou and Shanghai Pudong airports move up rankings". CAPA. June 3, 2011.
- "Shanghai Pudong's fourth and fifth runways receive approval". CAPA. 6 December 2011.
- "Shanghai airport to double capacity". South China Morning Post. 8 December 2011.
- Dermot Davitt Shanghai Pudong International Airport begins new era with opening of Terminal Two 26/03/08, Source: The Moodie Report
- Travel News Your Way. e-Travel Blackboard. Retrieved on 2011-01-22.
- Photos: Boeing 747-4R7F/SCD Aircraft Pictures. Airliners.net. Retrieved on 2011-01-22.
- Photos: Airbus A340-642 Aircraft Pictures. Airliners.net. Retrieved on 2011-01-22.
- Cargo plane crashes at Shanghai airport – Xinhua. Reuters. Retrieved on 2011-01-22.
- 浦东机场货机坠毁现场浓烟滚滚(组图)_新浪航空航天_新浪网. Mil.news.sina.com.cn. Retrieved on 2011-01-22.
- Report: Three dead in cargo plane crash in Shanghai | CNN.com
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Shanghai Pudong International Airport|
- Shanghai Airport, official website
- Airliners.Net photos of Shanghai Pudong International Airport
- Current weather for ZSPD at NOAA/NWS
- Accident history for PVG at Aviation Safety Network